• Attitudes and behaviours of user groups on Cannock Chase area of outstanding natural beauty

      Dale, Crispin; Jackaman, Clare (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Increasing amounts of leisure time and more availability of income following postrecessional financial issues have contributed towards growing public usage of free parkland areas, such as Cannock Chase Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, putting such areas under pressure from environmental issues. The behaviours of users of parklands have been extensively researched, with scarce attention to the investigation of underpinning attitudes. Of available theory, Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (1985) model and Dunlap et al.’s (2000) New Ecological Paradigm scale are arguably the most effective in identifying and measuring the link between attitude and behaviour. The aim of the present programme of study was to explore user and non-user attitudes to environmental issues and then develop and test an intervention to increase awareness and pro-environmental attitudes. Baseline data involved data collection from 701 users and 210 non-users. Participants completed both attitudinal questionnaires and users took part in semi-structured interviews. Baseline data analysis indicated user group participants reported low proenvironmental attitude scores, suggesting room for improvement. In terms of improving pro-environmental attitudes, studies show educational interventions are highly effective, with simultaneous use of multiple emotional appeals used in an online format. Content analysis of existing AONB intervention posters and leaflets were used to develop an image based poster intervention. Intervention was emailed to participants with an initial questionnaire (n=234). Over a six month longitudinal study, participants repeated questionnaire completion at months two (n=196) and six (n=210). Results indicated pro-environmental attitudes all improved initially from baseline, then all decreased at month two, and largely increased from month two to month six. Females, higher qualified, middle income, car users, photographers, nature activities and runners were among the most pro-environmental postintervention. Mood data identified all emotions built into poster were experienced, therefore improvements were influenced by the intervention. Viewed collectively, results indicate that the study has identified poster interventions are an inexpensive, easy and effective method of improving pro-environmental attitudes. Research has shown poster method can be used by subject specialists and non-specialists; such an intervention is scalable and potentially effective. Future research is needed to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of scalable interventions to improve proenvironmental attitudes
    • The long and winding road to reflexology: A post-structural narrative inquiry

      Edwards Price, Sally (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Background: Reflexology has suffered a troubled and tumultuous journey travelling a long and winding road, experiencing times of interest and intrigue alongside suspicion and doubt. This study explores the topic through a post-structural lens to discover new possibilities for the discipline. Methodology: The research design used a narrative inquiry and emerged a Derridean theoretical approach encompassing some of the key concepts of Jacques Derrida’s writings (Derrida, 2016, 1993, 1982, 1978). It concerns poetical notions of text, context and intertextuality as a backdrop to re-explore traditional stories told by five prominent reflexologists accompanied by an autobiographical story. Using narrative inquiry, it explored how narratives allow reflexologists to perform and make heard the whispered voices in order to let reflexology stories (the reflexstories) breathe (Frank, 2012). Findings: This study firstly, at a textual level, uncovered the literature surrounding reflexology (the reflexliterature) proffering an evolution of the therapy and secondly, for context, embraced the methodology of narrative inquiry, eliciting synchronic narratives. Beatles song titles have been used as headings, bringing into focus my own intertextuality to capture the spirit of Derridean thought which emerged during the era reflexology was presenting as a popular practice. The study contributes to furthering the body of knowledge of reflexology by providing personal narratives and poems for pedagogic application and explores emerging cultural and dialogical accounts of the modality in order to find possibilities for practice rather than affording truth claims on its efficacy and effectiveness. Moreover, it offers a theoretical model for the application of a schema of critical questioning so as to expose the metaphysical assumptions of the subject in question which revealed reflexology as a spectre in healthcare. Recommendations: A standardised data collection tool could be developed to replace the use of many varied questionnaires within the research on reflexology and the numerous reflexology associations could try again, to converge and adopt one collective organisation. Reflexology could be utilised in other areas of healthcare identified in the literature rather than only the current provision. Finally, the theoretical model could be exploited for other subjects in order to interrogate the hierarchies, dichotomies and binary oppositions which are present within the topic of inquiry.
    • Intentional forgetting of emotional memories in the item-method directed forgetting task

      Mercer, Tom; Hinton, Danny; Darby, Richard; Ahmed, Sumera (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Forgetting is often viewed as a nuisance, but research has indicated that forgetting is an adaptive process that works to remove irrelevant information (Bjork,1989). Such 'intentional’ forgetting concerns the active removal of information from memory, with evidence coming from the Think/No-Think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2004) and most importantly the Directed Forgetting paradigm (Bjork, 1970). The Directed Forgetting paradigm assesses intentional forgetting through the use of two cues (Remember and Forget) and a majority of studies suggest a successful inhibition of the 'Forget' items in comparison to the 'Remember' items. However, there is a long-term dispute within research in regard to valence and intentional forgetting. Specifically, it is unclear whether directed forgetting is reduced for emotional stimuli, in comparison to neutral stimuli. In the current thesis, Directed Forgetting was tested in six experiments and consistently reported when retrieval was assessed through free recall. The Directed Forgetting effect also applied to emotional material. However, valence differences for the 'Remember' cue (positive vs negative) were greater than the differences found for the 'Forget' cue. This suggests that both positive and negative words can be successfully forgotten. Additionally, factors such as time (Chapters 2, 3 and 5), individual differences (Chapters 4 [sex differences] and 5 [mood and emotional reactivity]) and stimuli characteristics (Chapters 5 [concreteness] and 7 [word type]) had a minimal impact on Directed Forgetting. The experiments within this thesis have been successful in highlighting DF within free recall. Yet when a cued recall procedure was used, the DF effect was abolished, and there actually seemed to be a form of inverted DF for negative words. Lastly, limitations, theoretical implications and future directions are considered in Chapter 8 (the general discussion).
    • Designing play equipment to develop the social competence of children with cerebral palsy

      Harrison, Dew; Niedderer, Kristina; Rozsahegyi, Tunde; Borzenkova, Ganna (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      This study investigated the design of play equipment for encouraging peer-to-peer social interactions amongst children with cerebral palsy aged from 4 to 6 years, as a means of developing their social competence. The focus was on developing a new conceptual model and criteria for designing this specialist play equipment and, thus, creating a level playing field for children with different manifestations of cerebral palsy. According to the statistics of the National Health Service, it is estimated that approximately 1 in 400 children is born with cerebral palsy in the UK (NHS, 2017). It is recognised that these children often have reduced social engagement, yet socialisation plays a fundamental role in development. In spite of this, there are few toys specifically developed for children with cerebral palsy and even fewer which support peer socialisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop relational play equipment for them. The research presented here is interdisciplinary and informed by a social perspective on disability. It combined theoretical investigation with design practice within an action-research approach. User-centred design was used for the design development and intervention. Observations of children with cerebral palsy and interviews with their parents and conductors were employed for collecting data about the children’s social interactions before and during the design intervention in order to determine the effectiveness of the proposed concept. Data collection was carried out at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, England. A conceptual design model of play equipment for enhancing the social competence in children with cerebral palsy was developed. The model focused on designing semiotic content that could trigger cognitive, emotional, social and physical processes to encourage children to participate in relational play and facilitate peer-to-peer social interactions. Based on this model, design criteria were developed, integrating two interrelated sets of indicators. The first set pertained to the design position and comprised child-friendly design criteria. The second pertained to the social purpose, comprising indicators of social competence, such as social skills and self-confidence. Based on these criteria, a number of design ideas were developed, using ideation, intuitive hand sketching and brainstorming. A final idea of the thematic play environment, “Undersea Friends”, which corresponded best to the conceptual model of play equipment and met most of the design criteria and recommendations from parents and conductors, was chosen for the design intervention. “Undersea Friends” consists of the toys intended for practising particular social skills, where each toy in the play space is a creature-friend and a facilitator of children’s interactions. These toys are Octopush Olly for practising turn taking, Hexapush Hetty for practising cooperation and Larry Long Legs for sharing. Two prototype toys for this environment were developed and evaluated with children with cerebral palsy for the purposes of this study. This completed study highlights the difficulties which children with cerebral palsy may experience with peer interactions while playing. It provides a new understanding of the development of social competence through engaging children in relational play, facilitated by specialist play equipment, as well as the prototype toys of the play environment, “Undersea Friends”. This research contributes to understanding of how designers can approach the creation of such play equipment by providing design criteria, design recommendations and suggestions for further investigation.
    • A framework for adopting solar energy governance in the Nigerian power sector

      Suresh, Subashini; Abdullahi, Dahiru (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      The Nigerian economy is almost exclusively dependent on oil and gas as more than 80% of its revenue is currently generated from this sector. However, lack of stable electricity from all sources has impacted the socio-economic growth over a long period of time. This research explores the drivers, barriers and benefits of implementing solar energy strategies. In doing so, a framework for adopting solar energy governance in the Nigerian power sector was developed based on literature review and findings from the semi-structured interview held with 25 top management officials of solar energy stakeholders in Nigeria. The philosophical position of this research is inductive approach and interpretivist paradigm. The qualitative data collection method was employed, data were interpreted and analysed using content analysis. Interpretive Structure Modelling (ISM) was used further to analyse the barriers for solar energy implementation in Nigeria. The study revealed that socio-cultural aspects, lack of financing and lack of awareness of the technology are the key barriers that has slowed the implementation of solar energy strategies. The power sector reform Act’s energy mix, synergy of private and public sector and lack of access to electricity were revealed as the key drivers for solar energy strategies to be implemented. While economic and environmental aspects were identified as key benefits for solar energy implementation. This identification and interconnectivity of the parameters helped in the development and evaluation of a framework for adopting solar energy governance in the Nigerian power sector.
    • Suggestion support system for healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia: an assessment framework

      Arif, Mohammed; Khusheim, Lina H. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      Saudi Arabia has developed an ambitious vision, Vision 2030, where the healthcare industry is one of the significant focus areas, making the healthcare industry more efficient and effective is crucial to attracting the private sector and making this vision a reality. Therefore, improving healthcare organisations' performance and competitiveness is necessary to achieve this sector's vision. In such a continuous improvement journey, suggestion systems can be considered an essential continuous improvement tool that identifies the industry's shortfalls and allows for potential future opportunities. It was found that the classical suggestion systems’ development process is subject to human behaviour that might discourage overall participation. Thus, interactive and straightforward systems will encourage productive participation. Furthermore, a study showed that employee creativity and positive engagement remain crucial in successful suggestion system implementation. Therefore, simplicity is considered the critical success factor in any suggestion system development and implementation process. The goal of this study is to develop an assessment framework for Saudi healthcare suggestion systems. A thorough review of the literature highlighted eighteen variables that act as drivers for the suggestion system's success. To account for a technology evaluation parameter, we adopted Nielson's definition of usability. He defines usability as a phenomenon that consists of five major factors: learnability, efficiency, memorability, error recovery, and satisfaction. A further understanding of the relationships between the suggestion system drivers and the adopted technical evaluation parameter's definition are investigated. A questionnaire on the eighteen variables was conducted, and 138 responses were collected. Based on a series of scientific analyses, the researcher identified three significant latent factors affecting the usability of a healthcare suggestion system: the Personal factor, System and Institutional factor, and Social Support factor. A maturity model with three levels of maturity was developed. The first level was defined as Low level, the second level was defined as a Medium level, and the third level was the High one. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was performed to prioritise variables within each construct and among the three latent factors. AHP showed that the most critical factor is the Personal factor, followed by the System and Institutional factor, and then the Social Support factor. The first latent factor, the Personal one, includes the following suggestion system success variables: Reward, Ease of Use, Clear Scope, Autonomy, Trust, anonymity, Problem Solving, and Feedback. Under the second latent factor, System and Institutional, the success variables are Resources, Supervisor Support, Training, Publicity, Colleague Support, Compliance, and Equality. While the Social Support factor listed variables are Social Media and Social Networking. In order to test the developed model, two Saudi healthcare facilities were investigated. Furthermore, the developed model was found useful not only in assessing the current state of their suggestion systems but also in identifying the potential improvement opportunities. Having a prioritised list ensures that organisations can focus on improving factors that have a higher impact on the overall usability of the system.
    • Parameterized monads in linguistics

      Le, An Ha; Viet, Ha Bui (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      This dissertation follows the formal semantics approach to linguistics. It applies recent developments in computing theories to study theoretical linguistics in the area of the interaction between semantics and pragmatics and analyzes several natural language phenomena by parsing them in these theories. Specifically, this dissertation uses parameterized monads, a particular theoretical framework in category theory, as a dynamic semantic framework to reinterpret the compositional Discourse Representation Theory(cDRT), and to provide an analysis of donkey anaphora. Parameterized monads are also used in this dissertation to interpret information states as lists of presuppositions, and as dot types. Alternative interpretations for demonstratives and imperatives are produced, and the conventional implicature phenomenon in linguistics substantiated, using the framework. Interpreting donkey anaphora shows that parameterized monads is able to handle the sentential dependency. Therefore, this framework shows an expressive power equal to that of related frameworks such as the typed logical grammar and the dynamic predicate logic. Interpreting imperatives via parameterized monads also provides a compositional dynamic semantic analysis which is one of the main approaches to analysing imperatives.
    • Nurses’ views on compassionate care: a study using Q methodology

      Gutteridge, Robin; Bond, Carol; Philp, Ann (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      Compassion and compassionate care are identified as essential elements in nursing. They enhance quality care, wellbeing, and the overall quality of patients’ lives. However, incidents of substandard care have highlighted inherent tensions between competing professional and organisational demands in a rapidly changing workplace. This research investigated nurses’ views of the promoters and inhibitors of provision and maintenance of compassionate care. Participants were third year student nurses and qualified nurses in a large inner-city Trust hospital. An integrative literature review revealed three overarching themes that impact on nurses’ ability to provide and maintain compassionate care. Sumner’s (2008a) Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action Theory (MCCNCAT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Q methodology supported the investigation of subjectivity within an interpretive design. 54 statements were developed from the literature review and focus group participation, representing the breadth of debate on compassion and compassionate care. Participants (n=30) rank-ordered these statements onto a quasi-normal distribution grid (the Q sort). They provided post Q sort data via Report Sheets and semi-structured interviews; thematic analysis was used to explore interview data. Completed Q sorts were analysed using correlation and by-person factor analysis, resulting in two distinct factors. Some participants shared commonalities across factors and did not contribute to the construction of the factor estimates. Remaining participants (n=18) included student nurses (n=10) and qualified nurses (n=8). Compassionate care was found to be complex, interconnected, and multifaceted. There was consensus from student nurses and qualified nurses in the three overarching themes: • Personal/relational – Improved patient outcomes impact positively on patients and motivate nurses to provide compassionate care. Satisfaction gained from providing compassionate care creates a virtuous circle, enhancing wellbeing, personal motivation, professional commitment, and job performance. It supports collegial relationships and positive patient outcomes. • Organisational – Organisations must promote compassionate care, supporting nurses and providing necessary resources. Managers, leaders, mentors, and colleagues should demonstrate compassion towards patients and staff. Developing and supporting a culture of compassion can counter factors that inhibit compassionate care. Nurses should be encouraged to develop self-compassion, which promotes their own wellbeing. • Educational – Nurses’ clinical experiences should be connected to teaching and learning. This means replacing inappropriate didactic, classroom-based education with approaches that are experiential and creative, using strengthened links with practice, so that learning is relevant to the reality of clinical practice. These findings were incorporated in an explanatory diagram, underpinned by MCCNCAT (Sumner 2008a) which makes visible the dynamics involved and strategies that build and sustain compassionate care.
    • The determinants and impact of inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria

      Mark Cook; Lucy Zheng; Ari, Mayor N. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      Endowed with enormous natural resources but with a volatile economy, this study seeks to conduct an empirical analysis investigating the determinants and impact of inward oil and gas FDI on Nigeria’s economic growth and export performance. The study dataset covers a period of 17 years from 2001 to 2017. The country-level dataset was analysed in three separate models, which include, the country as a whole, OECD group and non-OECD group using dynamic panel data analysis techniques proposed by Blundell and Bond (1998) known in methodology literature as sys-GMM (system Generalized-Method-of-Moment). The study’s empirical evidence provides statistical support that inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria is determined by market-seeking (proxied by GDP per capita), resource-seeking (proxied by fuel export) and efficiency-seeking (proxied by labour force). As a whole, it is seen that OECD countries’ FDI is more attracted by market-seeking and efficiency-seeking determinants, while, non-OECD countries are more attracted by resource-seeking factors. The study also found that inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria has a significant positive effect on economic growth (proxied by GDP per capita). However, the study shows that OECD countries oil and gas FDI impact on Nigeria’s economic growth is higher compared to non-OECD countries oil and gas FDI. As regards export performance, the empirical results showed that inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria has a significant positive effect on export performance in Nigeria (proxied by oil and gas exports). Also, from the empirical results, it is observed that the impact of non-OECD countries’ oil and gas FDI is higher compared to OECD countries oil and gas FDI impact on Nigeria’s foreign export. The empirical results corroborate the complementarity hypothesis of FDI and trade nexus by providing empirical evidence using oil and gas FDI in Nigeria. The main theoretical contributions of this study stem from the empirical evidence on inward oil and gas FDI examining the heterogeneity of the investing MNEs and, showing how this heterogeneity of investing MNEs impact on Nigeria’s economic growth and export performance. The study also provides valid evidence for FDI promotion agencies in Nigeria on how best to harness the benefits of inward oil and gas FDI in a volatile economy for greater economic and export performance.
    • Ecological labyrinths and myths of the fall: An earth-centred approach to The Lord of the Rings and His Dark Materials

      Wilson, Frank; Greenfield, Stephen Richard (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      Ecological criticism (ecocriticism) bifurcates between two paths that offer alternative definitions of ecology as a structure. One leads to a fixed, cyclical model, the other moves in a dynamic, evolutionary direction. These differences of orientation frame ecocritical responses that appear irreconcilable to each other. This research provides a way of reading the structure of fantasy texts as parallel to ecological structure in a way that brings the two definitions of ecology into dialogue. The divergence in approaches to ecocriticism has caused a chasm to open between the respective ends of an ecocritical spectrum in the polemical positions of deep ecology and ecohumanism. These positions reflect fundamental differences over the structure of ecology and tend toward mutual antagonism. This research addresses division in facilitating dialogue through analysis of structural ecological positions as a binary that creates meaning. Such a comparative approach leads to a nuanced understanding of ecological structure and its articulation through narrative design. The reading draws out structural ecological meaning, highlights inconsistencies and weaknesses, and reconciles divergent polemical positions as complementary. The general principle of reading the quest hero as exemplifying ecological structure has been used by Rachel McCoppin in her analysis of mythological texts to identify ‘botanical heroism’. McCoppin chose to map myths from pre-Darwinian ages to a simple seasonal cycle of nature as her structural model. As such her research does not deal with the complex and nuanced twentieth-century confusion over ecological structure. My research confronts that problem, proposing a method for understanding discontinuities that are, in any case, ecological in nature. I arrived at an alternative to the cycle of nature that articulates the struggle to define a pattern of ecological relationships, in the form of the labyrinth. The labyrinth comprises a dichotomy. On the one hand a unicursal model articulates structure as a series of concentric loops that act as boundaries and lead toward a point of illumination. This model incorporates the cycle of nature within a more complex scheme than McCoppin’s seasonal model of regeneration. On the other hand the labyrinth in multicursal form comprises a maze that resists regularity, replacing certainty with choice leading either to continued progress or dead-ends. The labyrinth as a symbol of alienation, disorientation and confusion captures the ambition of ecological readings of quests to reconcile humanity and nature. I apply the eco- labyrinthine model to my reading of two of the twentieth-centuries most popular quest fantasies, J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings and Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials. The following study shows that an eco-labyrinthine approach to reading modern fantasy quest provides a way of bringing together alternative perspectives of ecological structure in a dialogue that undermines claims to mutual exclusivity. By way of answers the eco-labyrinth provides a spectrum, or continuum, against which to plot inconsistencies. It opens up questions about heroism mapped against an ecological model. This thesis illustrates how an eco-labyrinthine exegesis works in relation to certain texts to reassess their ecocritical meaning. Some of the questions this research raises about how authors engage with ecology, biodiversity and evolution through structural modelling of fictitious worlds, reflected in narrative structure, will necessarily benefit from a lively and continuing debate.
    • Producing the translators of tomorrow: designing a student-centred and competence-based translation curriculum for Saudi universities

      Almugharbil, Sara Mohammed (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      The main aim of this research project is to investigate the extent to which translation courses in Saudi Arabia adequately prepare students to take up careers as professional translators according to current market needs. Saudi Vision 2030 acknowledges that graduates must be able to operate at a professional level of competence in order to be competitive in terms of employability. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the translation skills and competences of graduates of translation courses in Saudi Arabia and, more broadly, in the Arabic-speaking world. Using a Saudi case study, this research explores how competency-based course content can be combined with analysis of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives and a review of research, policies, and best practice to identify potential gaps between undergraduate translator training approaches and the needs of the translation industry. Primary data has been collected by surveying four samples: a sample of staff teaching translation modules at Saudi Universities, a sample of students and graduates of EFL and translation at Saudi universities as well as a sample of some of the top employers in Saudi Arabia. The data gathered is intended to help the course designers and educational practitioners in developing translation skills curricula through evidence-based recommendations. By implementing them, universities can more closely align the translation components of undergraduate degree programmes with the needs of the market, thereby enhancing graduates’ employability. The results shed light on the changes that have to be made in the current provision and existing teaching practices, curricula, and student skill sets in Saudi universities. These changes could improve the course design and teaching of translation so that these universities can produce graduates with the necessary vocationally oriented profile to work in the translation sector. This research can also help to inform education policy in the HE sector in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region overall.
    • Adoption of smart and sustainable strategies in the State of Qatar

      Suresh Renukappa; Al Meraikhi, Hamda (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-04)
      With the increasing importance given to sustainable development nowadays, countries around the world are shifting their focus and efforts to changing the previous unsustainable growth framework that has been ineffective. Therefore, Qatar, following in the footsteps of the rest of the world, decided to introduce a sustainability plan to ensure the population’s prosperity through its Qatar National Vision 2030 (QNV 2030). However, little is known about how Qatar organisations are responding to this encouragement. The aim of this research is to investigate how Qatar public sector organisations are embedding smart and sustainable strategies in order to achieve the QNV 2030. Given the relatively new and unexplored nature of the research problem, a qualitative research method was adopted to collect and analyse data. Semi-structured interviews with 56 professionals were used to collect data which was then analysed using content analysis for inference and conclusion. The study concluded that smart and sustainable issues are complex, dynamic, and multifaceted. A complex mix of government, economic, social and environmental forces drives Qatar organisations to implement smart and sustainable strategies. Overall, the outlook for improved sustainable strategies efforts from the state of Qatar looks quite promising at present. Qatar organisations face significant challenges in taking the first steps towards implementing smart and sustainable strategies. To improve smart and sustainable performance, therefore, leaders have to recognise and better understand the concept of smart development and sustainability. The current study results suggest that, to meet the goals of the QNV2030, the implementation of healthcare strategies is still evolving in the State of Qatar. Therefore, there is a need to re-examine the National Health Strategy to Qatar’s health challenges, aligned to a global shift in thinking towards population health and smarter and more integrated care. The scarcity of knowledge and expertise associated with sustainable strategies is, and will continue to be, a huge challenge for Qatar public sector organisations. Therefore, training programmes related to the management of smart and sustainable related knowledge will help leaders, managers, and change agents better understand how to craft and implement various smart and sustainable strategies to achieve QNV 2030. An innovative business model for the integration of smart and sustainable strategies into day-to-day operational decisions was developed and validated. This model is intended to offer guidance for the successful implementation of smart and sustainable strategies to simultaneously improve environmental, social and economic performance. It is recommended to explore the level of embeddedness of smart and sustainable strategies in the public sector between developed and developing countries.
    • Stakeholder management within BIM implemented projects in the UK construction industry

      Ezekiel Chinyio; Subashini Suresh; Singh, Sukhtaj (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-04)
      Over the last decade, the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has proliferated to manage the increasing complexity of construction projects. Project managers face challenges while managing stakeholders on BIM-implemented projects because the BIM concept is still relatively new to many stakeholders. The implementation of BIM brought new and complex activities to the already complex process of project management, which led to radical change in the working practices of project stakeholders and generated risk for diverse areas. In this study, the challenges, techniques, enablers and benefits of managing stakeholders within BIM-implemented projects were investigated. This exploratory study adopts a qualitative approach with an interpretative stance at its core, which is an appropriate approach to adopt when the variables and theory base are not known. Pilot study was conducted to test the research instrument. A total of 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted in the UK, via purposive and snowball sampling techniques. The data gathered was analysed using content analysis and the NVivo 11 Pro software. The findings include a persisting low understanding of the BIM concept in project team, especially the client. The users’ resistance to change, and disintegration of BIM and traditional teams leads to unanticipated issues. Holding face-to-face meetings with client at the onset of a project for discussing BIM process and arranging frequent meetings of BIM users among themselves are the key techniques of mitigating issues proactively. Furthermore, organisations should create a sharing and learning environment to encourage and facilitate adoption of BIM. The effective management of stakeholders leads to generating good quality information, avoiding unanticipated issues and assists in understanding the result clearly. A descriptive framework was developed and validated. This framework provides requirements that needs to be integrated during stakeholder management in BIM projects. Every construction project has a unique set of stakeholders. Therefore, project managers should conduct a BIM assessment of all key stakeholders and develop a bespoke stakeholder management plan based on that. BIM has a huge potential to manage stakeholders effectively on construction projects. Even the roles that are not directly/indirectly related to BIM can benefit from increased and better communication and collaboration. Communication, collaboration, stakeholder engagement, trust, common goals, technology and people are at the core of managing stakeholders within BIM projects. Top management should proactively support stakeholder management plan because the lack of knowledge and understanding of BIM among project participants on an ongoing project may lead to conflicts. Larger organisations should help smaller organisations on BIM-implemented projects because smaller organisations usually do not have enough budget to train their staff. To date, researchers have focused on implementation of BIM and stakeholder management aimed at the micro level with little attention to the effect of new digital ways of working with stakeholder. This research provides a richer understanding and awareness of the enablers and techniques, which organisations have to focus on while making strategies in order to face minimum resistance from stakeholders. The study is unique in a way that it considers BIM from a management perspective, especially the stakeholder management. The previous studies have identified challenges of BIM in isolation. The enablers, techniques and benefits pertaining stakeholder management were identified and prioritised in the context of BIM. Furthermore, this study has established new ways which managers can adopt to manage stakeholders in addition to technical approaches.
    • Added value through design for healthcare facilities/buildings in Saudi Arabia within the legislative regulations of Saudi Arabia

      Arif, Mohammed; Fadel, Bedour A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-03)
      High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. A healthcare facility with an environment that is user centered, welcoming, and accessible, while also supporting staff and patient privacy and security has been found to enhance medical outcomes, and patient and staff comfort and well-being, which in turn have a positive effect on medical outcomes. The use of Evidence Based Designhas been shown to be of benefit to add value through design to a building . A comprehensive review of relevant literature was used to develop an understanding of the factors perceived to add value to a healthcare facility. Data were derived from two instruments an expert survey and a group AHP pairwise comparison survey. The findings of the first instrument resulted in validation of the factors, both directly and indirectly related to design, proposed in the literature and added insight into some culturally specific perceptions of factors which add value to a healthcare facility. The second instrument was a pairwise comparison of the six main design criteria and 25 related sub-factors to gain a multi-user perspective of their priority in adding value. The results from the first expert survey of the factors found in the literature and the AHP pairwise comparison survey were synthesized to develop a proposed framework to add value to healthcare facilities through building design . The framework was developed with consideration of factors indirectly impacted by design in addition to the design factors themselves. The proposed framework has six main criteria of Risk and Safety, Accessibility and Way-finding, Functionality, Cultural factors , Aesthetics, Comfort and Well-being and Cost with 25 sub-factors directly related to design of varied priority ranking found to add value to a healthcare facility within the Saudi Cultural context and presented in order of priority weighting . These were then related to their impact on the factors which add value to a healthcare facility which have been shown to be indirectly related to the healthcare facility design. Findings suggest that while perceptions of factors that add value are mostly in agreement with those found in other studies, that there are some culturally specific factors that need to be considered in order to design facilities that provide the greatest value, including patient rooms of a size and design that allow for a caretaker to be present and to accommodate for a large number of visitors, In addition, there is a need to consider the direction for the prayer and the need for signage to indicate it in the room layout. They also suggest that added value through design can have a positive effect on medical outcomes and the satisfaction and well-being of staff and patients.
    • Designing in creativity: an investigation into the role of creativity in graphic design

      Arya, Rina; Meachem, Carol (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      Graphic design practice is currently entrenched within a process-driven, formulaic approach to design that is time constrained and closely aligned with the working practices of the business environment. This approach is not conducive to creativity. Although design institutions recognise the call from UK governments for increased creativity and innovation in support of economic, social, and cultural initiatives the current commodification of knowledge, developed in response to the needs of business and industry, has its limitations. There is today a tension in the academic community between the pursuit of creative practice as a valuable entity in itself and the preparation of graduates for employment. There is a growing concern within the industry at the educational marginalisation of creativity within the design process in an attempt to remain current with technological and professional skilling. The intellectual and theoretical underpinning of graphic design is weak with little scholarly debate in relation to creativity and critical thinking. The aim of this research therefore is to support future practice and educational initiatives by developing a new theoretical and contextual framework from which to engage with both industry and education. Utilising a mixed method approach together with the insider/outsider status of the researcher working as both a design practitioner and design educator the research addresses the following questions: what is the role of creativity in graphic design? Why is creativity important to graphic design education and industry practice? How can creativity be facilitated within graphic design education and industry practice? A small-scale qualitative online survey was conducted initially in the form of a targeted emailed questionnaire. It collected opinions, knowledge, and experiences from 9 universities within the UK Higher Education sector and a small number of industry practitioners. The aim was to gain insights from a cross-section of individuals most likely to have special knowledge about the research topic and provide a snapshot of how things are currently. The study built on these insights by considering creativity in different contexts and demonstrates through substantial critical investigation and analysis the theoretical and contextual knowledge underpinning discussions in relation to creativity. It explores the significance of creativity as a term and an activity in graphic design. It examines possible explanations for the marginalisation of creativity in graphic design by looking at the historical precedents for the split between the fine and applied arts and the impact that this has had on the way that design has been taught and practiced. The findings confirm that understanding the role of creativity within practice is fundamental to ensuring that graphic design remains relevant in twenty first century culture and society. However, what creativity is and the various forms it can take may be different to what is currently recognised by education and industry practice.
    • A visual ethnographic study on nurse lecturers’ enactment of compassionate care within the adult pre-registration nursing curriculum

      Lucy Pursehouse; Drummond, Juliet (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      Aim of the study: To explore how compassionate care is enacted within the adult pre-registration nursing curriculum (APNC) by Nurse lecturers (NLs). Background: Compassionate care is rooted in the nursing profession and there is a general assumption that nurses are compassionate to those they serve. There has been much debate on whether compassionate care can be taught or is it innate to individuals. There are a number of studies that explore the experiences of student nurses, patients and healthcare professionals. However, there are a limited number of studies exploring NLs’ experiences, attitudes and behaviours. This thesis explores NL’s perspective of their performance of compassionate care within APNC. This has an important impact on the pre-registration nursing education of student nurses and future care delivery. Methodology: A qualitative approach was applied using purposeful sampling to recruit nine participants. A visual ethnographic methodology was employed, using auto-driven photo-elicitation interviews. The same nurse lecturers were then invited to a focus group to develop individual and collaborative concept maps, of which five attended. Data was collected between March 2017 to August 2018. Findings: This interpretative study revealed five emergent themes: (1) compassionate care; (2) compassionate people; (3) compassionate curriculum; (4) compassionate culture (5) compassionate lens. A framework has emerged which informs pre-registration nursing education and health services. The themes are also represented in the photographs, concepts maps, an atlas of compassionate care within the adult preregistration nursing curriculum , and the map of compassionate care. Conclusion: In summary, this study represents the complexity of how compassionate care is performed by NLs in their role in supporting and developing student nurses. The individual and shared experiences of NLs highlight the numerous ways compassionate care is experienced and performed. The identified themes demonstrate the many opportunities available for all levels of staff to be compassionate in their role to those in need. It is hoped that the impact of this may drive up standards and delivery of compassionate care in healthcare services and nursing education. Originality: This study contributes a comprehensive analysis of the performance of NLs in compassionate care in the APNC. Using a visual ethnographic methodology provided a thick description of the experiences of NLs, therefore adding to the body of knowledge in the understanding and delivery of compassionate care in nursing education. The infusion of photographs, concept maps and dialogue give insight into the multiple ways NLs experience and perform compassionate care. It is anticipated that the findings offer a valuable insight to how higher education institutions, healthcare organisations and researchers can shape compassionate nursing practice both locally and nationally.
    • The impact of food consumption patterns on identity: the case of Zimbabwean inbetweeners living in the UK

      Magede, Thomas (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      This study explores the concept of identity construction through food as exhibited by Zimbabwean inbetweener migrants in the UK. Literature was explored in relation to national identity, migration, consumer culture theory, consumer acculturation, diaspora theory, memory and nostalgia and food consumption and identity. The study used a qualitative research approach to address the issues under investigation. Interviews were used to collect data based on the understanding that food patterns and identity construction are context driven. The findings indicate that the food experiences of the Zimbabwean inbetweeners were specific to this group. Their food consumption patterns were found to be multi-dimensional. The thesis brings to the fore too, the dynamism of identity and food consumption practices. The food acculturation practices of the Zimbabwean inbetweener migrants showed three consumer acculturation strategies - rejection, adaptation and separation. These were chosen in response to the various challenges and environmental influences they had encountered as they settled in the UK. In the construction of a national identity in the UK, access to Zimbabwean foods, economic independence, the importance of family and the structured nature of British schools influenced how identity was expressed and constructed. The findings showed that food is a tool that the respondents used to contruct their identity, to develop and maintain relationships with family, friends, communities and general diasporan relationships. The respondents also indicated the importance of eating out and the tensions they experienced in different restaurants that presented themselves as ‘authentic’. Various contested identities were formed depending on the ‘authenticity’ strategy adopted in the ethnic restaurants. These ‘authenticity’ strategies focussed on purity, hybridity, concreteness and abstract. The study contributes to consumer culture theory by engaging in the study of migrant food consumption practices; and to understand how a migrant group, can relate to the operation and marketing of ethnic restaurants in the diaspora.
    • An investigation of client loyalty in the construction professional services sector

      Hampton, Paul; Williams, Nicholas Michael (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      Construction professional services (CPS) suppliers perform several vital roles in the construction industry. Arguably, their success (and, in hard times, their survival) is determined by the loyalty of their clients. Loyal clients provide a reliable stream of revenue and help generate new business for CPS suppliers by providing recommendations and referrals. However, prior to this research, there were no known empirical studies which investigated CPS client loyalty. Using evidence obtained from a literature review, a conceptual model was developed that identified the key-candidate service-related antecedents of client loyalty. A phase of qualitative research was carried out using purposeful and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were arranged with 20 respondents, with these being a mix of CPS clients and suppliers. The resulting data were subject to thematic analysis, and the conceptual model of CPS-client loyalty was refined based on the findings. A phase of quantitative research was carried out to test the degree to which the qualitative research findings could be generalised to the wider CPS-client population. This involved a survey, and analysis of the data using factor analysis and hypothesis testing using multiple regression. This was itself followed up using a phase of member checking with a group of experts to validate and help explain some discrepant findings. This research has made several contributions to knowledge. It provides empirical support for the existence of a multidimensional form of commitment in a CPS supplier-client context. It is the first known research to identify what CPS suppliers should focus on to be able to build and benefit from client loyalty. The results showed that service quality was the antecedent most strongly associated with loyalty. Affective commitment was found to be next in importance. A weak-but-significant relationship with locked-in commitment was also identified. It should be noted that sampling during both qualitative and quantitative phase of research was restricted to respondents from the UK Midlands. Therefore, there are limits to which the findings can be generalised beyond this geographical region. In summary, CPS suppliers are advised to focus first and foremost on fulfilling their clients’ rational desire for a high level of service quality. However, to achieve optimum levels of client loyalty, they should be mindful of the power of personal relationships between their employees and their clients. In this respect, they are advised to avoid rotating their account representatives where healthy relations and rapport are evident.
    • ‘This is about an ordinary average life with all its ups and downs’: Continuity and change in the life and family experiences of fifty English working-class individuals between the years 1900 and 1945

      Ugolini, Laura; Ball, Rebecca Mary (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      This thesis is a study of the everyday lives of fifty working-class individuals in the first half of the twentieth century. These twenty-six women and twenty-four men were all born between 1899 and 1915 in England and self-identified as working class. These individuals were not politicians, influential historical figures or famous household names – such life histories have been recounted on many occasions – rather these are ‘ordinary average’ people, whose unpublished autobiographies this thesis draws upon to offer an insight into the everyday struggles, sacrifices and triumphs that the working class experienced between the years 1900 and 1945. By taking a microhistorical approach and focusing on this sample of fifty life stories, this thesis sheds light on wartime life, the impact of social change and the continued importance of working-class family values during the first half of the twentieth century. It uses these autobiographies to question the assumption that living through a period that witnessed two world wars would automatically equate to a life that was completely overshadowed by them. It also challenges the often accepted idea that wider social changes such as educational reform, the opening up of new employment opportunities and the fertility decline would have necessarily affected each working-class individual, suggesting instead that whilst change in these areas had certainly occurred by the end of the twentieth century, it was often too late to affect the lives of these autobiographers. Instead, the autobiographies suggest that the working-class lives were shaped by other issues of significance, most notably domesticity and the family life cycle. The thesis’ chapters focus on the five topics that the autobiographers most frequently discussed: death, absence, family relationships, consumption (with a particular focus on leisure, food and housing), and education and employment opportunities. The reminiscences on these topics revealed much that confirmed existing academic insights into working-class life between the years 1900 and 1945, including the importance of domestic ideals to working-class family life and the continued popularity of marriage as an institution Yet, importantly, as this thesis argues, they also revealed a variety of differing, although equally relevant and noteworthy experiences that have thus far been overlooked. These include a distinct lack of war-related deaths or war-related absences of immediate family members despite living through two conflicts, the subtle shift towards a companionate style of marriage and the significance of expectations of the working-class family life cycle in responses to instances of death or absence.
    • An examination of the emotional impact of the insertion of documentary footage into trauma cinema

      Badsey, Stephen; Pheasant-Kelly, Frances; Hockenhull, Stella; Yiassemides, Spyros C. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      This thesis proposes that trauma cinema fiction films based on true dramatic events stand to gain much from utilising specific nonfiction material in their staged narratives and, furthermore, enhance emotional affect for the spectator. It deploys David Bordwell’s and Kristin Thompson’s (2017) formalist film theory to textually analyse a range of films, while also considering the dialogue between journalistic approaches and contemporary critical reviews of the films examined. The aim of this study is to show that there are similarities between certain films in the embedding and utilisation of documentary footage within the narratives of these films and that the footage has the ability to invite an emotional response in audiences, depending on certain personal factors and conditions. In general, previous work in Film Studies links actuality in feature films to greater emotional affect but does so epidermically. In other words, it fails to examine how footage which is real and not staged affects the emotional dynamics of the narratives in which it is inserted. The focus of this study is specifically on the 9/11 sub-genre where, arguably, the utilisation of actuality material in these films is a useful technique for encouraging an emotional response. Three films belonging to the 9/11 sub-genre of trauma cinema are examined in this work where there are certain commonalities of theme and style. These are World Trade Center (Stone, 2006), United 93 (Greengrass, 2006) and Zero Dark Thirty (Bigelow, 2012). There is also an emergent pattern in the way that actuality footage is deployed within the three films’ narratives, namely through props such as television sets, which appears to influence how the associated nonfiction content is relayed. Arguably, this delivery of the footage is more easily assimilated by audiences familiar with this initial mode of communication of the events of 9/11. Theoretically, the results produced mean that filmmakers can utilise documentary inserts in the same effective way as other emotion-eliciting cinematic devices, such as close-ups, cut zoom ins, and poignant non-diegetic music, to augment the narrative engagement of the spectator and to enhance the experience. In summary, this thesis contributes to knowledge in that it identifies possible usage of documentary inserts in the narratives of feature films not previously considered and suggests ways in which the emotional potential of these inserts can be exposed therein. It therefore provides a new way to think about calibrating the emotional barometer of these films through heightening the realism of their storylines by making use of documentary inserts