• The determinants and impact of inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria

      Mark Cook; Lucy Zheng; Ari, Mayor N. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      Endowed with enormous natural resources but with a volatile economy, this study seeks to conduct an empirical analysis investigating the determinants and impact of inward oil and gas FDI on Nigeria’s economic growth and export performance. The study dataset covers a period of 17 years from 2001 to 2017. The country-level dataset was analysed in three separate models, which include, the country as a whole, OECD group and non-OECD group using dynamic panel data analysis techniques proposed by Blundell and Bond (1998) known in methodology literature as sys-GMM (system Generalized-Method-of-Moment). The study’s empirical evidence provides statistical support that inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria is determined by market-seeking (proxied by GDP per capita), resource-seeking (proxied by fuel export) and efficiency-seeking (proxied by labour force). As a whole, it is seen that OECD countries’ FDI is more attracted by market-seeking and efficiency-seeking determinants, while, non-OECD countries are more attracted by resource-seeking factors. The study also found that inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria has a significant positive effect on economic growth (proxied by GDP per capita). However, the study shows that OECD countries oil and gas FDI impact on Nigeria’s economic growth is higher compared to non-OECD countries oil and gas FDI. As regards export performance, the empirical results showed that inward oil and gas FDI in Nigeria has a significant positive effect on export performance in Nigeria (proxied by oil and gas exports). Also, from the empirical results, it is observed that the impact of non-OECD countries’ oil and gas FDI is higher compared to OECD countries oil and gas FDI impact on Nigeria’s foreign export. The empirical results corroborate the complementarity hypothesis of FDI and trade nexus by providing empirical evidence using oil and gas FDI in Nigeria. The main theoretical contributions of this study stem from the empirical evidence on inward oil and gas FDI examining the heterogeneity of the investing MNEs and, showing how this heterogeneity of investing MNEs impact on Nigeria’s economic growth and export performance. The study also provides valid evidence for FDI promotion agencies in Nigeria on how best to harness the benefits of inward oil and gas FDI in a volatile economy for greater economic and export performance.
    • Exploring the role of late-occurring nonspecific retroactive interference and interest on recall

      Tom Mercer; Richard Darby-Davis; Fisher, Luke P. (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      Any form of post-encoding distraction, known as Nonspecific Retroactive Interference (NRI), may cause forgetting (Keppel, 1968; Wixted, 2004). However, recent experiments have not always found evidence for NRI and its effect may be very mild. NRI was tested across five experiments which aimed to take the epistemological approach of cognitive memory and forgetting research, and to incorporate the educational psychology domain of motivated learning through interest development. This enabled the exploration of factors which may affect NRI based forgetting, including wakeful rest, mind wandering (MW), and various forms of interest. Verbal memory was tested within a short-term (five-minute retention intervals) learning and recall setting by comparing conditions where NRI (usually elicited by spot-the-difference tasks) was present or absent. This project carefully manipulated the role of prior-tasks, measurements of interest and MW (depending on conceptualisation), and the NRI task. As a result, the thesis was able to explore the role of fatigue vs. cumulative similarity interference, the reliability of NRI effects, and provide a cognitive explanation of interest-based learning. The results demonstrated that (1) overall effects of NRI were more reliable than first hypothesised. (2) Interest is separate from NRI within this paradigm as it increases recall during the encoding phase, with interesting facts being retained more, but experiencing a similar susceptibility to interference as less interesting facts. (3) Subjective interest increases recall, with dispositional individual interest modulating the amount of situational interest evoked by the stimuli. (4) MW decreases recall but any interaction with interest requires further exploration. (5) Recall was consistently worse if the NRI condition was late-occurring, and there was limited evidence for a fatigue explanation. It is put forward that NRI is a low-level form of diversion interference which can accumulate with similarity-based PI, and potentially cognitive load.
    • The impact of food consumption patterns on identity: the case of Zimbabwean inbetweeners living in the UK

      Magede, Thomas (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      This study explores the concept of identity construction through food as exhibited by Zimbabwean inbetweener migrants in the UK. Literature was explored in relation to national identity, migration, consumer culture theory, consumer acculturation, diaspora theory, memory and nostalgia and food consumption and identity. The study used a qualitative research approach to address the issues under investigation. Interviews were used to collect data based on the understanding that food patterns and identity construction are context driven. The findings indicate that the food experiences of the Zimbabwean inbetweeners were specific to this group. Their food consumption patterns were found to be multi-dimensional. The thesis brings to the fore too, the dynamism of identity and food consumption practices. The food acculturation practices of the Zimbabwean inbetweener migrants showed three consumer acculturation strategies - rejection, adaptation and separation. These were chosen in response to the various challenges and environmental influences they had encountered as they settled in the UK. In the construction of a national identity in the UK, access to Zimbabwean foods, economic independence, the importance of family and the structured nature of British schools influenced how identity was expressed and constructed. The findings showed that food is a tool that the respondents used to contruct their identity, to develop and maintain relationships with family, friends, communities and general diasporan relationships. The respondents also indicated the importance of eating out and the tensions they experienced in different restaurants that presented themselves as ‘authentic’. Various contested identities were formed depending on the ‘authenticity’ strategy adopted in the ethnic restaurants. These ‘authenticity’ strategies focussed on purity, hybridity, concreteness and abstract. The study contributes to consumer culture theory by engaging in the study of migrant food consumption practices; and to understand how a migrant group, can relate to the operation and marketing of ethnic restaurants in the diaspora.
    • The Sudanese arbitration laws in transnational commercial arbitration and the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, under the Sudanese disputes settlement system

      Andrew Haynes; Jebarah, Salahaldin Abdelkader (University of Wolverhampton, 2021)
      The reason for writing this doctoral thesis was because of the development of the law and arbitration processes in Sudan and the issues which that process has left us with. Sudan is still going through another kind of social reform, particularly in view of the different faiths in the country, and an increasing propensity for the population to be conscious of their rights. Any single judicial process is likely to struggle to deal with such a wide range of issues, particularly in the context of increasing arbitration and transnational arbitration. The degree of uncertainty is exacerbated by the direct and indirect influence of Islamic jurisprudence on judicial outcomes. This research establishes that if the judiciary has not changed quickly enough to cope with the demands which these factors present and the development of the economy and society could be adversely affected. Furthermore, Sudan is now looking for private foreign investors, and there are reasonable grounds to conclude that the Sudanese judiciary may be inadequate to accommodate the inevitable commercial disputes which will emerge. Whether or not an effective system of dispute settlement through arbitration can be made in Sudan, it is apparent that unless Sudan gets appropriate arbitrators with sufficient knowledge of Sudanese society and law, it will be difficult for Sudan to attract much needed private foreign investment. This research engages in a critical analysis of the development of an appropriate arbitration system in Sudan and suggests that it is a condition precedent to the successful development of the Sudanese dispute resolution system.
    • Stakeholder management within BIM implemented projects in the UK construction industry

      Ezekiel Chinyio; Subashini Suresh; Singh, Sukhtaj (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-04)
      Over the last decade, the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has proliferated to manage the increasing complexity of construction projects. Project managers face challenges while managing stakeholders on BIM-implemented projects because the BIM concept is still relatively new to many stakeholders. The implementation of BIM brought new and complex activities to the already complex process of project management, which led to radical change in the working practices of project stakeholders and generated risk for diverse areas. In this study, the challenges, techniques, enablers and benefits of managing stakeholders within BIM-implemented projects were investigated. This exploratory study adopts a qualitative approach with an interpretative stance at its core, which is an appropriate approach to adopt when the variables and theory base are not known. Pilot study was conducted to test the research instrument. A total of 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted in the UK, via purposive and snowball sampling techniques. The data gathered was analysed using content analysis and the NVivo 11 Pro software. The findings include a persisting low understanding of the BIM concept in project team, especially the client. The users’ resistance to change, and disintegration of BIM and traditional teams leads to unanticipated issues. Holding face-to-face meetings with client at the onset of a project for discussing BIM process and arranging frequent meetings of BIM users among themselves are the key techniques of mitigating issues proactively. Furthermore, organisations should create a sharing and learning environment to encourage and facilitate adoption of BIM. The effective management of stakeholders leads to generating good quality information, avoiding unanticipated issues and assists in understanding the result clearly. A descriptive framework was developed and validated. This framework provides requirements that needs to be integrated during stakeholder management in BIM projects. Every construction project has a unique set of stakeholders. Therefore, project managers should conduct a BIM assessment of all key stakeholders and develop a bespoke stakeholder management plan based on that. BIM has a huge potential to manage stakeholders effectively on construction projects. Even the roles that are not directly/indirectly related to BIM can benefit from increased and better communication and collaboration. Communication, collaboration, stakeholder engagement, trust, common goals, technology and people are at the core of managing stakeholders within BIM projects. Top management should proactively support stakeholder management plan because the lack of knowledge and understanding of BIM among project participants on an ongoing project may lead to conflicts. Larger organisations should help smaller organisations on BIM-implemented projects because smaller organisations usually do not have enough budget to train their staff. To date, researchers have focused on implementation of BIM and stakeholder management aimed at the micro level with little attention to the effect of new digital ways of working with stakeholder. This research provides a richer understanding and awareness of the enablers and techniques, which organisations have to focus on while making strategies in order to face minimum resistance from stakeholders. The study is unique in a way that it considers BIM from a management perspective, especially the stakeholder management. The previous studies have identified challenges of BIM in isolation. The enablers, techniques and benefits pertaining stakeholder management were identified and prioritised in the context of BIM. Furthermore, this study has established new ways which managers can adopt to manage stakeholders in addition to technical approaches.
    • Adoption of smart and sustainable strategies in the State of Qatar

      Suresh Renukappa; Al Meraikhi, Hamda (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-04)
      With the increasing importance given to sustainable development nowadays, countries around the world are shifting their focus and efforts to changing the previous unsustainable growth framework that has been ineffective. Therefore, Qatar, following in the footsteps of the rest of the world, decided to introduce a sustainability plan to ensure the population’s prosperity through its Qatar National Vision 2030 (QNV 2030). However, little is known about how Qatar organisations are responding to this encouragement. The aim of this research is to investigate how Qatar public sector organisations are embedding smart and sustainable strategies in order to achieve the QNV 2030. Given the relatively new and unexplored nature of the research problem, a qualitative research method was adopted to collect and analyse data. Semi-structured interviews with 56 professionals were used to collect data which was then analysed using content analysis for inference and conclusion. The study concluded that smart and sustainable issues are complex, dynamic, and multifaceted. A complex mix of government, economic, social and environmental forces drives Qatar organisations to implement smart and sustainable strategies. Overall, the outlook for improved sustainable strategies efforts from the state of Qatar looks quite promising at present. Qatar organisations face significant challenges in taking the first steps towards implementing smart and sustainable strategies. To improve smart and sustainable performance, therefore, leaders have to recognise and better understand the concept of smart development and sustainability. The current study results suggest that, to meet the goals of the QNV2030, the implementation of healthcare strategies is still evolving in the State of Qatar. Therefore, there is a need to re-examine the National Health Strategy to Qatar’s health challenges, aligned to a global shift in thinking towards population health and smarter and more integrated care. The scarcity of knowledge and expertise associated with sustainable strategies is, and will continue to be, a huge challenge for Qatar public sector organisations. Therefore, training programmes related to the management of smart and sustainable related knowledge will help leaders, managers, and change agents better understand how to craft and implement various smart and sustainable strategies to achieve QNV 2030. An innovative business model for the integration of smart and sustainable strategies into day-to-day operational decisions was developed and validated. This model is intended to offer guidance for the successful implementation of smart and sustainable strategies to simultaneously improve environmental, social and economic performance. It is recommended to explore the level of embeddedness of smart and sustainable strategies in the public sector between developed and developing countries.
    • Can the empathic underpinning of counselling psychologists detect gelotophobic responses to expressions of joy above non-counselling psychologists and psychology others?

      Danny Hinton; Tracey Platt; Flowers, Trevor A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021)
      Gelotophobes have a negative attribution bias skewing appraisal of laughter meaning expressions of joy negatively affect interpersonal interactions and could be a barrier to positive outcomes in therapy. This study investigated participants’ perceptions of gelotophobes and non-gelotophobes responding to expressions of joy and examined whether the empathic underpinnings of counselling psychology afforded greater empathy and was a predictive factor in correctly identifying facial affect. This study was a quasi-experimental design employing a quantitative method. Participants (N = 144) consisted of counselling psychologists (CP) (n = 44), non-psychologists (NP) (n = 54), and psychology other (PO) (n = 46). Participants were shown emotional stimuli, pre-coded using Facial Action Coding System (FACS), depicting gelotophobes and non-gelotophobes responding to expressions of joy and asked to identify the emotion from a choice of seven basic emotions. Participants also completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) questionnaires to discern affective and cognitive empathy levels. Results found significant differences in the correct identification, and perception, of non-gelotophobes’ and gelotophobes’ facial affect. CP had significantly higher levels of cognitive empathy and identified significantly more gelotophobe emotional states than NP, but differences with the PO were non-significant. There was also a positive correlation between cognitive empathy and number of emotions correctly identified. Cognitive empathy, however, did not mediate between participant group and correctly identifying gelotophobes’ facial affect; as such, further research is needed to understand these findings. There were also no significant differences in affective empathy. Research highlights factors contributing to gelotophobes’ interpersonal difficulties, a factor in the development of gelotophobia, as well as factors that will facilitate positive therapeutic outcomes.
    • Family learning in English for speakers of other languages (FLESOL): a case study of Yemeni women’s perspectives

      Linda Devlin; Brendan Bartram; Patel, Hasumatiben (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      This research examined a group of Yemeni women enrolled on a Family Learning (FL) and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programme in the UK. The study addressed three central elements: the ways in which the women conceptualise learning, their motives for engaging in FLESOL, and the barriers to learning they experience. The investigation begins by reviewing Government policies on ESOL learning in Adult Education (AE) and considers the challenges faced by ESOL learners. The review explores the wide-ranging factors which impact upon learning as discussed in existing research and literature. This research argues that government policy and cuts in funding underestimate the complexities of developing life chances for learning. The study contributes to the debate about the value of FLESOL in community learning and aims to provide a deeper understanding of the benefits for this group of learners. The notion of community underpins the learner-centred approach employed in the study, which used a narrative inquiry methodology. An in-depth narrative inquiry was conducted with five participants, involving qualitative semi-structured interviews and a focus group. The study employed imaginative strategies including memorable items and photo elicitation to prompt the views of the participants and to examine their experiences. By selecting a group of FLESOL participants who have not received consideration before, and whose voices are rarely heard, the research demonstrates the nuances of their learning, motivations and perceived barriers. Participants’ stories provide insights into what they feel is important for their learning in a FLESOL environment. Their stories have important implications for decision-makers regarding funding allocation and eligibility criteria to access ESOL. The emergent findings highlight the importance of learning English as a tool which supports change in women’s social capital, well-being and empowerment. It also illustrates that these changes have to come from within the Yemeni women themselves through balancing their new life in the UK with traditional family roles and expectations.
    • A visual ethnographic study on nurse lecturers’ enactment of compassionate care within the adult pre-registration nursing curriculum

      Lucy Pursehouse; Drummond, Juliet (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      Aim of the study: To explore how compassionate care is enacted within the adult pre-registration nursing curriculum (APNC) by Nurse lecturers (NLs). Background: Compassionate care is rooted in the nursing profession and there is a general assumption that nurses are compassionate to those they serve. There has been much debate on whether compassionate care can be taught or is it innate to individuals. There are a number of studies that explore the experiences of student nurses, patients and healthcare professionals. However, there are a limited number of studies exploring NLs’ experiences, attitudes and behaviours. This thesis explores NL’s perspective of their performance of compassionate care within APNC. This has an important impact on the pre-registration nursing education of student nurses and future care delivery. Methodology: A qualitative approach was applied using purposeful sampling to recruit nine participants. A visual ethnographic methodology was employed, using auto-driven photo-elicitation interviews. The same nurse lecturers were then invited to a focus group to develop individual and collaborative concept maps, of which five attended. Data was collected between March 2017 to August 2018. Findings: This interpretative study revealed five emergent themes: (1) compassionate care; (2) compassionate people; (3) compassionate curriculum; (4) compassionate culture (5) compassionate lens. A framework has emerged which informs pre-registration nursing education and health services. The themes are also represented in the photographs, concepts maps, an atlas of compassionate care within the adult preregistration nursing curriculum , and the map of compassionate care. Conclusion: In summary, this study represents the complexity of how compassionate care is performed by NLs in their role in supporting and developing student nurses. The individual and shared experiences of NLs highlight the numerous ways compassionate care is experienced and performed. The identified themes demonstrate the many opportunities available for all levels of staff to be compassionate in their role to those in need. It is hoped that the impact of this may drive up standards and delivery of compassionate care in healthcare services and nursing education. Originality: This study contributes a comprehensive analysis of the performance of NLs in compassionate care in the APNC. Using a visual ethnographic methodology provided a thick description of the experiences of NLs, therefore adding to the body of knowledge in the understanding and delivery of compassionate care in nursing education. The infusion of photographs, concept maps and dialogue give insight into the multiple ways NLs experience and perform compassionate care. It is anticipated that the findings offer a valuable insight to how higher education institutions, healthcare organisations and researchers can shape compassionate nursing practice both locally and nationally.
    • A retrospective review of educational interventions and innovations using actor network theory. Creating learning designs that develop human capabilities by purposeful assembly of heterogenous actors

      Michael Jopling; Sarah Hayes; Royle, Karl (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-12)
      This thesis contributes an approach to learning design for education professionals which can be applied to reform or transform practice through a process of iterative development. The approach can be used by teachers with their class, in a subject area, by a whole institution or system wide, and by researchers as well as curriculum designers. The approach is contextualised, with each potential implementation being different as a result. The ‘retrospective’ approach taken in this thesis stems from agile product development, where a team looks back over recent practice to see how things were done , how they might be done differently in future iterations and what to stop doing. The retrospective was developed using actor network theory to engender reflexivity over the output time period. I adopt various reflexive positions within the text and interestingly, output 8 was instrumental in catalysing the retrospective in this form. My thesis therefore contributes as a model that others might find useful to analyse their practice. The thesis uncovers several positional transformations in my own practice. This includes a movement from tracing cause and effect to mapping wider systems giving insight into how networks are bounded, their borders drawn, power relationships established, and notions of absence, presence and othering are manifested. This wider view enabled a discussion of the purpose of education and the realisation that my practice is situated within both a neoliberal and global economy. The later papers consider ways of acting within this environment, by focusing on the capability approach to determine whether education systems either support or limit possibilities for human flourishing. Focusing on the notion of agency freedom, I connect the capability approach to agile work practices and self-organisation. The thesis concludes with a proposal that flips actor network theory from being an analysis tool to a potential scaffold for agentic learning design, alongside agile product development and capability approach. The scaffold and contribution to knowledge is formed through six principles that combine actor network theory, agile product development, iterative design, and self-organisation through a reflexive positioning. In this way, a purposed actor network can assemble to develop learning environments that recognise freedoms and constraints, but are closer to emancipatory than transmissive.
    • Smokeless tobacco: current use among Bangladeshi adolescents and association with increased oral cancer risk among Bangladeshi adults

      Jennifer NW Lim; Marc Chrysanthou; Ullah, Md. Zahid (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      Background: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is a major public health burden and highly prevalent in Bangladesh. Over 20 million Bangladeshi adults are currently using SLT. Bangladesh Government had announced its vision to become a tobacco free country by 2040. Therefore, public health efforts focusing on preventing SLT onset among adolescents would contribute towards this vision. However, apart from national adolescent SLT prevalence from Global youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), no other information linked to adolescent SLT use is available to inform future interventions. Also, SLT use related health burden such as oral cancer is highly prevalent in Bangladesh. Globally, Bangladesh ranked third for oral cancer related death. Every year over 8,000 Bangladeshi adults lost their lives because of this deadly disease. Regarding the relationship between SLT and oral cancer risk, there is a disconnection between the study findings from the western countries and developing countries. With the diversity of SLT products and its content there is a need to produce local evidence. Therefore, the overall aim of this PhD research was to examine the factors contributing to adolescent SLT use in Bangladesh and the role of SLT in oral carcinogenesis among Bangladeshi adults. Methods: To attain the study objectives, in 2015 a cross-sectional survey (n=790, response rate 100%) in two rural secondary schools and a hospital-based case-control study (n=507; case:169 and controls: 338, case participation rate 92.86%) were carried out in Bangladesh. Results: The findings of the adolescent cross-sectional survey suggest that the ever and current SLT prevalence among rural Bangladeshi adolescent was 9.5% (75) and 3.7% (29) respectively. Males were the leading users of SLT. Zarda (80%) is the most common type of SLT used by the adolescents. Rural Bangladeshi adolescent started using SLT as early as seven years old and younger. Social sources (41.4%) were the most common source of SLT reported. Most adolescents (65.2%) were able to buy SLT from commercial stores without any restrictions. Many current SLT users (89.7%) wanted to quit SLT but professional help was not available. Overall, adolescents had good knowledge about the adverse effects of SLT use, though misconceptions about the addictive nature of SLT use were prevalent. Older age, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived benefits and perceived severity were the significant predictors of adolescent SLT use. The findings of the hospital-based case-control study suggest a strong association between SLT use and oral cancer risk among Bangladeshi adults. Women [OR: 14.33 (95%CI: 6.33-32.42)] had the higher risk of developing oral cancer than men [OR: 5.29 (95%CI: 2.62-10.67)] from SLT use. Among men highest risk was observed among dual users (SLT and smoking) [OR: 17.23 (95%CI: 5.70-52.01)]. Both Betel Quid (BQ) with and without tobacco increased the oral cancer risk. However, the risk was lower for chewing BQ without tobacco than BQ with tobacco. The risk of oral cancer increased with the increasing frequency and intensity of SLT use. About 61% of all oral cancer cases in Bangladesh were attributable to SLT use. Among other oral cancer risk factors - bidi smoking, oral hygiene factors and leanness were associated with increased oral cancer risk. Conclusion: The findings of the present cross-sectional survey and hospital-based case-control study were comparable to existing literatures. Our evidence suggests that SLT use among rural Bangladeshi adolescent is low compared to other neighbouring countries. However, initiation of SLT at an early age is a public health concern. Lack of professional help to quit SLT and poor implementation of tobacco control laws were prevalent. Overall knowledge about SLT use and its ill effects was good, but misconceptions were prevalent. The case-control study demonstrated a significant increase of risk of oral cancer is associated with SLT use. Women had higher risk of developing oral cancer of SLT use than men. For men dual use of SLT and smoking was the major risk factor. Both BQ with and without tobacco was associated with oral cancer incidence. A large number of oral cancer cases in Bangladesh is preventable by tackling the SLT epidemic.
    • Different constellation and shining stars: lesbian parents’ experiences of accessing healthcare for their adopted children in England

      Morgan, Fiona; Cureton, Debra; Kelsall-Knight, Lucille (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      Introduction: The past few decades have seen significant changes in family demographics. It is now more common for parents to be lesbians, which is due to increased social acceptance and the dissolution of legal barriers to parental responsibility. Adoption transforms the lives of some of the most vulnerable children. In 2019, 1 in 7 children in England were adopted by same-sex parents. Adopted children have an increased incidence of additional health care needs and therefore dental and medical appointments in comparison to children who remain with their biological parents. Aim: This study sought to explore the experiences of lesbian mothers accessing healthcare for their adopted children in England and the rhetoric, language and treatment they encountered. Method: A small scale qualitative study, utilising a Narrative Inquiry approach was the chosen method. The study population gained by purposive sampling was of six lesbian adoptive parents. A combined data analysis tool was utilised which used critical incident recall (Webster and Mertova, 2007) and broadening, burrowing, storying and re-storying (Clandinin and Connelly, 1990). A composite character couple was created to ‘re-story’ the participants’ experiences in healthcare and to maintain anonymity. Results and discussion: The needs and challenges of lesbian adoptive families may be different to those of heterosexual and biological families when accessing healthcare. There was an undercurrent of discriminatory practice, shown by various healthcare professionals, and a lack of understanding of the adoption process, knowledge surrounding the child’s history and legal stance with regards to parental responsibility. Emergent themes were: navigating heteronormativity, navigating healthcare settings and professionals and having an ‘adopted’ status, intersectional identity of lesbian parented adoptive families accessing healthcare, reflective imagery of lesbian parents and adoptive families and professional expectations. Self-imposed strategies instigated by the parents to strengthen and protect their familial identities were also discovered. Implications and recommendations for practice: The findings demonstrated that the healthcare provider must take more proactive steps to ensure that practitioners are adhering to Equality legislation and professional standards and are not discriminating against same-sex parents and adopted children who utilise healthcare services. Practitioners should also receive training to ensure they are aware of the adoption process in England; diversity of the population in which they practice; the importance of appropriate terminology and families seeing positive representation of adoption and same-sex parenting in healthcare settings.
    • Dying from acute stroke: orchestrating an autoethnographic sonata of care

      Walker, Wendy; Paniagua, Hillary; Bagnall, Andrew John (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-02)
      This authoethnographic study draws together the experiences of the researcher and bereaved family members of patients who died in hospital following an acute stroke. It takes the form of a Sonata Framework that mirrors the author’s narrative around the duration and onset of his mother’s stroke, hospital care and ultimate discharge home to die. Although symptoms experienced by individuals with malignant and non-malignant disease are similar, evidence suggests the transition from acute to palliative care remains problematic for patients following an acute stroke, not least when seeking to identify when someone is nearing end of life. A qualitative interview study aimed to explore the personal experiences of family members whose relative had died following admission to an acute stroke ward. In order to do this, six adult relatives of patients who died in hospital following an acute stroke were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were inductively analysed to produce basic, organising and global themes, and presented in the form of thematic networks: The Family Experience and Dying & Death. Further findings were deductively derived through the lens of the Sonata Framework. Findings suggested shortfalls in the provision of palliative and end of life care following acute stroke, although areas of good practice were identified. Overall, participants were complimentary of the care provided to their family member although the transition from acute to palliative was variable. The quality of communication between patients, relatives and staff was patchy, with no evidence of engagement with the hospital palliative care team, nor any discussions instigated by staff relating to preferred place of death. This study provided evidence of some improvement in local palliative and end of life care provision when compared with previous research, although gaps in such provision still exist. Staff should receive palliative and end of life care training, including communication skills training to identify individuals who may be nearing the end of life and to instigate timely conversations with their family members. Further research relating to the provision of palliative and end of life care for individuals following an acute stroke is recommended.
    • The chronotope of walking in the films of Andrea Arnold

      Colbert, Benjamin; Hanson, Lance (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      This thesis proposes that the act of walking functions as a dominant chronotope in the work of British filmmaker Andrea Arnold. Using Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept (1988), it demonstrates how walking mobilises a reading of the landscape and the female body that articulates their combined resistance to hegemonic narratives of exclusion and deprivation. Furthermore, by examining its chronotopicity, the function of walking as a discrete element is analysed to reveal its narrative, aesthetic, and contextual significance. Whilst previous studies of the cinematic flâneuse are restricted mainly to European and art-house cinema and their middle class protagonists, this thesis focuses attention on less affluent female characters whose walking takes place not in the metropolis but in the edgelands, suburbs, and social housing estates that constitute the contemporary built environment, along with Arnold’s depiction of the harsh rural landscape of nineteenth-century Yorkshire in Wuthering Heights (2011). This is a study of walking as depicted in Arnold’s cinematic output, along with the three short films with which she began her career, all of which focus upon strong female characters living in areas of economic and social deprivation. From a feminist perspective, her films are “power-to” narratives (Sutherland and Feltey, 2017) that show how female agency is predicated on emotional, and practical, resilience, and Arnold demonstrates this agency by foregrounding her protagonists’ physical and geographical mobility, using walking as their dominant mode of movement. The textual analysis draws on Laura U. Mark’s theories of haptic cinema to examine Arnold’s visual style, combined with a reading of Michel de Certeau whose work emphasises walking as a form of tactile, urban remapping. From this, a new way of interpreting women and walking emerges, and the term ‘haptic flâneuse’ is proposed to describe women’s sensory investigations, explorations, and encounters with the new urban landscape. The conclusions drawn show how walking scenes provide opportunities for female agency, and that such journeys function in excess of their narrative significance, creating an interpretative space to examine the structural, aesthetic, and contextual elements of the films. In this way, the walking chronotope acts as a lens through which Arnold’s work can be interpreted. In summary, this thesis contributes to knowledge in three ways: by providing the first detailed study of walking in Arnold’s oeuvre; by proposing the figure of the haptic flâneuse as a way of thinking about the experiences of women who walk in marginalised spaces; and by demonstrating how a chronotopic reading of walking scenes elevates them from a narrative means to an end to significant film elements in themselves.
    • Association of socioeconomic status with incidence and mortality of heart disease and stroke in older people in China

      Chen, Ruoling; Zhou, Weiju (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08)
      Introduction: Over the past four decades, China has experienced increasing gap between the rich and poor, along with rapid economic development, and increased the numbers of heart disease and stroke. The population in Chins is ageing. It is unclear whether socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke in older people and their surviving in China. This PhD study aimed to investigate the associations of multiple measurements of socioeconomic status (SES) with incidence of heart disease and stroke in older Chinese people and all-cause mortality in those patients. Methods: Two prospective community-based cohort studies were conducted in Anhui province and in four other provinces in China. The Anhui cohort consisted of a random sample of 3,336 older adults, of whom 1,736 aged ≥65 years recruited from urban areas in 2001 and 1,600 aged ≥60 years from rural areas in 2003. In a standard questionnaire interview, they were recorded for sociodemographic, behaviours/lifestyles, social networks and supports, cardiovascular diseases and other related risk factors. SES was measured by urban-rural living, educational level, occupational class, satisfactory income, and any serious financial problems occurred in the past two years. Heart disease and stroke were documented based on self-reported doctor-diagnosis. The cohort members were followed up until 2011 to monitor vital status and causes of mortality, during which three waves of re-interviews were taken for survivors to further document incident heart disease and stroke. Following the same protocol as that in the last two surveys in the Anhui cohort study, the Four-province cohort study completed a baseline survey in 2008-2009 for 4,314 participants who were aged ≥60 years, who were randomly recruited from Guangdong, Shanghai, Heilongjiang, and Shanxi. The Four-province cohort study was followed up until 2012 to monitor the vital status and with re-interviewing survivors. The data of the Anhui cohort and the Four-province cohort studies were analysed in multivariate Cox regression models to examine the associations of SES with incidence and mortality of heart disease and stroke, respectively. Results: The data from the two cohort studies showed that low SES was generally associated with increased incidence of heart disease and stroke and all-cause mortality in older adults with these diseases, although the association varied with SES indicators. Pooled data demonstrated that while rural versus urban living was associated with reduced incidence of heart disease (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.44-0.71), it increased mortality in participants with heart disease (3.57, 2.01-6.34). Rural living was associated with increased incidence of stroke (1.66, 1.08-2.57) and non-significantly all-cause mortality in participants with stroke (1.98, 0.70-5.59). While high occupational class was associated with increased incidence of stroke (1.56, 1.01-2.38), low level of education was significantly associated with mortality in participants with heart disease (1.59, 1.05-2.39). Low income or having financial problems was associated with increased incidence of heart disease (1.42, 1.00-2.00 in low family income) and all-cause mortality in people with heart disease (2.68, 1.08-6.65 in low personal income). Conclusions: In China older people with low SES had increased risks of heart disease (except for rural living) and stroke (except for occupational class). Impact of low SES on increased mortality in older people with heart disease and stroke appeared stronger. Strategies targeting different SES groups involving comprehensive approaches are needed to reduce incidence of heart disease and stroke and improve surviving in older people with heart disease and stroke.
    • Gender variation in Gulf Pidgin Arabic

      Oakes, Michael; Mitkov, Ruslan; Albaqawi, Najah Salem (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-04)
      In the history of pidgins and creoles, many documented contact languages are European-based ones because they arose as a direct result of European colonial expansion between the sixteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. However, contact languages are developing entirely outside the European context as a result of ongoing international migration and economic integration created by globalisation. One such newly emerging pidgin is known as Gulf Pidgin Arabic (GPA). This unique linguistic phenomenon is a simplified contact variety of the Arabic language used in the Gulf States for communication between native Arabic speakers and foreign workers, as well as among the workers themselves. Pidgin languages have not been studied until relatively recently, since the middle of the last century. Similarly, GPA has received relatively little attention in the literature, apart from a few descriptive works such as Abed (2017), Almoaily (2012), Avram (2014), Næss (2008), Smart (1990), and Wiswal (2002). Importantly, there is an increasing labour market demand for women migrants in the Gulf, and this demand is often more stable than that for men; however, no studies to date have investigated the gender and language variation in Gulf countries conditioned by length of stay or substrate language. To carry out this research, an integrated research design, combining quantitative and qualitative phases of analysis, is employed to examine data drawn from one-to-one semi-structured interviews. Extensive background research on the Saudi social setting, the Pidgin languages, Gulf Arabic (GA) and GPA, and the major substrate languages of GPA is undertaken to investigate the sociolinguistic and linguistic situations that have resulted in the emergence of GPA. I analyse the influence of the first language of female GPA speakers and the number of years spent in the Gulf as potential factors conditioning language and gender variation in GPA. The dataset for the study consists of interviews with 72 informants from six linguistic backgrounds: Malayalam, Punjabi, Bengali, Tagalog, Sinhala, and Sunda. Interviews were conducted in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. Half of the informants had spent five years or less in the Gulf, while the other half had spent 10 years or more in the area at the time of interview. The analysis is based on 10 morphosyntactic phenomena: free or bound object or possessive pronoun, presence or absence of the Arabic definiteness marker, presence or absence of Arabic conjunction markers, presence or absence of the GPA copula, and presence or absence of agreement in the verb phrase and the noun phrase. Regarding the informants’ choice of the studied morphosyntactic features, the results of this thesis demonstrate that the length of stay in the Gulf produces more accommodation to standard GA in women than men. However, this shift was significant for only one feature: conjunction markers. For the influence of the first language, a significant adaptation to the system of GA (the lexifier language) was found for two features: conjunction markers and nominal agreement. Furthermore, with years of stay in the Gulf, there was a significant shift for only two features: conjunction markers and definiteness. This finding could be taken to support both universalist theories and substrate theory of the emergence of contact languages. The two theories seem to have effects on the emergence of pidgins and creoles; it is worth noting that neither are separate from each other, and they can be complementary. Thus, my data supports Mufwene’s (1993) complementary theory of genesis, which claims that universal as well as substratal factors can contribute to the emergence of contact languages.
    • Balance performance of undergraduate dancers: an evaluation of current and novel approaches in balance testing and training in theatrical dance

      Wyon, Matthew; Clarke, Frances A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08)
      Balance skills are considered essential for dancers as they are required to perform complex, virtuoso movements. However, there is a dearth of evidence on the appropriateness of existing balance tests and training protocols for dancers. The aims of this thesis were to: (a) test sequentially the assumptions of associations between different field balance tests and between dancers’ balance ability and their dance performance, followed by an examination of the relevance of sports functional balance tests on dancers and, building on the first aim, (b) develop a reliable, dance-specific balance scoring tool and testing protocol examining the effects of balance training in a randomised controlled trial. Study 1 assessed associations between five field balance tests: Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), the modified Romberg test, the Airplane test, the BioSway Balance System (Biodex, USA) and a dance-specific pirouette test. Results showed strongest relationships between some (SEBT) reach directions (p<0.01), but very weak to moderate relationships between some balance tests including some SEBT directions, Romberg, Airplane, Biosway, and pirouette (p<0.01 and p<0.05). Study 2 assessed associations between balance ability and dance performance comparing the five field tests from Study 1 to the same participants’ technique and repertoire performance scores in ballet, contemporary, and jazz genres. Results showed a low predictive association of balance ability on dance performance (p<0.01 and p<0.05). The first two studies demonstrated low predictive association between field tests and between balance ability and dance performance, suggesting limitations in the sensitivity of the tests for the dance population. Thus, studies 3 and 4 used a more functional tool to assess its sensitivity towards balance ability of the undergraduate population. Study 3 examined the effects of potential bilateral differences on dynamic postural stability during single-leg landing using a time to stabilisation protocol. Asymmetric training has been suggested in the literature but results showed that bilateral differences did not correlate with dancers’ balance ability; no significant differences were found in dynamic postural stability between the right and left leg and poor effect size was noted. Next, Study 4 examined the effects of fatigue using the same time to stabilisation protocol as Study 3. Fatigue has been associated with injury levels in dancers and balance ability in pre-professional dancers. Results showed that a fatigue condition (Dance Aerobic Fitness Test) had no significant effect on dancers’ postural stability or bilateral differences. Similar to the earlier studies, the functional test protocols in these two studies were limited to basic movements for dancers and lacked the sensitivity to measure variable postural control adaptations. Building on the findings of the first four studies, Study 5 developed a novel Accumulation Balance Score designed to gather data on postural stability and control in a variety of dance-specific settings. Results showed excellent interrater (ICC=0.963) and intrarater (0.992) reliability. Study 6 examined the effects of balance training on postural stability in a randomised trial. To capture postural control data, the Accumulation Balance Score was applied to the data. Results showed effects of training on some balance tasks: time (p=0.048), distance (p=0.004), and in various balances: arms (p=.014), legs (p=.016 and p=.001 and p=.042), and spine (p=.041 and p=.018). Post hoc tests revealed mixed findings between groups. Collectively, the results in this thesis revealed that current balance testing and training may not be functionally relevant for dancers with expertise in organising and patterning balance strategies. In contrast, aspects of novel dance-specific balance training may challenge dancers’ entrained responses, and the reliable Accumulation Balance Score can be applied to more novel approaches and protocols in assessing balance, more closely replicating embodied dance experience with ecological validity. For the first time, postural stability and postural control can be measured together in a balance assessment.
    • An examination of the emotional impact of the insertion of documentary footage into trauma cinema

      Badsey, Stephen; Pheasant-Kelly, Frances; Hockenhull, Stella; Yiassemides, Spyros C. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      This thesis proposes that trauma cinema fiction films based on true dramatic events stand to gain much from utilising specific nonfiction material in their staged narratives and, furthermore, enhance emotional affect for the spectator. It deploys David Bordwell’s and Kristin Thompson’s (2017) formalist film theory to textually analyse a range of films, while also considering the dialogue between journalistic approaches and contemporary critical reviews of the films examined. The aim of this study is to show that there are similarities between certain films in the embedding and utilisation of documentary footage within the narratives of these films and that the footage has the ability to invite an emotional response in audiences, depending on certain personal factors and conditions. In general, previous work in Film Studies links actuality in feature films to greater emotional affect but does so epidermically. In other words, it fails to examine how footage which is real and not staged affects the emotional dynamics of the narratives in which it is inserted. The focus of this study is specifically on the 9/11 sub-genre where, arguably, the utilisation of actuality material in these films is a useful technique for encouraging an emotional response. Three films belonging to the 9/11 sub-genre of trauma cinema are examined in this work where there are certain commonalities of theme and style. These are World Trade Center (Stone, 2006), United 93 (Greengrass, 2006) and Zero Dark Thirty (Bigelow, 2012). There is also an emergent pattern in the way that actuality footage is deployed within the three films’ narratives, namely through props such as television sets, which appears to influence how the associated nonfiction content is relayed. Arguably, this delivery of the footage is more easily assimilated by audiences familiar with this initial mode of communication of the events of 9/11. Theoretically, the results produced mean that filmmakers can utilise documentary inserts in the same effective way as other emotion-eliciting cinematic devices, such as close-ups, cut zoom ins, and poignant non-diegetic music, to augment the narrative engagement of the spectator and to enhance the experience. In summary, this thesis contributes to knowledge in that it identifies possible usage of documentary inserts in the narratives of feature films not previously considered and suggests ways in which the emotional potential of these inserts can be exposed therein. It therefore provides a new way to think about calibrating the emotional barometer of these films through heightening the realism of their storylines by making use of documentary inserts
    • The lived experiences of counselling psychologists working with black, asian and minority ethnic survivors of domestic violence and abuse: An interpretative phenomenological analysis study

      Taiwo, Abigail; Morgan, Angela; Kandola, Sharanjit (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-01)
      Rationale: Research has shown that therapists face difficulties when providing therapy to BAME survivors of DVA. Due to the complexities of this client group, it appears that specialist skills are required for therapists to utilise in therapy. Previous research has highlighted these challenges concerned with the therapists’ personal and professional issues. However, there has been relatively minimal research on exploring Counselling Psychologists’ experiences of working with BAME survivors of DVA. It is apparent that it would be useful to explore how Counselling Psychologists feel and the impact it may have on their personal and professional lives. Method: A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the Counselling Psychologists’ lived experiences of working with BAME survivors of DVA. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with five Counselling Psychologists who had worked with BAME survivors of DVA. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was utilised to analyse the data. Findings: There were five major themes that emerged from the interviews. These were: (i) understanding the needs of a Counselling Psychologist, (ii) the complexity of working with BAME survivors of DVA, (iii) the psychological impact on a Counselling Psychologist, (iv) the need for containment as a Counselling Psychologist and (v) the identity of a Counselling Psychologist. Conclusion: These themes highlighted the personal and professional impact this has on Counselling Psychologists and the multifaceted challenges that occur when working with BAME survivors of DVA. The different aspects of culture, core beliefs, pressures of family and wider community and identity can intertwine and impact the Counselling Psychologist and ultimately the therapeutic alliance. The psychological impact on the participants appeared to be prominent through experiencing vicarious trauma, fear for clients’ safety and frustration. Participants reported how difficult it was for them to manage and understand the clients’ perspectives, therefore suggestions were made for further specialist cultural training, clinical and peer supervision, alongside self-care.
    • ‘This is about an ordinary average life with all its ups and downs’: Continuity and change in the life and family experiences of fifty English working-class individuals between the years 1900 and 1945

      Ugolini, Laura; Ball, Rebecca Mary (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      This thesis is a study of the everyday lives of fifty working-class individuals in the first half of the twentieth century. These twenty-six women and twenty-four men were all born between 1899 and 1915 in England and self-identified as working class. These individuals were not politicians, influential historical figures or famous household names – such life histories have been recounted on many occasions – rather these are ‘ordinary average’ people, whose unpublished autobiographies this thesis draws upon to offer an insight into the everyday struggles, sacrifices and triumphs that the working class experienced between the years 1900 and 1945. By taking a microhistorical approach and focusing on this sample of fifty life stories, this thesis sheds light on wartime life, the impact of social change and the continued importance of working-class family values during the first half of the twentieth century. It uses these autobiographies to question the assumption that living through a period that witnessed two world wars would automatically equate to a life that was completely overshadowed by them. It also challenges the often accepted idea that wider social changes such as educational reform, the opening up of new employment opportunities and the fertility decline would have necessarily affected each working-class individual, suggesting instead that whilst change in these areas had certainly occurred by the end of the twentieth century, it was often too late to affect the lives of these autobiographers. Instead, the autobiographies suggest that the working-class lives were shaped by other issues of significance, most notably domesticity and the family life cycle. The thesis’ chapters focus on the five topics that the autobiographers most frequently discussed: death, absence, family relationships, consumption (with a particular focus on leisure, food and housing), and education and employment opportunities. The reminiscences on these topics revealed much that confirmed existing academic insights into working-class life between the years 1900 and 1945, including the importance of domestic ideals to working-class family life and the continued popularity of marriage as an institution Yet, importantly, as this thesis argues, they also revealed a variety of differing, although equally relevant and noteworthy experiences that have thus far been overlooked. These include a distinct lack of war-related deaths or war-related absences of immediate family members despite living through two conflicts, the subtle shift towards a companionate style of marriage and the significance of expectations of the working-class family life cycle in responses to instances of death or absence.