Recent attention has been drawn to human resource management within the Nigerian context, with increased interest in the improvement of organisational management practices to enable Nigeria to compete in an increasingly globalised economy (Fajana et al., 2011). Despite this, however, there is a distinct paucity of academic literature addressing the effects of culture and religion on gender equality in management within Nigerian organisations (Tiemo and Arubayi, 2012).
Nigeria does not have an indigenous tradition of human resource management, and as a consequence, many of its management practices are imported alongside foreign investment and amalgamated with local practices (Fajana et al., 2011). Nigeria’s patriarchal culture and demographic context have significant implications on diversity management, and this reflects on the composition of the workforce (Tiemo and Arubayi, 2012). Qualitative data collected in Northern, Southern and Eastern regions of Nigeria through in-depth interviews were coded and analysed. The study found that hotels in Nigeria are still grappling with the problem of gender inequality with females’ career development suffering greatly under the burden of a patriarchal culture. Females are also made to take job responsibilities that reflect their positions in the society and households. Secondly, the intersecting factors of gender, religion and culture put severe pressures on women, which tend to have a negative impact on work-life balance. Thirdly, family responsibility and expectations deter females from seeking promotion to the higher level of hotel administration. Many females who attempt to ‘rebel’ against the standing cultural order find themselves in marriage crises. Finally, gender diversity management is not promoted in Nigerian hotels.
The study makes contributions to theory and practice. It finds common ground for the application of hegemonic masculinity framework and intersectionality perspective in gender and management inquiries. The study recommends radical holistic change is required regarding policy, cultural, programmatic, attitudinal and social actions.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) as an ambitious Government Construction Strategy (GCS) on all publicly procured sector projects, is leading to a significant shift and changing the dynamics of cost professional functions. This therefore requires the current fragmented construction industry to urgently review approaches to existing cost estimating and cost planning processes leading to a reliable project budget. This drive, along with 2025 construction strategy is key to achieving the requirement of GCS for 25 percent cost reduction. To successfully implement Level 2 BIM, relevant costing framework, enabling 5D BIM cost protocol or standard significant to changing dynamics of cost functions within BIM environment is required to be embedded within design development stages. Using phenomenological qualitative research method and thematic data analytical process, interviews involving 21 participants from seven construction organisations with design, construction and cost management practices were conducted. Scope was intentionally provided for extensive discussion to identify issues beyond the literature findings. Findings suggest strong commitment and leadership from organisational management will facilitate cost savings, generate accurate cost information in a Level 2 BIM project. A considerable cultural shift towards automating and digitising cost functions virtually; stronger collaborative working relationship relative to costing in design development, construction practice, maintenance and operation is required across the built environment. The 5D BIM Costing Framework (5B-CF) which informed the creation of 5D BIM Cost Protocol (5B-CP) as developed would allow contractors fully utilise BIM facilitating more effective 5D costing in a contractor-led project.
The construction industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is faced with challenges of incessant delays, cost overruns and poor quality. The premise of the research reported here is that effective adoption and implementation of Building Information modelling (BIM) can contribute to the achievement of the necessary improvement. Against this backdrop, the aim of the research was to produce a strategic framework to underpin such adoption and implementation. It entailed investigation of the awareness of BIM, the extent of its use in KSA and the barriers to its more effective adoption and implementation. A mixed research approach was adopted, using a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for collecting data. The questionnaire survey was used to obtain information on the awareness, barriers, drivers and status of BIM usage in the KSA construction industry, while the semi-structured interviews were designed to elicit the opinions of professionals and elucidate their own experiences in relation to the variables in this study. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and thematic content analysis. The study found that the awareness of BIM in the Saudi construction industry is low and faced with inherent barriers that impede its successful application. These barriers were found to be a lack of knowledge of BIM, initial and running costs of implementation, a lack of training of personnel, and a fear of changing from the traditional methods of construction. The study identified strategies that could be used to address these challenges. These include enlightenment on the benefits of BIM application; creating awareness of BIM through workshops, seminars and conferences; training of workers; and the introduction of government intervention to enforce the application of BIM. In addition, this study identified the relevant factors that would enable the application of BIM in the Saudi construction industry to be meeting client's expectations and the requirement to use BIM technology, and using BIM because of the benefits it offers such as cost savings, efficiency, quality and increase in productivity. Regardless of these BIM drivers, however, the most important aim is to bring the stakeholders to commit themselves and invest in the necessary technology, tools and resources in order to improve construction processes. A strategic framework was developed to serve as a roadmap for BIM implementation. The framework also encompassed the key parties in the process and the specific roles to be played by them. The study concludes that the implementation of BIM could improve project performance in Saudi Arabia in terms of time, cost and quality.
This research is a practice-based, theory-led, examination of forms of
extraction under capitalism. The thesis addresses the question of where and
how does extraction take place, both in and outside of the wage relationship.
Directly employing Marx’s concept of surplus extraction, but further extending
the concept of extraction as an analytic tool, artistic method, and identifying
its aesthetic form. Through the production of an original body of artistic video
work, I explore three disparate sites where ‘extraction’ takes place and
employ Science Fiction methods of narrative, the utopian impulse and the
‘alienation effect’ to critique global capitalism. Drawing on political economic
theory, I argue that these new ‘zones’ of extraction have; forced the further
‘subjectification’ of labour; supported continued and on-going primitive
accumulation – through the creation of global space/time; and promoted the
intensification of both relative and absolute surplus value, through the
mechanisation of reproduction and the blurring of work and life, through
digital technology. The Video Trilogy sets up a dialogue between – fictionreality
and space–time, and situates current readings of global extraction in a
future/past space, where the inconsistencies of capital are played out.
Extraction as concept is utilised to bring together, and expand on, both
theoretical readings of the political economy, and to identify that extraction
can be redeployed as a cultural or artistic form. I argue that extraction is
mobilised through culture, but more importantly, I identify the specific cultural
forms of extraction itself. By situating the research between theory and
practice, I am able to represent, or interpret, the forms extraction takes –
appropriating, performing and re-making them as material and subject within
the videos. The research contributes to current critiques of capitalism, in
critical theory, art theory, political economy and art-practice-as-research. The
video submission brings together a range of aesthetic styles and techniques
to construct an original alien world, which is an allegory of our own.
Employing critical race theory as a theoretical and analytical framework, this thesis explores the nature, structure and purpose of Islamophobic discourse, and offers two central contributions to the scholarly debate on Islamophobia. First, it contributes to the literature on the nature of Islamophobia by analysing the form and structure of discourse that seeks to represent Muslims and Islam in a number of social and political sites. Second, the thesis addresses a significant gap identified in the scholarly literature, which has largely overlooked the purpose that Islamophobic discourse serves for those employing it.
In order to address the nature and structure of Islamophobic discourse, the thesis analyses representations of Muslims and Islam in dominant national community cohesion and counterterrorism discourses; rearticulation of these discourses at the local level in the West Midlands town of Dudley; the use of Islamophobic discourse by the English Defence League; and the ways in which Islamophobic narratives were used to mark national boundaries in Switzerland, Denmark, the Netherlands and France.
I explain the convergence of narratives across these levels by extending Ghassan Hage’s theoretical formulation of racism as nationalist practices to Islamophobic discourse and argue that, as a cultural racism, Islamophobia can be conceptualised as upholding a system of Eurocentric supremacy, where Western subjects receive a better social, economic and political ‘racial contract’ and seek to defend these privileges against real and imagined Muslim demands. Whether employed for local, national or civilisational purposes, Islamophobia relies on the notion that space has been culturally compromised by Muslims and must be restored to authenticity by legitimate non-Muslim cultural managers. Islamophobia operates through a three-stage ideological process, and restores fantasised power to those who perceive Muslim cultural difference to be unacceptably changing the spaces in which they reside by representing Muslims as making incongruous demands of a territory, singling out a particular timeless value that is under threat, and reifying this value to an absolute. Through this process Muslims are put back in their place, while those employing this discourse experience a restoration of their cultural power to decide the values of a space.
Aims and Rationale:
Individuals suffering from mental health difficulties and disorders experience stigma and discrimination in various areas of their lives. Mental illness stigma results in diminished self-esteem, increased risk of suicide, feelings of shame and a decrease in their desire to seek support from mental health professionals. This study aimed to assess changes in attitudes following a brief informative talk on mental health. Moreover, the study aimed to explore the attitudes and beliefs of Arab high school students in Kuwait towards people suffering from mental illness. The findings aim to broaden an understanding of the subject area within the Arab population in order to inform future approaches to decrease stigmatizing beliefs and increase more accepting attitudes and help-seeking behaviors.
A mixed-method approach was used to examine attitudes towards individuals suffering from mental disorders in 111 Arab high school students. Firstly, the quantitative part of the study explored changes in attitudes following an informative talk using a survey questionnaire. 105 Arab high school students took part in the study and were divided into two groups, one group received a talk on ‘Myths and Facts’ around mental illness while the second group received a talk on ‘Education and Career’ paths one could take in the field of psychology. The qualitative part of the study explored 6 Arab high school students’ beliefs around mental illness as well as their personal experiences in dealing with mental health difficulties and discrimination using semi-structured interviews.
The findings of the quantitative study demonstrated an overall increase in benevolence and an overall decrease in social restrictiveness following the talks. Students in the ‘Myths and Facts’ group displayed a significant improvement in social restrictiveness attitudes following their talk, the ‘Education and Career’ group did not show this improvement. Findings from the qualitative study represented a juxtaposition between participants’ expressed positive and supportive views towards individuals with mental illness and their expectations of negative behaviors and attitudes from the public towards those suffering from mental health difficulties.
The findings provide an understanding of existing beliefs around mental illness in the Arab youth which in turn provides mental health professionals with the required knowledge to tackle the issue of stigma within this specific population. Educational approaches offer adolescents insight on mental illness and positively impact their opinions and views towards people suffering from mental disorders. This is crucial in promoting more accepting attitudes and encouraging help-seeking behaviors.
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a localised infection in the oropharynx region caused by Candida species, predominately C. albicans. It is commonly spread among immunocompromised patients and aggravated by hyposalivation or xerostomia. Current treatment is by systemic antifungals, which might be accompanied by gastrointestinal tract disorders, headache, allergic reactions and drug interactions or Candida becoming resistant to them. In the present work, the anti-candida activity of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHD) was tested as the drug of choice, it has no systemic side effects and microorganisms do not develop resistance against it. Thymol and farnesol were also tested individually and in combination with CHD to investigate a synergistic effect against Candida planktonic cells. The effects of CHD and thymol were investigated against C. albicans biofilm after two hours exposure by testing the metabolic stress, vacuolar activity and protein content. The results of the anti-Candida activity of CHD and thymol based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biocidal concentration (MBC) were 2.5 and 5 μg/ml for the former and 125 and 250 μg/ml for the later. Farnesol did not show an MIC and MBC at the investigated concentrations, however, it increased the MIC and MBC of CHD to 5 and 40 μg/ml and of thymol to 250 and >250 μg/ml, respectively. The antibiofilm activity of CHD and thymol was concentration dependent and CHD was more potent than thymol. A concentration of 20 μg/ml and 2 hours treatment of Candida biofilm grown for 24 hours showed an 85% decrease in oxidative stress, 78% and 60% loss of vacuolar activity and protein content, respectively. The combination of both drugs showed a limited increase in the activity. The cytotoxic effects of CHD and thymol were tested on human embryo kidney epithelial cell line (HEK 293); the metabolic stress, lysosomal activity and protein content were tested. The cytotoxic effects were also concentration dependent and the combination have increased the cytotoxicity. A concentration of 20 μg/ml and 2 hours treatment showed a 40% decrease in oxidative stress and neither the lysosomal activity nor protein content of HEK 293 cells was affected by the treatment
Finally, a mucoadhesive hydrogel buccal tablets for the controlled release of CHD were designed and prepared to increase the residence time of an effective concentration of CHD in the oral cavity for two hours. They were prepared using Poloxamer 407 (P407), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and either sorbitol, mannitol or xylitol at different ratios. The tablets were investigated for their physical properties, ex vivo mucoadhesion, the rate of hydration, gelling efficiency using image analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and in vitro dissolution using Apparatus I and a novel method based on controlled flow rate to mimic salivary drug delivery in the oral cavity.
Based on the antibiofilm activity and the cytotoxic effect of CHD a concentration of 20 μg/mL was chosen to be released from the tablets to maintain both efficacy and safety. Accordingly, to maintain this concentration the final formulations were prepared with a 2.5 mg dose of CHD. Tablets analysis showed no chemical interaction with the excipient based on DSC, FTIR and XRD. Furthermore, a novel dissolution method was developed based on a constant flow rate of the dissolution media to mimic oral salivary flow. By comparing CHD release using App I and the flow rate method it was shown that hydrogel-forming tablets successfully controlled the release of CHD regardless of the volume of the dissolution media with approximately 90% release and an average release concentration of 19 μg/ml and 1 ml/min flow rate. This making it a potential candidate for future application for treatment of candidiasis in all types of patients.
Integration of work-placements into undergraduate degrees is now established on awards linked to professional registration in healthcare. Pre-registration training forms the basis for development of capability and entry onto a professional register. This enquiry explores how key stakeholders on a programme leading to registration as a Biomedical Scientist (BMS) position themselves in their role and the subsequent impact of this upon the development of the capable BMS. It draws upon current knowledge of work-based pedagogy and utilises a constructivist grounded theory (CGT) approach to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals and groups to develop an interpretative portrayal and deeper understanding of the implementation of pre-registration training in one region of England. Data gathering and analysis was divided into two stages. The first employed analysis of professional documents to provide an insight into current discourses around BMS training. This provided initial developing categories and directed the creation of a questionnaire. Questionnaire responses confirmed the relevance of the developing categories and a summary of responses provided an ‘ice-breaker’ to guide stage two of data gathering. This stage employed focus groups and interviews to enable a greater understanding of how individuals make sense of their experiences. Initial, focused and theoretical coding allowed synthesis and conceptualisation of the data gathered and presented direction for the enquiry. The findings expose the challenges of integrating professional registration training into an academic programme of study. Three theoretical categories were identified: Role conflict, Expectations and Ownership. Conceptualising the interactions and intersections of these categories enabled the recognition of ‘Doing the portfolio’ as a way of describing and conceptualising the stakeholders positioning within the current programme. The registration portfolio has become an objective reductionist measure of learning, reflecting the positivist typology of practice in this profession. This provides a theoretical explanation as to how the programme is delivered and why there is a need to rethink conceptualisation of the role of the programme in supporting pre-registration training and the development of the capable BMS. To ensure that BMS students are supported to develop not only technical skills but also professional capability there is a need for a paradigm shift from a positivist episteme to one that embraces both the positivist and socio-cultural paradigms, viewing them as complementary and parallel. The novel research approach used in this enquiry has generated rich insights into how stakeholders interact with the pressures of internal and external influences and the impact this has upon behaviours and strategies adopted. The theoretical understanding proposed, which recognises the tensions emerging from a positivist typology of practice, has a range of implications for practice and for the development of practitioner capability through pre-registration training and beyond.
A growing body of research provides evidence that it is possible to accurately predict personality
traits from online activities on social media, Facebook in particular. Despite the popularity and
importance of photo sharing, there is little known about whether it is possible to study the
expression of personality in Facebook using visual communication data (e.g. the content of
uploaded photos). Therefore, this thesis aims to identify the quantity and quality of personality- relevant
information from photo-related behaviours on Facebook. Furthermore, since personality
traits and motivations are integrated constructs, this thesis also explores the role of personality in
determining specific motivations for photo sharing on Facebook to better understand the visual
manifestation of personality traits in the online environment. These main objectives of this
project are pursued in three empirical studies.
Study One (phase one) employed a content analysis approach and was designed to identify
which elements of the Big Five personality traits could be a good predictor of certain photo related
behaviour (e.g. number of self-generated photo albums). Multiple regression analyses
showed that all of the tested features/behaviours were significantly predicted by at least one of
the five traits or by the Facebook membership length.
Study One (phase two) aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the role of the Big Five in users’
photo uploading behaviours by examining whether it is possible to find personality cues from
themes and content of photos such as self-portraits, photos of others, and nature/animals. From
the content analysis of photos and conducting multiple regression analyses, the results showed
not only can the Big Five personality traits be predicted from certain photo themes (e.g. the more
cartoons as tagged photos, the less Agreeable the users), but also traits can be predicted from the
location of uploaded photos (e.g. cover section).
Study Two investigated possible motivations behind photo sharing on Facebook via qualitative
thematic analysis of focus groups. Results revealed that motives for the general use of Facebook
can differ from motives for the use of particular features. As ‘self-expression and self presentation’,
‘keeping and sharing memories/ life documentation’, and ‘preference for visual
communication’ appeared to be three unique factors encouraging users to share photos. While
the other three motives, including ‘relationship maintenance’, ‘social/peer pressure’, and
‘enjoyment and entertainment’ were similar to previously identified motives for the general use
The final study of this thesis aimed to use, validate and extend the findings from the last three
studies. In particular, a photo-sharing motivations scale was devised based on the key themes
extracted from Focus group discussions in Study Two. Principal component analysis identified
seven distinct motivational components. The motivations were successfully predicted by
Narcissism and the Big Five personality traits through a series regression analyses. Therefore, it
is suggested that users with different personality traits pursue photo-sharing goals that are in line
with their personality needs. This thesis extends research on online expressions of personality
and visual self-presentation. The findings support several theoretical assumptions, such as self- presentation,
online manifestation of personality, the uses and gratifications model, and the
extended real-life hypothesis. Additionally, the results offer some practical implications.
Sir Henry Wilson remains one of the most controversial British Army generals of the Great War. A colourful character in life, he attracted admirers and detractors in equal measure; in death, his reputation was ruined by a biography based on his personal diaries. The Wilson of the historiography is, at best, a politician rather than a soldier, at worst an ambitious Francophile intriguer. This thesis looks beyond this accepted characterisation, reassessing his role in the formation of British and Allied strategy in the final months of the war. Wilson attained influence, and subsequently power, when Lloyd George consulted him after failing to persuade Britain’s leading generals to change their strategic focus. The thesis re-examines Wilson’s policy critique, which led to the creation of the Supreme War Council, and negated plans for a major Allied offensive on the Western Front in 1918. This thesis aims to shine new light on Wilson’s work on the Council, with an analysis of its policy recommendations. The research will also explore the manpower crisis, the key issue for the entente in this period, and Wilson’s contribution to the establishment of Allied unity of command. The diplomatic skills Wilson deployed to defuse serious strains between the entente powers will be examined, with particular reference to his time as Chief of the Imperial General Staff. His contribution to the debate on Britain’s post-war imperial grand strategy will also be evaluated. The thesis will refute the long-established onedimensional view of Wilson and suggest that he played a more influential role in British strategic development than has hitherto been acknowledged.
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