• Intentional forgetting of emotional memories in the item-method directed forgetting task

      Mercer, Tom; Hinton, Danny; Darby, Richard; Ahmed, Sumera (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Forgetting is often viewed as a nuisance, but research has indicated that forgetting is an adaptive process that works to remove irrelevant information (Bjork,1989). Such 'intentional’ forgetting concerns the active removal of information from memory, with evidence coming from the Think/No-Think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2004) and most importantly the Directed Forgetting paradigm (Bjork, 1970). The Directed Forgetting paradigm assesses intentional forgetting through the use of two cues (Remember and Forget) and a majority of studies suggest a successful inhibition of the 'Forget' items in comparison to the 'Remember' items. However, there is a long-term dispute within research in regard to valence and intentional forgetting. Specifically, it is unclear whether directed forgetting is reduced for emotional stimuli, in comparison to neutral stimuli. In the current thesis, Directed Forgetting was tested in six experiments and consistently reported when retrieval was assessed through free recall. The Directed Forgetting effect also applied to emotional material. However, valence differences for the 'Remember' cue (positive vs negative) were greater than the differences found for the 'Forget' cue. This suggests that both positive and negative words can be successfully forgotten. Additionally, factors such as time (Chapters 2, 3 and 5), individual differences (Chapters 4 [sex differences] and 5 [mood and emotional reactivity]) and stimuli characteristics (Chapters 5 [concreteness] and 7 [word type]) had a minimal impact on Directed Forgetting. The experiments within this thesis have been successful in highlighting DF within free recall. Yet when a cued recall procedure was used, the DF effect was abolished, and there actually seemed to be a form of inverted DF for negative words. Lastly, limitations, theoretical implications and future directions are considered in Chapter 8 (the general discussion).
    • An investigation of client loyalty in the construction professional services sector

      Hampton, Paul; Williams, Nicholas Michael (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      Construction professional services (CPS) suppliers perform several vital roles in the construction industry. Arguably, their success (and, in hard times, their survival) is determined by the loyalty of their clients. Loyal clients provide a reliable stream of revenue and help generate new business for CPS suppliers by providing recommendations and referrals. However, prior to this research, there were no known empirical studies which investigated CPS client loyalty. Using evidence obtained from a literature review, a conceptual model was developed that identified the key-candidate service-related antecedents of client loyalty. A phase of qualitative research was carried out using purposeful and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were arranged with 20 respondents, with these being a mix of CPS clients and suppliers. The resulting data were subject to thematic analysis, and the conceptual model of CPS-client loyalty was refined based on the findings. A phase of quantitative research was carried out to test the degree to which the qualitative research findings could be generalised to the wider CPS-client population. This involved a survey, and analysis of the data using factor analysis and hypothesis testing using multiple regression. This was itself followed up using a phase of member checking with a group of experts to validate and help explain some discrepant findings. This research has made several contributions to knowledge. It provides empirical support for the existence of a multidimensional form of commitment in a CPS supplier-client context. It is the first known research to identify what CPS suppliers should focus on to be able to build and benefit from client loyalty. The results showed that service quality was the antecedent most strongly associated with loyalty. Affective commitment was found to be next in importance. A weak-but-significant relationship with locked-in commitment was also identified. It should be noted that sampling during both qualitative and quantitative phase of research was restricted to respondents from the UK Midlands. Therefore, there are limits to which the findings can be generalised beyond this geographical region. In summary, CPS suppliers are advised to focus first and foremost on fulfilling their clients’ rational desire for a high level of service quality. However, to achieve optimum levels of client loyalty, they should be mindful of the power of personal relationships between their employees and their clients. In this respect, they are advised to avoid rotating their account representatives where healthy relations and rapport are evident.
    • Nurses’ views on compassionate care: a study using Q methodology

      Gutteridge, Robin; Bond, Carol; Philp, Ann (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      Compassion and compassionate care are identified as essential elements in nursing. They enhance quality care, wellbeing, and the overall quality of patients’ lives. However, incidents of substandard care have highlighted inherent tensions between competing professional and organisational demands in a rapidly changing workplace. This research investigated nurses’ views of the promoters and inhibitors of provision and maintenance of compassionate care. Participants were third year student nurses and qualified nurses in a large inner-city Trust hospital. An integrative literature review revealed three overarching themes that impact on nurses’ ability to provide and maintain compassionate care. Sumner’s (2008a) Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action Theory (MCCNCAT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Q methodology supported the investigation of subjectivity within an interpretive design. 54 statements were developed from the literature review and focus group participation, representing the breadth of debate on compassion and compassionate care. Participants (n=30) rank-ordered these statements onto a quasi-normal distribution grid (the Q sort). They provided post Q sort data via Report Sheets and semi-structured interviews; thematic analysis was used to explore interview data. Completed Q sorts were analysed using correlation and by-person factor analysis, resulting in two distinct factors. Some participants shared commonalities across factors and did not contribute to the construction of the factor estimates. Remaining participants (n=18) included student nurses (n=10) and qualified nurses (n=8). Compassionate care was found to be complex, interconnected, and multifaceted. There was consensus from student nurses and qualified nurses in the three overarching themes: • Personal/relational – Improved patient outcomes impact positively on patients and motivate nurses to provide compassionate care. Satisfaction gained from providing compassionate care creates a virtuous circle, enhancing wellbeing, personal motivation, professional commitment, and job performance. It supports collegial relationships and positive patient outcomes. • Organisational – Organisations must promote compassionate care, supporting nurses and providing necessary resources. Managers, leaders, mentors, and colleagues should demonstrate compassion towards patients and staff. Developing and supporting a culture of compassion can counter factors that inhibit compassionate care. Nurses should be encouraged to develop self-compassion, which promotes their own wellbeing. • Educational – Nurses’ clinical experiences should be connected to teaching and learning. This means replacing inappropriate didactic, classroom-based education with approaches that are experiential and creative, using strengthened links with practice, so that learning is relevant to the reality of clinical practice. These findings were incorporated in an explanatory diagram, underpinned by MCCNCAT (Sumner 2008a) which makes visible the dynamics involved and strategies that build and sustain compassionate care.
    • Producing the translators of tomorrow: designing a student-centred and competence-based translation curriculum for Saudi universities

      Almugharbil, Sara Mohammed (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      The main aim of this research project is to investigate the extent to which translation courses in Saudi Arabia adequately prepare students to take up careers as professional translators according to current market needs. Saudi Vision 2030 acknowledges that graduates must be able to operate at a professional level of competence in order to be competitive in terms of employability. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the translation skills and competences of graduates of translation courses in Saudi Arabia and, more broadly, in the Arabic-speaking world. Using a Saudi case study, this research explores how competency-based course content can be combined with analysis of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives and a review of research, policies, and best practice to identify potential gaps between undergraduate translator training approaches and the needs of the translation industry. Primary data has been collected by surveying four samples: a sample of staff teaching translation modules at Saudi Universities, a sample of students and graduates of EFL and translation at Saudi universities as well as a sample of some of the top employers in Saudi Arabia. The data gathered is intended to help the course designers and educational practitioners in developing translation skills curricula through evidence-based recommendations. By implementing them, universities can more closely align the translation components of undergraduate degree programmes with the needs of the market, thereby enhancing graduates’ employability. The results shed light on the changes that have to be made in the current provision and existing teaching practices, curricula, and student skill sets in Saudi universities. These changes could improve the course design and teaching of translation so that these universities can produce graduates with the necessary vocationally oriented profile to work in the translation sector. This research can also help to inform education policy in the HE sector in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region overall.
    • Parameterized monads in linguistics

      Le, An Ha; Viet, Ha Bui (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      This dissertation follows the formal semantics approach to linguistics. It applies recent developments in computing theories to study theoretical linguistics in the area of the interaction between semantics and pragmatics and analyzes several natural language phenomena by parsing them in these theories. Specifically, this dissertation uses parameterized monads, a particular theoretical framework in category theory, as a dynamic semantic framework to reinterpret the compositional Discourse Representation Theory(cDRT), and to provide an analysis of donkey anaphora. Parameterized monads are also used in this dissertation to interpret information states as lists of presuppositions, and as dot types. Alternative interpretations for demonstratives and imperatives are produced, and the conventional implicature phenomenon in linguistics substantiated, using the framework. Interpreting donkey anaphora shows that parameterized monads is able to handle the sentential dependency. Therefore, this framework shows an expressive power equal to that of related frameworks such as the typed logical grammar and the dynamic predicate logic. Interpreting imperatives via parameterized monads also provides a compositional dynamic semantic analysis which is one of the main approaches to analysing imperatives.
    • An exploration of English and Swedish pre-school teachers’ perspectives on their roles and values

      Bartram, Brendan; Stanley, Faye (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-07)
      This comparative investigation aims to explore the values of an English and a Swedish pre-school teacher, focusing on their roles and the experiences they provide for three and four-year-old children. Values are beliefs held by individuals to which they attach special worth or priority (Hill, 1991); and this research recognises that values are personalised and shaped by the social, cultural and political contexts in which the teachers are situated and as a prism through which practice is realised. This thesis examines growing international research evidence in the field of early childhood education (ECE) that has shown that high quality early childhood education is linked to teacher qualification and pedagogic approach, which has a significant impact on children’s learning outcomes (Sylva et al., 2010). The literature examined affirms that early years practitioners’ underlying beliefs and the transmission of values must be scrutinised through critical reflection and made ‘explicit’ and brought to the surface to transform early years practitioners’ practice (Brookfield, 2017). Two ‘day in the life of’ videos were filmed (in a Swedish and an English pre-school) using polyvocal ethnography (Tobin and Hayashi, 2012) to capture two teachers’ multiple ‘voices’ in an attempt to ascertain their values through ongoing dialogue, telling and retelling of their ‘stories’ provoked by their reflections on the video footage. The videos provided data which were used to elicit thick, rich reflections. The findings revealed many similarities in the teachers’ values, especially regarding relationships, a play-based pedagogy, valuing parents as partners, the layout of the environment and types of resources utilised, valuing the voice and rights of the child alongside the role of the adult in terms of nurturing children’s independence, knowing the children, and modelling. There were more pronounced differences, however, with regard to the teachers’ views on how children learn and the role of the adult. It is concluded that these differences are shaped by the underpinning educational policy and the curricula in the teachers’ respective countries. This investigation has generated a framework entitled ‘situated pedagogy’, based on the thinking of Habermas (1987) and Rogoff (2003), which offers early years practitioners the opportunity to make their values more visible through the lens of their daily pedagogical practices, taking into consideration the societal, political and cultural contexts in which they are based.
    • Point of failure: British Army brigadiers in the British Expeditionary Force and North Western Expeditionary Force, 1940 - A study of advancement and promotion

      Buckley, John; McCarty, Philip John (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      By the summer of 1940 the British Army had suffered two simultaneous strategic defeats in Norway and France. Both had led to hurried and ignominious evacuations. A popular misconception contends that this led to a wholesale clearing out of the British Army’s command structure in order to start again, and that many officers suffered the loss of their careers in the necessity to rebuild an army both to withstand invasion and enable victory over Nazi Germany. This thesis contends that this belief is misplaced, and that rather than automatically ending the careers of all involved, some officers would progress and even thrive after 1940 in varying degrees. Its basis is a group of officers, brigadiers, on the cusp of either progression to general’s rank, stagnation or demotion. The careers of these officers are examined to establish whether or not factors including education, regiment, staff qualifications and so on influenced their professional survival. The work also considers whether the presence or absence of influence was responsible for an officer’s progression through the war after 1940. This thesis also examines those brigadiers serving in fighting commands in the initial stages of the Battle of Normandy in 1944. This is to compare a group on the cusp of winning a war with one close to its loss. The conclusion will be that the degree of change between the types of officer serving was not as radical as might have previously been supposed.
    • Added value through design for healthcare facilities/buildings in Saudi Arabia within the legislative regulations of Saudi Arabia

      Arif, Mohammed; Fadel, Bedour A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-03)
      High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. A healthcare facility with an environment that is user centered, welcoming, and accessible, while also supporting staff and patient privacy and security has been found to enhance medical outcomes, and patient and staff comfort and well-being, which in turn have a positive effect on medical outcomes. The use of Evidence Based Designhas been shown to be of benefit to add value through design to a building . A comprehensive review of relevant literature was used to develop an understanding of the factors perceived to add value to a healthcare facility. Data were derived from two instruments an expert survey and a group AHP pairwise comparison survey. The findings of the first instrument resulted in validation of the factors, both directly and indirectly related to design, proposed in the literature and added insight into some culturally specific perceptions of factors which add value to a healthcare facility. The second instrument was a pairwise comparison of the six main design criteria and 25 related sub-factors to gain a multi-user perspective of their priority in adding value. The results from the first expert survey of the factors found in the literature and the AHP pairwise comparison survey were synthesized to develop a proposed framework to add value to healthcare facilities through building design . The framework was developed with consideration of factors indirectly impacted by design in addition to the design factors themselves. The proposed framework has six main criteria of Risk and Safety, Accessibility and Way-finding, Functionality, Cultural factors , Aesthetics, Comfort and Well-being and Cost with 25 sub-factors directly related to design of varied priority ranking found to add value to a healthcare facility within the Saudi Cultural context and presented in order of priority weighting . These were then related to their impact on the factors which add value to a healthcare facility which have been shown to be indirectly related to the healthcare facility design. Findings suggest that while perceptions of factors that add value are mostly in agreement with those found in other studies, that there are some culturally specific factors that need to be considered in order to design facilities that provide the greatest value, including patient rooms of a size and design that allow for a caretaker to be present and to accommodate for a large number of visitors, In addition, there is a need to consider the direction for the prayer and the need for signage to indicate it in the room layout. They also suggest that added value through design can have a positive effect on medical outcomes and the satisfaction and well-being of staff and patients.
    • The long and winding road to reflexology: A post-structural narrative inquiry

      Edwards Price, Sally (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Background: Reflexology has suffered a troubled and tumultuous journey travelling a long and winding road, experiencing times of interest and intrigue alongside suspicion and doubt. This study explores the topic through a post-structural lens to discover new possibilities for the discipline. Methodology: The research design used a narrative inquiry and emerged a Derridean theoretical approach encompassing some of the key concepts of Jacques Derrida’s writings (Derrida, 2016, 1993, 1982, 1978). It concerns poetical notions of text, context and intertextuality as a backdrop to re-explore traditional stories told by five prominent reflexologists accompanied by an autobiographical story. Using narrative inquiry, it explored how narratives allow reflexologists to perform and make heard the whispered voices in order to let reflexology stories (the reflexstories) breathe (Frank, 2012). Findings: This study firstly, at a textual level, uncovered the literature surrounding reflexology (the reflexliterature) proffering an evolution of the therapy and secondly, for context, embraced the methodology of narrative inquiry, eliciting synchronic narratives. Beatles song titles have been used as headings, bringing into focus my own intertextuality to capture the spirit of Derridean thought which emerged during the era reflexology was presenting as a popular practice. The study contributes to furthering the body of knowledge of reflexology by providing personal narratives and poems for pedagogic application and explores emerging cultural and dialogical accounts of the modality in order to find possibilities for practice rather than affording truth claims on its efficacy and effectiveness. Moreover, it offers a theoretical model for the application of a schema of critical questioning so as to expose the metaphysical assumptions of the subject in question which revealed reflexology as a spectre in healthcare. Recommendations: A standardised data collection tool could be developed to replace the use of many varied questionnaires within the research on reflexology and the numerous reflexology associations could try again, to converge and adopt one collective organisation. Reflexology could be utilised in other areas of healthcare identified in the literature rather than only the current provision. Finally, the theoretical model could be exploited for other subjects in order to interrogate the hierarchies, dichotomies and binary oppositions which are present within the topic of inquiry.
    • Suggestion support system for healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia: an assessment framework

      Arif, Mohammed; Khusheim, Lina H. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      Saudi Arabia has developed an ambitious vision, Vision 2030, where the healthcare industry is one of the significant focus areas, making the healthcare industry more efficient and effective is crucial to attracting the private sector and making this vision a reality. Therefore, improving healthcare organisations' performance and competitiveness is necessary to achieve this sector's vision. In such a continuous improvement journey, suggestion systems can be considered an essential continuous improvement tool that identifies the industry's shortfalls and allows for potential future opportunities. It was found that the classical suggestion systems’ development process is subject to human behaviour that might discourage overall participation. Thus, interactive and straightforward systems will encourage productive participation. Furthermore, a study showed that employee creativity and positive engagement remain crucial in successful suggestion system implementation. Therefore, simplicity is considered the critical success factor in any suggestion system development and implementation process. The goal of this study is to develop an assessment framework for Saudi healthcare suggestion systems. A thorough review of the literature highlighted eighteen variables that act as drivers for the suggestion system's success. To account for a technology evaluation parameter, we adopted Nielson's definition of usability. He defines usability as a phenomenon that consists of five major factors: learnability, efficiency, memorability, error recovery, and satisfaction. A further understanding of the relationships between the suggestion system drivers and the adopted technical evaluation parameter's definition are investigated. A questionnaire on the eighteen variables was conducted, and 138 responses were collected. Based on a series of scientific analyses, the researcher identified three significant latent factors affecting the usability of a healthcare suggestion system: the Personal factor, System and Institutional factor, and Social Support factor. A maturity model with three levels of maturity was developed. The first level was defined as Low level, the second level was defined as a Medium level, and the third level was the High one. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was performed to prioritise variables within each construct and among the three latent factors. AHP showed that the most critical factor is the Personal factor, followed by the System and Institutional factor, and then the Social Support factor. The first latent factor, the Personal one, includes the following suggestion system success variables: Reward, Ease of Use, Clear Scope, Autonomy, Trust, anonymity, Problem Solving, and Feedback. Under the second latent factor, System and Institutional, the success variables are Resources, Supervisor Support, Training, Publicity, Colleague Support, Compliance, and Equality. While the Social Support factor listed variables are Social Media and Social Networking. In order to test the developed model, two Saudi healthcare facilities were investigated. Furthermore, the developed model was found useful not only in assessing the current state of their suggestion systems but also in identifying the potential improvement opportunities. Having a prioritised list ensures that organisations can focus on improving factors that have a higher impact on the overall usability of the system.
    • Attitudes and behaviours of user groups on Cannock Chase area of outstanding natural beauty

      Dale, Crispin; Jackaman, Clare (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Increasing amounts of leisure time and more availability of income following postrecessional financial issues have contributed towards growing public usage of free parkland areas, such as Cannock Chase Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, putting such areas under pressure from environmental issues. The behaviours of users of parklands have been extensively researched, with scarce attention to the investigation of underpinning attitudes. Of available theory, Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (1985) model and Dunlap et al.’s (2000) New Ecological Paradigm scale are arguably the most effective in identifying and measuring the link between attitude and behaviour. The aim of the present programme of study was to explore user and non-user attitudes to environmental issues and then develop and test an intervention to increase awareness and pro-environmental attitudes. Baseline data involved data collection from 701 users and 210 non-users. Participants completed both attitudinal questionnaires and users took part in semi-structured interviews. Baseline data analysis indicated user group participants reported low proenvironmental attitude scores, suggesting room for improvement. In terms of improving pro-environmental attitudes, studies show educational interventions are highly effective, with simultaneous use of multiple emotional appeals used in an online format. Content analysis of existing AONB intervention posters and leaflets were used to develop an image based poster intervention. Intervention was emailed to participants with an initial questionnaire (n=234). Over a six month longitudinal study, participants repeated questionnaire completion at months two (n=196) and six (n=210). Results indicated pro-environmental attitudes all improved initially from baseline, then all decreased at month two, and largely increased from month two to month six. Females, higher qualified, middle income, car users, photographers, nature activities and runners were among the most pro-environmental postintervention. Mood data identified all emotions built into poster were experienced, therefore improvements were influenced by the intervention. Viewed collectively, results indicate that the study has identified poster interventions are an inexpensive, easy and effective method of improving pro-environmental attitudes. Research has shown poster method can be used by subject specialists and non-specialists; such an intervention is scalable and potentially effective. Future research is needed to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of scalable interventions to improve proenvironmental attitudes
    • Designing play equipment to develop the social competence of children with cerebral palsy

      Harrison, Dew; Niedderer, Kristina; Rozsahegyi, Tunde; Borzenkova, Ganna (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      This study investigated the design of play equipment for encouraging peer-to-peer social interactions amongst children with cerebral palsy aged from 4 to 6 years, as a means of developing their social competence. The focus was on developing a new conceptual model and criteria for designing this specialist play equipment and, thus, creating a level playing field for children with different manifestations of cerebral palsy. According to the statistics of the National Health Service, it is estimated that approximately 1 in 400 children is born with cerebral palsy in the UK (NHS, 2017). It is recognised that these children often have reduced social engagement, yet socialisation plays a fundamental role in development. In spite of this, there are few toys specifically developed for children with cerebral palsy and even fewer which support peer socialisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop relational play equipment for them. The research presented here is interdisciplinary and informed by a social perspective on disability. It combined theoretical investigation with design practice within an action-research approach. User-centred design was used for the design development and intervention. Observations of children with cerebral palsy and interviews with their parents and conductors were employed for collecting data about the children’s social interactions before and during the design intervention in order to determine the effectiveness of the proposed concept. Data collection was carried out at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, England. A conceptual design model of play equipment for enhancing the social competence in children with cerebral palsy was developed. The model focused on designing semiotic content that could trigger cognitive, emotional, social and physical processes to encourage children to participate in relational play and facilitate peer-to-peer social interactions. Based on this model, design criteria were developed, integrating two interrelated sets of indicators. The first set pertained to the design position and comprised child-friendly design criteria. The second pertained to the social purpose, comprising indicators of social competence, such as social skills and self-confidence. Based on these criteria, a number of design ideas were developed, using ideation, intuitive hand sketching and brainstorming. A final idea of the thematic play environment, “Undersea Friends”, which corresponded best to the conceptual model of play equipment and met most of the design criteria and recommendations from parents and conductors, was chosen for the design intervention. “Undersea Friends” consists of the toys intended for practising particular social skills, where each toy in the play space is a creature-friend and a facilitator of children’s interactions. These toys are Octopush Olly for practising turn taking, Hexapush Hetty for practising cooperation and Larry Long Legs for sharing. Two prototype toys for this environment were developed and evaluated with children with cerebral palsy for the purposes of this study. This completed study highlights the difficulties which children with cerebral palsy may experience with peer interactions while playing. It provides a new understanding of the development of social competence through engaging children in relational play, facilitated by specialist play equipment, as well as the prototype toys of the play environment, “Undersea Friends”. This research contributes to understanding of how designers can approach the creation of such play equipment by providing design criteria, design recommendations and suggestions for further investigation.
    • Designing in creativity: an investigation into the role of creativity in graphic design

      Arya, Rina; Meachem, Carol (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      Graphic design practice is currently entrenched within a process-driven, formulaic approach to design that is time constrained and closely aligned with the working practices of the business environment. This approach is not conducive to creativity. Although design institutions recognise the call from UK governments for increased creativity and innovation in support of economic, social, and cultural initiatives the current commodification of knowledge, developed in response to the needs of business and industry, has its limitations. There is today a tension in the academic community between the pursuit of creative practice as a valuable entity in itself and the preparation of graduates for employment. There is a growing concern within the industry at the educational marginalisation of creativity within the design process in an attempt to remain current with technological and professional skilling. The intellectual and theoretical underpinning of graphic design is weak with little scholarly debate in relation to creativity and critical thinking. The aim of this research therefore is to support future practice and educational initiatives by developing a new theoretical and contextual framework from which to engage with both industry and education. Utilising a mixed method approach together with the insider/outsider status of the researcher working as both a design practitioner and design educator the research addresses the following questions: what is the role of creativity in graphic design? Why is creativity important to graphic design education and industry practice? How can creativity be facilitated within graphic design education and industry practice? A small-scale qualitative online survey was conducted initially in the form of a targeted emailed questionnaire. It collected opinions, knowledge, and experiences from 9 universities within the UK Higher Education sector and a small number of industry practitioners. The aim was to gain insights from a cross-section of individuals most likely to have special knowledge about the research topic and provide a snapshot of how things are currently. The study built on these insights by considering creativity in different contexts and demonstrates through substantial critical investigation and analysis the theoretical and contextual knowledge underpinning discussions in relation to creativity. It explores the significance of creativity as a term and an activity in graphic design. It examines possible explanations for the marginalisation of creativity in graphic design by looking at the historical precedents for the split between the fine and applied arts and the impact that this has had on the way that design has been taught and practiced. The findings confirm that understanding the role of creativity within practice is fundamental to ensuring that graphic design remains relevant in twenty first century culture and society. However, what creativity is and the various forms it can take may be different to what is currently recognised by education and industry practice.
    • A framework for adopting solar energy governance in the Nigerian power sector

      Suresh, Subashini; Abdullahi, Dahiru (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      The Nigerian economy is almost exclusively dependent on oil and gas as more than 80% of its revenue is currently generated from this sector. However, lack of stable electricity from all sources has impacted the socio-economic growth over a long period of time. This research explores the drivers, barriers and benefits of implementing solar energy strategies. In doing so, a framework for adopting solar energy governance in the Nigerian power sector was developed based on literature review and findings from the semi-structured interview held with 25 top management officials of solar energy stakeholders in Nigeria. The philosophical position of this research is inductive approach and interpretivist paradigm. The qualitative data collection method was employed, data were interpreted and analysed using content analysis. Interpretive Structure Modelling (ISM) was used further to analyse the barriers for solar energy implementation in Nigeria. The study revealed that socio-cultural aspects, lack of financing and lack of awareness of the technology are the key barriers that has slowed the implementation of solar energy strategies. The power sector reform Act’s energy mix, synergy of private and public sector and lack of access to electricity were revealed as the key drivers for solar energy strategies to be implemented. While economic and environmental aspects were identified as key benefits for solar energy implementation. This identification and interconnectivity of the parameters helped in the development and evaluation of a framework for adopting solar energy governance in the Nigerian power sector.
    • The remarkable everyday lives of people with hidden dis/ability: a material-semiotic analysis

      Goldschmied, Anita Z. (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-12)
      My research concentrates on conditions including autism, intellectual disability and mental health. I explore the ways they are used to establish the divisions required by diagnostic criteria in the separated health and social approaches to care. Defining conditions rather than performances has resulted in a neglect of the consideration of connectivity. My project employs Actor-Network-Theory, and Latour’s and Baudrillard’s philosophy, to reconsider the specific metaphysical and ontological issues of how, when and why we judge hidden dis/ability as a universal and essential thing, rather than one constantly formed and performed (perFormed), solved and dissolved (disSolved), produced and reproduced (reProduced) by diverse human and non-human actors in complex webs of connections. I composed the 6D material-semiotic network practice to offer a new ontological ‘seeing’ of how the associations and significations of hidden dis/ability are produced, represented and thus consumed. I found that exploring the everyday performances of hidden dis/ability with the 6D material-semiotic network practice might not verify the apparently universal, fragmented and permanent notions that the distinct categories imply. I conclude that hidden dis/ability can be considered as in a constant state of transformation which, when people are left to their own devices, composes capacities for shared cultural experiences and practices dismantling long-held ideas, and will be one of the benefits giving opportunities to rethink how we provide apposite care, services and inclusion for the conditions.
    • Regulation of VEGF-activated signalling by the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 in endothelial cells

      Armesilla, Angel; Immanuel, Reshma Naomi Ranjit (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      INTRODUCTION: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. It is a tightly regulated processes involving pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. Deregulation of this process is associated with aberrant blood vessel formation (excessive or insufficient) in several human pathologies. Among the many pro-angiogenic factors promoting angiogenesis, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been characterised as a major regulator of both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Therefore, the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate VEGF-induced angiogenesis is essential to develop therapeutic strategies that correct abnormal angiogenesis. In this sense, our group has previously reported a negative role for the Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4) protein in endothelial cells, acting via inhibition of the pro-angiogenic calcineurin/NFAT signalling pathway. However, we hypothesise that other intracellular pathways might be regulated by PMCA4 in endothelial cells during VEGF stimulation of angiogenesis. METHODS: To identify PMCA4 regulated pro-angiogenic signalling pathways, we have screened gene arrays related to Notch signalling or extracellular matrix-Cell Adhesion Molecule (ECM-CAM) pathway using RNA isolated from PMCA4-silenced (or control) HUVEC. Changes in gene expression after PMCA4 knockdown have been further validated by TaqMan-based qPCR in HUVEC or HDMEC. RNA levels of PMCA4 in aging HUVEC were analysed by TaqMan qPCR using RNA isolated from HUVEC cultured from different passages (from 3 to 15 passages). RESULTS: siRNA-mediated PMCA4 knockdown led to increased expression of Notch ligand DLL1 and Notch target gene Hey1 in VEGF-stimulated HUVEC. Expression of the transcription factor c-Fos was also elevated after PMCA4 knockdown in HUVEC stimulated with VEGF for 1h. Analysis of a gene array containing genes encoding extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules revealed that PMCA4 silencing alters the basal expression of P-Selectin and L-Selectin in HUVEC. The expression of other genes in the array like, ADAMTS-1, E-Selectin, and VCAM-1, was affected by lack of PMCA4, but only when cells were stimulated with VEGF. Examination of changes in the expression of these genes in PMCA4-silenced HUVEC or HDMEC showed differences indicating that PMCA4 might differentially regulate these genes in different sub-types of endothelial cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that PMCA4 negatively regulates Notch signaling pathway, and it is required for proper synthesis of ECM-CAM molecules. A first step to investigate the expression of PMCA4 in endothelial cells during aging has shown that PMCA4 mRNA levels increase along cell culture passage in HUVEC. However, this initial result requires further verification of changes in PMCA4 protein levels and/or in other cellular types to conclude that PMCA4 expression increases with aging.
    • The development of British First World War remembrance on the battlefield from 1914 to 1929

      Badsey, Stephen; Gregor, Simon (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-12)
      This thesis explores the role of Western Front battlefield landscapes between 1914 and 1929 in shaping memories of the First World War. It asks who visited the battlefields during the conflict, what impressions they formed, how they communicated these to others, and what influence these initial views had on post-war conceptions of the battlefield landscape. It explores how post-war visitors were guided to and through the battlefields, both by guidebooks and by tour operators, and how these sought to influence individual experiences. It examines how individual visitors sometimes went outside the framework of tours and published itineraries, and made their own attempts to connect with personal memories enshrined in the landscape. Section A of the thesis examines the itineraries offered by published guidebooks – firstly in the well-known Michelin guidebooks translated from the French, and secondly in the less widely-recognised British-authored guidebooks of the 1920s. Section B explores writing about the battlefields during the conflict itself, both through short articles in an Anglo-American periodical, and through full-length wartime books published by four influential authors – Rudyard Kipling, Edith Wharton, John Masefield and Harry Lauder. Section C turns to the experiences of individual travellers, and the extent to which they followed or departed from the itineraries and experiences to which these published sources directed them. The thesis argues that over the period 1914-29 there was a gradual but significant shift in what visitors focussed on within the battlefield landscape as it was tidied and reconstructed – a shift from battlefields themselves towards cemeteries and memorials. However, it argues that alongside this trend, visitors experienced a growing urgency, notwithstanding the clearing of battlefields, to find moments of reconnection with an authentic battlefield landscape which was seen as enshrining deeply personal memories. It shows that for veterans, this often involved connecting with sites which held real wartime memories, whilst for non-combatants it was much more about connecting with a landscape of the imagination. In particular, this thesis challenges the conventional narrative that the most important changes to landscape in the post-war period were the construction of cemeteries and memorials, arguing that just as important in the formation of cultural memory were the organic changes to the wider battlefield landscape.
    • An exploration into the use of monitoring & evaluation by third sector sports themed employability charities to evidence a social impact

      Corrigan, Craig; Medcalf, Richard; Biscomb, Kay; Sellars, Chris (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-01)
      The third sector is under increasing demand to evidence the social impact that it achieves, especially as the government imposes greater financial restrictions (Harlock, 2013). Sport has been used by the third sector as a vehicle to attempt to achieve numerous objectives (Coalter, 2011). These objectives have included, amongst many more, combating crime, stopping racism and integrating immigrants (Coalter, 2011). This research focuses on third sector organisations that use sport to improve employability skills for young people (Roberts, 2016). The mystical power of sport to aid employability skills has been scrutinised for numerous years, without comprehensive results (Spaaij, Magee & Jeanes, 2013). Utilising a qualitative approach, this thesis aims to explore how through the use of Monitoring & Evaluation (M & E), sports themed employability charities can greater evidence their social impact (Arvidson, 2009). The qualitative research initiates with nationwide semi-structured interviews that offer in an in-depth exploration into the demand and realities faced within the third sector (McNiff, 2007). An Action Research period totalling twelve months explores further the realities of working within the third sector and investigates the findings revealed within the nationwide interviews. The Action Research period, completed at a Midlands based sports for good charity, produces immersive data acquired through interviews, observations and fieldwork (Anderson & Herr, 2005). The results identify that the third sector is under serious pressure to evidence impact, and is adjusting to a payments by results culture (Hyndman, 2017). The power struggles between funders, management teams and delivery teams to collate and showcase data for impact are identified (Foucault, 1982). The results expose that M & E can be extremely difficult, especially when attempting to collect data in challenging environments. The expectancy of M & E data collection differs greatly from the reality (Morgan & Costas Battle, 2016). The Action Research element of the thesis offers improvements, both short and long-term, to the host charity, through a collaborative method (Whitehead & McNiff, 2006). The thesis concludes by reviewing the impact of the Action Research at the host charity.
    • Characterisation of mechanically alloyed feedstock for laser-powder bed fusion: titanium silicon carbide metal matrix composite

      Lyall, Iain (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-03)
      The research presented investigates the characterisation of new materials for the additive manufacturing (AM) industry. Herein, a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a titanium (Ti6Al4V) matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) is characterised. The research investigated an innovative and novel feedstock production process involving elements of mechanical alloying, tailored to the requirements of the layer based additive manufacturing (ALM) process. Systematic evaluation and subsequent characterisation of process parameters including laser power, scan speed and hatch spacing are presented. A new and novel experimental route is discussed. Detailed findings are presented with a robust methodology for producing elemental feedstock in small batch sizes, and process parameter characterisation for in-situ alloying for laser bed fusion. Evidence showed that acceptable parameters could be found for mechanical alloying with a rotational speed of 500 rev/min and an alloying time of twenty-four minutes that showed minimal and acceptable changes in size and morphology, therefore enabling the feedstock to be used within the Laser-Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) process also referred to as Powder Bed Fusion (PBF). New knowledge is presented in the form of experimental methodologies, namely single bead evaluation in relation to energy density, the evaluation and comparison of single beads, the use of mini-chambers to experiment with reduced levels of feedstock, the two-rail system to accurately deliver powder for single layer experimentation and equations developed to calculate energy density for single beads and the maximum volume of reinforcement material achievable from particle size data. MMC material was successfully synthesised due to the use of the methodologies described, with silicon carbide (SiC), silicon oxide (SiO2) and titanium silicide (Ti5Si4) detected as chemical compositions within the sample.
    • The evolution of infantry brigade command in the British Army on the Western Front, 1916-1918

      Sheffield, Gary; Wood, Roger (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-10)
      This thesis challenges the orthodox view that the role of the infantry brigade command of the British Army during the First World War was unduly narrow. Instead, it is argued that the response of the brigadiers and their staff to the challenges of the Western Front secured their role as agents of organisational and tactical change. A series of case studies over the period 1916-1918 serve to demonstrate the significant contribution of brigade staff to the Army’s learning process. Much like that of the wider BEF however, this process was complex and uneven. As a consequence, the development and battlefield performance of the brigades varied in accordance with factors of an external and internal nature: of these, the influence of the corps or division under which a brigade served was fundamental.