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  • Involving People With Intellectual Disabilities Within Research Teams: Lessons Learned from an Irish Experience

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; Chadwick, Darren; National Institute for Intellectual Disability; Trinity College Dublin; Dublin Ireland; Centre for Developmental Disabilities Studies; University of Sydney; Sydney New South Wales Australia; University of Wolverhampton; Wolverhampton England (Wiley, 2014-06)
    A growing body of literature has shed light into the process of conducting research with people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, there is limited research on the feasibility of conducting research projects including various groups of people with ID, their supporters, and researchers. This paper reviews three studies conducted with these three groups of people in light of their feasibility, the knowledge generated, and their impact on individual and social change. This study used a reflective analysis focused on the main findings from the three studies, focus groups with people with ID and supporters who conducted the research, and interviews with people to whom the findings were disseminated. The analysis suggested that a team approach including active supporters and experienced researchers was critical to their feasibility. The studies generated knowledge particularly on the perspectives of people with ID on their rights. As a result of participation in these studies, some changes at the individual and social levels occurred, but these were relatively limited. The implications of this analysis for future research are discussed in the context of the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
  • Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis (Springer, 2014-02)
    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.
  • Can Serial Rapists be Distinguished from One-off Rapists?

    Slater, Chelsea; Woodhams, Jessica; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Chelsea Slater, School of Psychology, Frankland Building; University of Birmingham; Edgbaston Birmingham B15 2TT UK; University of Birmingham; UK; University of Birmingham; UK (2014-03)
    There are investigative advantages to being able to determine early in a police investigation whether a rape has been committed by a serial or one-off rapist. Previous research has found some differences in the crime-scene behaviours of serial and one-off rapists, however, this research suffers from the limitation of utilising a sample of rapes within which there was a mixture of victim-offender relationships. To address this limitation, this study sampled 38 serial (two or more convictions) and 50 one-off (one conviction) stranger rapists and compared their crime scene behaviour across four domains (control, sex, escape and style behaviours). Serial and one-off rapists differed in some control and sexual behaviours; in particular, in the type of victim targeted, the offence locations, methods of control and the sexual acts forced upon the victim. However, the results did not indicate a striking difference in the offending behaviour of the two groups. The implications of these findings for criminal investigations are discussed.
  • Assessing Dispositions Toward Ridicule and Laughter in the Workplace: Adapting and Validating the PhoPhiKat-9 Questionnaire

    Hofmann, Jennifer; Ruch, Willibald; Proyer, René T.; Platt, Tracey; Gander, Fabian (Frontiers in Psychology, 2017-05-12)
    The current paper addresses the measurement of three dispositions toward ridicule and laughter; i.e., gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (the joy of laughing at others). These traits explain inter-individual differences in responses to humor, laughter, and social situations related to humorous encounters. First, an ultra-short form of the PhoPhiKat-45 (Ruch and Proyer, 2009) was adapted in two independent samples (Construction Sample N = 157; Replication Sample N = 1,774). Second, we tested the validity of the PhoPhiKat-9 in two further independent samples. Results showed that the psychometric properties of the ultra-short form were acceptable and the proposed factor structure could be replicated. In Validation Sample 1 (N = 246), we investigated the relation of the three traits to responses in a ridicule and teasing scenario questionnaire. The results replicated findings from earlier studies by showing that gelotophobes assigned the same emotions to friendly teasing and malicious ridicule (predominantly low joy, high fear, and shame). Gelotophilia was mainly predicted by relating joy to both, teasing and ridicule scenarios, while katagelasticism was predicted by assigning joy and contempt to ridicule scenarios. In Validation Sample 2 (N = 1,248), we investigated whether the fear of being laughed at is a vulnerability at the workplace: If friendly teasing and laughter of co-workers, superiors, or customers are misperceived as being malicious, individuals may feel less satisfied and more stressed. The results from a representative sample of Swiss employees showed that individuals with a fear of being laughed at are generally less satisfied with life and work and experience more work stress. Moreover, gelotophilia went along with positive evaluations of one's life and work, while katagelasticism was negatively related to work satisfaction and positively related to work stress. In order to establish good work practices and build procedures against workplace bullying, one needs to consider that individual differences impact on a person's perception of being bullied and assessing the three dispositions may give important insights into team processes.
  • Broadening Humor: Comic Styles Differentially Tap into Temperament, Character, and Ability

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja; Platt, Tracey; Wagner, Lisa; Proyer, René T. (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018-01-18)
    The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test–retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1–2 weeks was 0.86 (N = 148). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- (N = 303) and German-speaking samples (N = 1018 and 368). Comparing self- and other-reports (N = 210) supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism) to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism). Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data) or three unipolar factors (based on normative data). Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality (N = 999), intelligence (N = 214), and character strengths (N = 252), showing that (a) wit was the only style correlated with (verbal) intelligence, (b) fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c) humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d) comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony) correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral goodness that was lacking in sarcasm and cynicism. Most importantly, the two studies revealed that humor might be related to a variety of character strengths depending on the comic style utilized, and that more styles may be distinguished than has been done in the past. The CSM is recommended for future explorations and refinements of comic styles.
  • Evaluation of a Picture-Based Test for the Assessment of Gelotophobia

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Bruntsch, Richard; Ďurka, Róbert (Frontiers in Psychology, 2017-11-21)
    This study examines whether coding open answers in a picture-based test, as to the extent they reflect the fear of being laughed at (i.e., gelotophobia), demonstrates sufficient validity to construct a semi-projective test for the assessment of gelotophobia. Previous findings indicate that cartoon stimuli depicting laughter situations (i.e., in the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph; Ruch et al., 2009) on average elicit fear-typical responses in gelotophobes stronger than in non-gelotophobes. The present study aims to (a) develop a standardized scoring procedure based on a coding scheme, and (b) examine the properties of the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph in order to select the most acceptable items for a standard form of the test. For Study 1, a sample of N = 126 adults, with scores evenly distributed across the gelotophobia spectrum, completed the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph by noting down what they assumed the protagonist in each of 20 cartoons would say or think. Furthermore, participants answered the GELOPH<15> (Ruch and Proyer, 2008), the established questionnaire for the subjective assessment of the fear of being laughed at. Agreement between two independent raters indicated that the developed coding scheme allows for objective and reliable scoring of the Picture-Geloph (mean of intraclass correlations = 0.66). Nine items met the criteria employed to identify the psychometrically most reliable and valid items. These items were unidimensional and internally consistent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78). The total score of this selection (i.e., the Picture-Geloph<9>) discriminated significantly between non-fearful, slightly, markedly, and extremely fearful individuals; furthermore, it correlated sufficiently high (r = 0.66; rc = 0.79 when corrected for reliability of both measures) with the GELOPH<15>. Cronbach’s alpha (0.73) was largely comparable whereas the estimate of convergent validity was found to be lower in one (r = 0.50; rc = 0.61; N = 103) of the two samples in Study 2. Combining all three samples (N = 313) yielded a linear relationship between the self-report and the Picture-Geloph. With the Picture-Geloph<9> and the developed coding scheme, an unobtrusive and valid alternative instrument for the assessment of gelotophobia is provided. Possible applications are discussed.
  • Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

    Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y. El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B.; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V.; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S. O.; Torres-Marín, Jorge (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018-02-09)
    Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.
  • Broadening Humor: Comic Styles Differentially Tap into Temperament, Character, and Ability

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja; Platt, Tracey; Wagner, Lisa; Proyer, René T. (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018-01-18)
    The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test–retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1–2 weeks was 0.86 (N = 148). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- (N = 303) and German-speaking samples (N = 1018 and 368). Comparing self- and other-reports (N = 210) supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism) to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism). Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data) or three unipolar factors (based on normative data). Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality (N = 999), intelligence (N = 214), and character strengths (N = 252), showing that (a) wit was the only style correlated with (verbal) intelligence, (b) fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c) humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d) comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony) correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral goodness that was lacking in sarcasm and cynicism. Most importantly, the two studies revealed that humor might be related to a variety of character strengths depending on the comic style utilized, and that more styles may be distinguished than has been done in the past. The CSM is recommended for future explorations and refinements of comic styles.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of lifestyle and body mass index predictors of successful assisted reproductive technologies.

    Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, S C E; van den Akker, O B A (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-27)
    Lifestyle (smoking, drinking alcohol) and body mass index (BMI) predictors of successful outcomes in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments were examined in this meta-analysis.
  • Individual Differences as Predictors of Social Networking

    Orchard, Lisa J; Fullwood, Chris; Galbraith, Niall; Morris, Neil; University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby, DE22 1GB; UK; University of Wolverhampton, City Campus - North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1AD; UK; University of Wolverhampton, City Campus - North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1AD; UK; University of Wolverhampton, City Campus - North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1AD; UK (Wiley, 2014-04)
    Research suggests that personality dictates specific Internet preferences. One area that remains relatively unexplored is the influence of personality on engagement with social networking sites (SNSs). The current study employs a ‘Uses and Gratifications’ framework to investigate whether personality, age, and sex predict motivations for using SNSs. The study explores both global and specific factors of personality using Eysenck's EPQ-R short form (extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism) and Beck's SAS (sociotropy and autonomy). Principal component analysis identified ten distinct motivational components, which were then successfully predicted by individual differences through regression analyses. It is therefore suggested that individuals with different profiles vary in their motivations for using SNSs. Results support theoretical assumptions based on previous literature and personality dispositions.
  • Investigating the Facebook experience through Q Methodology: Collective investment and a ‘Borg’ mentality

    Orchard, Lisa J; Fullwood, Chris; Morris, Neil; Galbraith, Niall (SAGE Publications, 2014-04-02)
    Several recent studies have explored social networking sites, such as Facebook, in light of the uses and gratifications approach. However, research has tended to ignore the latter part of this paradigm. This article uses Q methodology to explore user experiences of Facebook, allowing further exploration of gratification from site usage. Four distinct viewpoints were found: Facebook as a superficial environment; Facebook as a valid and valuable social environment; Facebook as an environment of surveillance; and Facebook as a destructive environment. Although the viewpoints show elements of user satisfaction, some users view Facebook in an almost entirely negative way. The article concludes by theorising a model of Facebook usage, drawing upon a metaphor from Star Trek, specifically an analogy with the Borg. It is argued that a level of ‘collective investment’ resides over social networks that may sometimes promote compliance.
  • Caring for cancer patients with an intellectual disability: Attitudes and care perceptions of UK oncology nurses

    Flynn, Samantha; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Bramwell, Ros; Stevens-Gill, Debbie; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas (Elsevier, 2015-10)
    Purpose: Caring for people with cancer or an intellectual disability (ID) is stressful: little is known about the combined impact of caring for cancer patients with an ID, though this is expected to be especially challenging. Method: Eighty-three nurses, working in oncology or a related field (i.e. palliative care) were recruited. Perceptions of caring for patients with and without an ID were measured, alongside potentially confounding information about participant demographic characteristics and perceived stress. Results: Participants felt less comfortable communicating with patients with an ID about their illness (F(1,82) = 59.52, p < 0.001), more reliant on a caregiver for communication (F(1,82) = 26.29, p < 0.001), and less confident that the patient's needs would be identified (F(1,82) = 42.03, p < 0.001) and met (F(1,81) = 62.90, p < 0.001). Participants also believed that caring for this patient group would induce more stress, compared with patients without an ID (F(1,81) = 31.592, p < 0.001). Previous experience working with ID patient groups appears to mitigate some perceptions about providing care to this population. Conclusions: Caring for cancer patients with an ID may intensify this, already difficult, role. Through training and knowledge exchange, oncology nurse's confidence in communication, providing appropriate care, and positivity towards this patient group may be improved.
  • Non-Specific Retroactive Interference in Children and Adults

    Fatania, Jillen; Mercer, Tom (Vizja Press and IT Limited, 2017-12)
  • Put on a Smiley Face: Textspeak and Personality Perceptions

    Fullwood, Chris; Quinn, Sally; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Chadwick, Darren; Reynolds, Katie (Mary Ann Liebert, 2015-03)
    With the emergence of web 2.0 there has been a dramatic surge in user-generated content. Although the Internet provides greater freedom in self-presentation, computer-mediated communication is characterised by a more relaxed attitude to grammar, spelling and punctuation. The language of the Internet, or textspeak, may be suitable for casual interactions but inappropriate in professional contexts. We tested participant perceptions of an author’s personality in two distinct contexts (formal vs. informal) and manipulated the written information under three levels of textspeak: none, low and high. Participants judged the author as less conscientious and less open, but more emotionally stable when textspeak was used, however context had no impact. Personality perceptions of textspeak users differ to those who write in standard English and this is likely to extend to informal impression management contexts (e.g. online dating). These findings also have a number of implications, for example in terms of screening applicants via social media.
  • We’ve got something for everyone: How individual differences predict different blogging motivations

    Fullwood, Chris; Nicholls, Wendy; Makichi, Rumbidzai (Sage, 2014-04-11)
    The principal aims of this study were to develop a Blogging Motivations Questionnaire (BMQ) and to test the hypothesis that sex, age, and personality would be associated with individual blogging motivations. 160 bloggers completed the BMQ and the International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Six motivations for writing blogs were confirmed: personal revelation, emotional outlet, creative outlet, selective disclosure, social networking and advertising. Conscientiousness predicted the ‘social networking’ motivation, Agreeableness predicted ‘selective disclosure’ and Openness ‘creative outlet’. Women were motivated by ‘selective disclosure’, and men for ‘advertising’ and as an ‘emotional outlet’. Finally, older bloggers were motivated to use their blogs as a ‘creative outlet’. With reference to Uses and Gratifications theory, it is likely that bloggers actively construct blogs to satisfy very personal needs. Moreover, the types of needs that one wishes to satisfy are likely to vary with personality type and with one’s age and sex.
  • The effectiveness of persuasive health communication techniques

    Unknown author (Scientific Online, 2014)
    Objective: This study tests the effectiveness of Framing and Fear conditionsto change attitudes towards elective single embryo transfer (eSET) in a large, non-clinical population. Method:A repeated measures randomised control trial design was used with 632 male and female partici- pants allocated to one of two intervention groups (Framing or Fear condition) or a control group. There were two conditions in the Framing group(gain or loss frame), three conditions in the Fear group (high, medium or low fear) and two control conditions (education and non-education). Questionnaires were completed before exposure to the message (time 1) and immediately afterwards (time 2). Results: High fear (β = .637, P<0.008) and gain frame (β = .718, P<0.005) were the only significant conditions predicting hypothetical intentions towards eSET at Time 2 for the total sample. No other conditions were predictive of hypothetical intentions. Education only improved knowledge and non-education showed no changes in scores. Conclusion: These results highlight the benefits of multidisciplinary expertise in designing health promotion to reduce multiple pregnancies. Practice Implications: Findings suggest that educational material needs to be presented along- side persuasive communication techniques incorporating high fear and gain frames to help promote eSET in clinical practice.
  • Testing the Assumptions of Crime Linkage with Stranger Sex Offenses: A More Ecologically-Valid Study

    Slater, Chelsea; Woodhams, Jessica; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine (Springer, 2014-12-19)
    An increasing amount of research has been conducted on crime linkage, a practice that has already been presented as expert evidence in some countries; however it is questionable whether standards of admissibility, applied in some jurisdictions, have been achieved (e.g., the Daubert criteria). Much research has assessed the two basic assumptions underpinning this practice: that offenders are consistent in the way they commit their crimes and that offenders commit their crimes in a relatively distinctive manner. While studies of these assumptions with stranger sex offenses exist, they are problematic for two reasons: (1) small samples (usually < 30 series), and (2) samples consisting solely of serial offenses. The current study improved on past research through the use of a much larger dataset (N=50 series, 194 offenses; and N= 50 one-off offenses) and by sampling the offenses of both serial and one-off sex offenders, thereby representing a more ecologically valid test of the assumptions. The two assumptions were tested simultaneously by assessing how accurately 365 linked crime pairs could be differentiated from 29,281 unlinked crime pairs through the use of Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation logistic regression followed by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis. An excellent level of predictive accuracy was achieved providing support for the assumptions underpinning crime linkage.
  • We’ve got something for everyone: How individual differences predict different blogging motivations

    Fullwood, Chris; Nicholls, Wendy; Makichi, Rumbidzai (Sage, 2014-04-11)
    The principal aims of this study were to develop a Blogging Motivations Questionnaire (BMQ) and to test the hypothesis that sex, age, and personality would be associated with individual blogging motivations. One hundred and sixty bloggers completed the BMQ and the International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Six motivations for writing blogs were confirmed: personal revelation, emotional outlet, creative outlet, selective disclosure, social networking and advertising. Conscientiousness predicted the ‘social networking’ motivation, Agreeableness predicted ‘selective disclosure’ and Openness ‘creative outlet’. Women were motivated by ‘selective disclosure’, and men for ‘advertising’ and as an ‘emotional outlet’. Finally, older bloggers were motivated to use their blogs as a ‘creative outlet’. With reference to the Uses and Gratifications paradigm, it is likely that bloggers actively construct blogs to satisfy very personal needs. Moreover, the types of needs that one wishes to satisfy are likely to vary with personality type and with one’s age and sex.
  • “Back to Square One”: The Experience of Straddling Adolescence and Early Adulthood in Unemployed UK University Graduates With Common Mental Health Issues

    Cockshott, Christopher J.; Kiemle, Gundi; Byrne, Paula; Gabbay, Mark B.; Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Health, and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; Doctorate in Clinical Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Institute of Psychology, Health, and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Institute of Psychology, Health, and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK (Sage, 2017-09-25)
    We investigated the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues. After conducting semistructured interviews with 12 unemployed bachelor’s degree graduates with common mental health issues, we used interpretative phenomenological analysis to generate three superordinate themes: “fall from grace,” “vulnerability,” and “life on hold.” Our focus in this article is life on hold and its constituent themes: “stagnation,” “moving backward,” and “feeling left behind.” Graduates struggled to complete the broader structural life transition from university student to the adult world of work, experiencing a nebulous state of straddling adolescence and early adulthood. This undermined their sense of adult maturity, leaving them vulnerable to becoming entrenched in their mental health-related difficulties. We discuss these findings in relation to the developmental perspectives of life-course theory, status passages, and separation–individuation in early adulthood, which raise important issues for the applicability of life-course frameworks for these graduates, who are a disadvantaged minority group.
  • Risk factors for Social Networking Site scam victimisation amongst Malaysian students

    Kirwan, Grainne H; Rooney, Brendan; Fullwood, Chris (Mary Ann Liebert, 2017-12)
    Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems (Whitley, 1999) on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant.

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