Paediatric high grade glioma (HGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are highly aggressive tumours with no effective cures. Lack of understanding of the molecular biology of these tumours, in part due to lack of well-characterised pre-clinical models, is a great challenge in the development of novel therapies. Analysis of paired cell culture/biopsy samples in this study revealed that paediatric HGG short-term cell cultures retain many of the tumour characteristics in vivo. Using a genome-wide approach, copy number, gene and miRNA expression, and methylation changes were characterised in 17 paediatric HGG-derived short-term cell cultures including 3 from DIPG. The majority of the genomic changes were unique from those arising in adult HGG. Approximately 65% (11/17) of paediatric HGG short-term cell cultures had balanced genetic profiles resembling normal karyotypes. The most frequent copy number gain and loss were detected at 14q11.2 (94%) and 8p11.23-p11.22 (59%), respectively. H3F3A (K27M) mutation was present in 2/17 (12%) cases and concurrent loss of CDKN2A and BRAFV600E in 1/17 (6%) case. Genes involved in reelin/PI3K signaling (DAB1), RTK signaling (PTPRE), and arginine biosynthesis (ASS1 and ASL) were frequently deregulated by methylation in these tumours. The anti-growth and anti-migratory properties of DAB1 and PTPRE were demonstrated in vitro. Preliminary investigations validated the therapeutic potential of ADI-PEG20 (arginine depletion), and PI-103 (PI3K/mTOR inhibition) in a subset of paediatric HGG short-term cell cultures. This study has identified novel genetic and epigenetic changes in paediatric HGG that may, following further validation, be translated into potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets.
Traditional architectural and urban artefacts are showed over the centuries as a powerful imprint of human actions and practices and are being developed on the basis of concrete socio-cultural factors and environmental rationalities. Spatial and morphological patterns of traditional environments have exceedingly evolved to fulfill and accomplish the social and cultural needs of the populace in their dialectical interplay with the surrounding environment. This relationship conceptualises the man-made environment, as the repository of meaning, in users‟ reciprocal relation with the surrounding environment. In the context of history, the human tends to dwell when experiencing the built environment as meaningful. Traditional contexts are highlighted as physical and spatial interpretations of human activities, skills, thoughts and resources creating identifiable and meaningful realms related to space/place, time and society. The study uncovers the process of the formation of the house and mahalla in order to shed light on how the built environment responds to inhabitants‟ socio-cultural determinants and everyday lives. It unfolds how changes in the nature of Iraqi society and its priorities affect the architecture of home and mahalla by reference to the impact of modernity with all its alien socio-cultural principles.
This thesis focuses on the architecture of home and mahalla within the traditional core of Kadhimiya city and similar Iraqi socio-cultural contexts. At the macro analytical level, the research investigates the spatial and physical formation of the mahalla as a whole through detecting the socio-spatial aspects of its realms, and how its spontaneous form has responded to the socio-cultural aspects of the community in an integral pattern. At the micro level, the research will go deeper in the perception of the basic aspects of the individual and the family. It investigates how the traditional house reflects and satisfies the personal values of the individual, and achieves his socio-cultural beliefs and everyday life on the basis of inherent norms and conventions. In this vein, public, semi-public/private and private domains are investigated to highlight the mutual interplay between these spheres as key factors in understanding the architecture of the house and mahalla. The research discusses indigenous aspects and principles contained or embedded in the structure of the traditional environment, such as privacy, social solidarity and stability, neighbourliness and so on. It reveals insight into the male-female relationship in the social life of the traditional context, and how the position of women and their idle qualities impact the structure of the house and the hierarchical sequence and organisation of spaces. Identity, tradition, sustainability and everyday life are the main fields discussed with a specific end goal to outline and uncover the role of social factors, cultural beliefs and daily practices in the creation of this particular form.
Building on these values, the research adopts an interpretive historical method in revealing the characters of the traditional environment referring to residents‟ habits, customs, rituals and traditions. Several approaches to the built and home environment are discussed for paving or detecting reliable one in the methodological inquiry within which many tools and methods have been utilised and used i.e. archival records, interviews, historical narratives, personal observation and photographic surveys. Data generated consists of photos, maps, interviewees‟ comments, analytical diagrams and historical and travellers‟ descriptions.
Research findings indicate many of the inherent and underlying principles upon which the architecture of Iraqi traditional house depends. Within this context, the study has tried to unfold how the formation of the traditional house and the mahalla responded to the socio-cultural aspects of the community and the daily life of its members. Findings, concerning the design principles of the traditional mahalla, were realised as indigenous norms and standards embedded in the structure of society, which can be useful for architects, designers and planners to reconcile traditional and contemporary urban forms through the application of former rules and conventions in City‟s conservation or redevelopment plans. The study reveals that the traditional environment had less socio-cultural contradictions, active day-to-day practices and clear, identifiable and meaningful identity compared with contemporary built environments. Research findings, thus, lead to a set of relevant recommendations addressed to many of the community categories, architects, planners, stakeholders and those interested in this field. They aim to promote the impressive role of socio-cultural factors and strengthen users‟ competence in their physical and spatial settings for home. Moreover, research recommendations discuss how social factors, cultural values, beliefs, practices and rituals can be re-employed in our approach to achieving a more sustainable living environment. Recommendations relating to identity and tradition aim to draw attention and shed light on the significance of traditional built environments in the development of special identity, which played a big role in the sustainability of these contexts for centuries.
Modern psychological approaches currently being used with Muslim clients in therapy have consistently been criticised for being decontextualised, Eurocentric, individualistic, reductionist and for not taking Muslim clients’ cultural and religious values into account (Amri, & Bemak, 2013; Carter & Rashidi, 2004). Hence a need for making use of models, techniques and therapeutic interventions based on Muslim perspectives for Muslim clients has repeatedly been expressed (Haque, 2004a; Helms, 2015; Inayat, 2007; Keshavarzi & Haque, 2013; Utz, 2012; Weatherhead & Daiches, 2010).
Despite recommendations for using therapeutic interventions from Muslim perspectives with Muslim clients in therapy (Abu Raiya & Pargament, 2010; Haque & Kamil, 2012; Qasqas & Jerry, 2014), empirical research on these interventions has lagged behind (Abu-Raiya & Pargament, 2011). The aim of the current study is to provide more insight into how interventions from Muslim perspectives can be administered by Muslim therapists with their Muslim clients in therapy in United Kingdom.
This study explored the experiences of six Muslim therapists who were all using interventions from Muslim perspectives with Muslim clients in their therapeutic practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), and from this three main themes emerged (i) Psychotherapeutic approaches, (ii) Journey of becoming a Muslim therapist (iii) Obstacles faced by Muslim clients and therapists. The implications for further research and therapeutic practice have also been considered.
It is understood that trauma is something that can affect people in life. Trauma is a term that is readily used to acknowledge the experience of someone exposed to an adverse life event. There are various psychological therapies that help individuals to overcome trauma experiences. The unique contribution of this study is that little is known about the way in which Solution Focussed Brief Therapy (SFBT) can help clients coming to terms with such an experience, because it can help to facilitate post traumatic growth. SFBT is strengths based and is part of the positive psychology movement, where there is more of an emphasis on client resilience, rather than alleviating distress. SFBT offers a different way of working to the approaches already being utilised in this field. The current study aimed to provide insight into the experiences of Solution Focused Practitioners facilitating post traumatic growth during brief therapy, using qualitative methods. The study explored the experiences of a homogenous sample of six Solution Focused Practitioners; all had worked with trauma and were using SFBT in their working practice. Responses to questions asked during semi structured interviews were framed by the setting in which the practitioners worked, because they all operated from a centre known to the researcher. However, despite the potential influence of the setting, the researcher gained honest insight into the application of SFBT to trauma. Semi structured interviews were conducted and the interviews were transcribed. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and from this four main themes were found: (i) Who am I? – Becoming Solution Focused; (ii) A problem world where trauma exists; (iii) A positive cocoon where growth can occur; (iv) The longevity of the approach – a big fish in a small pond. Further exploration of these themes along with their subthemes is included in the paper. Research literature relevant to this study is discussed and implications for further research and practice are also taken into consideration.
The Nigerian transport system has been facing challenges due to the imbalance in the transport system. Goods and passenger movements in Nigeria are performed mainly by road, with the railway and inland waterways playing significant, but less important roles. The dominance of road transport in Nigeria has placed obstacles in the way of economic development and has reduced the quality of life for citizens as the large number of vehicles required to meet demand causes congestion and parking issues and, in the main, citizens suffer with high levels of local associated pollution and low levels of security and safety. Decision-makers need support to make the right decisions. Precise and relevant information are required to give a clear overall view of the issues at stake and to monitor the benefits of implementing efficient public transport systems. This research has identified the need to develop an organized, effective and efficient transport system in Nigeria. Key Performance indicators were identified and developed for the Nigerian transport sector, which were used for the survey. A transport users’ survey was carried out in four cities (Lagos, Warri, Ughelli and Benin) in Nigeria, with 474 participants in total comprising both male and female between the age ranges of 20-70, the results of the survey was analysed and Lagos RII values were the lowest among the four cities falling below 0.60. However there is a similar case of low RII values between the four Cities, which was Security during evening/night and Accessibility during evening/night. The UK survey results was also analysed and the RII values were above 0.80 indicating a very high performance of the UK transport system. Data on highway robbery incidents in Nigeria was also collected and analysed and it was found out that there will be a continuous increase in highway robbery incidents in Nigeria if adequate security measures are not put in place. A Strategic Benchmarking was done between Nigeria and United Kingdom because the United Kingdom is a developed country with a more organized transport system compared to Nigeria hence it was seen as a best practice. Also the spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was done between the United Kingdom and Nigeria survey results and there was a perfect positive correlation (rs =1) for Motor parks/Bus stops/Stations and very strong positive correlation (rs = 0.9) for Vehicles. In other words Nigeria can adopt the United Kingdom public transport strategy into its transport system because it will have a very positive impact on the development of the Nigerian transport sector. Therefore, having identified the challenges of the Nigerian transport sector and possible solutions, a Strategic Action Plan has been proposed for the Nigerian transport sector to: assist policy makers in making decisions, assist security personnel in taking proactive measures against transport insecurity, enhance the overall performance of the transport system.
Although Emerging Market (EM) Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) has become an increasingly significant phenomenon in recent years, research regarding EM OFDI to Developed Markets (DMs) remains at an ‘emerging’ stage. This thesis seeks to address this shortfall through the following research questions: 1) what are the determinants of EM OFDI to the UK, and 2) what are the influencing factors of subsequent investment decisions of EM firms within the UK? Considering the distinctiveness of EM OFDIs in their firm-specific characteristics, given circumstances and motivations, this thesis applies an adapted ‘Resource-based view (RBV)’ framework and institutional theory to build a theoretical framework. Within this the hypotheses/propositions regarding ‘strategic-asset seeking’, ‘market-seeking’ and ‘institution-seeking’ motivations of EM OFDI, which reflect both ‘pull factors’ (advantages in hosts) and ‘push factors’ (disadvantages at home), are developed. Panel analysis was conducted to address the first research question with Greenfield data only due to data availability. Additionally, a case study was conducted; firstly, for the purpose of triangulation; secondly, to supplement the panel analysis results with M&A data; and lastly, to address the second research question. Both panel and case study analysis results generally support the major theoretical assumptions of this thesis, although the ‘market seeking’ motivation variable in panel analysis has statistically insignificant coefficient and there is a lack of case study data to support the ‘institutional push factor’. This thesis contribute to the body of knowledge of FDI and IB area 1) by providing an adjusted theoretical framework for the analysis of EM OFDI to DM with a novel application of institutional theory and RBV; and 2) by qualifying and extending existing works on EM OFDI by including a wider range of EM source countries and DM hosts whilst extending the scope of study to the less-researched ‘post-investment stage’ of EM OFDI, with empirical analysis results as well as theoretical suggestions.
People with Autism Spectrum Disorder experience di culties with reading comprehension and information processing, which a ect their school performance, employability and social inclusion. The main goal of this work is to investigate new ways to evaluate and improve text and web accessibility for adults with autism. The rst stage of this research involved using eye-tracking technology and comprehension testing to collect data from a group of participants with autism and a control group of participants without autism. This series of studies resulted in the development of the ASD corpus, which is the rst multimodal corpus of text and gaze data obtained from participants with and without autism. We modelled text complexity and sentence complexity using sets of features matched to the reading di culties people with autism experience. For document-level classi cation we trained a readability classi er on a generic corpus with known readability levels (easy, medium and di cult) and then used the ASD corpus to evaluate with unseen user-assessed data. For sentencelevel classi cation, we used for the rst time gaze data and comprehension testing to de ne a gold standard of easy and di cult sentences, which we then used as training and evaluation sets for sentence-level classi cation. The ii results showed that both classi ers outperformed other measures of complexity and were more accurate predictors of the comprehension of people with autism. We conducted a series of experiments evaluating easy-to-read documents for people with cognitive disabilities. Easy-to-read documents are written in an accessible way, following speci c writing guidelines and containing both text and images. We focused mainly on the image component of these documents, a topic which has been signi cantly under-studied compared to the text component; we were also motivated by the fact that people with autism are very strong visual thinkers and that therefore image insertion could be a way to use their strengths in visual thinking to compensate for their di culties in reading. We investigated the e ects images in text have on attention, comprehension, memorisation and user preferences in people with autism (all of these phenomena were investigated both objectively and subjectively). The results of these experiments were synthesised in a set of guidelines for improving text accessibility for people with autism. Finally, we evaluated the accessibility of web pages with di erent levels of visual complexity. We provide evidence of existing barriers to nding relevant information on web pages that people with autism face and we explore their subjective experiences with searching the web through survey questions.
Current Translation Memory (TM) tools lack semantic knowledge while matching. Most TM tools compute similarity at the string level, which does not take into account semantic aspects in matching. Therefore, semantically similar segments, which differ on the surface form, are often not retrieved. In this thesis, we present five novel and efficient approaches to incorporate advanced semantic knowledge in translation memory matching and retrieval. Two efficient approaches which use a paraphrase database to improve translation memory matching and retrieval are presented. Both automatic and human evaluations are conducted. The results on both evaluations show that paraphrasing improves matching and retrieval. An approach based on manually designed features extracted using NLP systems and resources is presented, where a Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression model is trained, which calculates the similarity between two segments. The approach based on manually designed features did not retrieve better matches than simple edit-distance. Two approaches for retrieving segments from a TM using deep learning are investigated. The first one is based on Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks, while the other one is based on Tree Structured Long Short Term Memory (Tree-LSTM) networks. Eight different models using different datasets and settings are trained. The results are comparable to a baseline which uses simple edit-distance.
Mentoring is increasing in popularity in the workplace but we do not fully understand it. There is not enough evidence or clarity within the practitioner or academic field to demonstrate the learning outcomes for both parties and what factors moderate the mentoring relationship over time. Therefore, this doctoral research aims to investigate this gap. Following an extensive literature review of the mentoring, learning and moderating factors, four research questions were identified. These are: 1. What do mentees and mentors perceive they are learning during their formal mentoring relationships? 2. How does the learning change over time for both parties? 3. What are the factors that moderate mentee and mentor learning during their formal mentoring relationships? 4. How do these moderating factors change over time for both parties? The research was conducted within three collaborating public sector organisations drawn from the Healthcare sector (Case 1) and the Police sector (Case 2 & 3) of the United Kingdom. Interviews and focus groups were conducted: 38 mentee and mentor interviews and two focus groups in Healthcare, 68 interviews and four focus groups in the first Police study and 12 focus groups in the second Police study, spread across the four phases of the mentoring lifecycle; initiation, cultivation, separation and redefinition (Kram, 1988). Key findings have been revealed in relation to the particular types of learning outcomes that result from formal mentoring dyadic relationships and the moderating factors that impact positively and negatively on the mentoring learning process. The present study has identified that both mentors and mentees learnt across all four learning domains as defined by Wanberg et al., (2003): cognitive, skill-based, affective-related learning and social networks, in all three organisations. Generally for both parties, the largest number of mentee and mentor responses were in relation to the affectiverelated learning domain, in the area of confidence. For the moderating factors, there were common facilitating and hindering factors identified for both parties based on Hegstad and Wentlings’s (2005) moderating factors, with four new factors added as a result of this research: personal factors, other relationships, similarity and difference. There was no similar pattern of mentee and mentor responses in relation to moderating factors over the four phases of the mentoring lifecycle, across all three case organisations. However, a common factor for all three case study organisations was that formal mentoring relationships endured despite some significant hindering factors within the workplace. The thesis concludes by discussing implications for theory and practice that have emerged from this study. It confirms that mentors learn within the same four learning domains as mentees throughout formal mentoring and that there are some significant moderating factors for both parties that change in emphasis over time. These insights have led to the modification of one established formal mentoring model and the creation of two new theoretical models in relation to learning outcomes and moderating factors. Comments are also made about the power relationships within the public sector and how mentoring can be embraced or restricted through the organisational structure, culture and climate.
Background: Child and adolescent mental health is an important public health issue within the UK. Providing support to young people, to help them cope with everyday life, is a key aspect of the school nurse’s role. Yet there is a paucity of published research within the UK and internationally about how this support is provided. Methodology: Using a narrative inquiry approach, presented as a performative text, this study set out to address the following research question, ‘How do school nurses provide support to young people?’ Stories were gathered from eleven school nurses to explore their experiences of providing support to young people using purposive sampling. The stories were analysed using an adapted version of the interpretivist-interactionist model (Savin-Baden, 2004). Poetic re-presentations were used to tell the stories of individual school nurses; an approach seen to be a novel in school nursing research. Using Soja’s (1996) spatiality theory as a framework the stories were analysed collectively, to explore different spaces used when providing support to young people. Findings: This study extends school nursing current literature about what it means to provide support. The importance of regular support and building trusting relationships is identified. Yet challenges exist in terms of the amount of emotional investment required by the nurses, as well as a lack of workforce capacity and organisational demands. It provides an original contribution to the body of school nursing knowledge by using an approach new in school nursing research, and distinguishing different and new spaces in which they perform to provide support to young people. Recommendations: Further research is necessary to gather stories from young people themselves. Additional support and training is recommended to enhance school nurses’ knowledge and skills in providing support. Findings should be conveyed to commissioners to provide insight into the school nurses’ role.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.