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  • The Challenges in Researching the Relationship Between Physical Attractiveness and Altruism Using Economic Games

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-01-31)
    This case study is based on a portion of my PhD research exploring the relationship between physical attractiveness and altruistic behavior. Much of the previous literature exploring these variables has been conducted via computer simulations, using facial images and vignettes. I conducted three studies exploring the relationship between physical attractiveness and altruistic behavior among real people in a laboratory setting using economic games. It was hypothesized that people would be more altruistic toward those they considered attractive. The findings yielded consistent null results. This case study reports the factors that influenced my findings and the decisions made when designing each study.
  • A Research Note on the Influence of Relationship Length and Sex on Preferences for Altruistic and Cooperative Mates

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-04-04)
    Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one’s character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss’s Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate. We also found that although women placed greater importance on cooperativeness in a mate compared to men, this preference was not influenced by whether they were seeking a short-term or a long-term mate. We successfully replicate previous literature exploring the role of altruism in mate choice.
  • Perpetrating Cyber Dating Abuse: A Brief Report on the Role of Aggression, Romantic Jealousy and Gender

    Deans, Heather; Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2017-10-25)
    There is increasing evidence that the use of elec-tronic communication technology (ECT) is being integrated into romantic relationships, which can be used as a medium to control a romantic partner. Most research focuses on the vic-tims of cyber dating abuse, however, we focused on the factors that predict perpetration of cyber dating abuse. We explored whether aggression (verbal aggression, physical aggression, anger and hostility), romantic jealousy (emotional, cognitive and behavioral jealousy), and gender predicted perpetration of cyber dating abuse (n = 189). We found that hostility, behav-ioral jealousy and gender significantly predicted perpetration of cyber dating abuse. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the psychological factors that drive cyber dating abuse in romantic relationships.
  • Mean girls: Provocative clothing leads to intra-sexual competition between females

    Keys, Eleanor; Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2016-12-10)
    This study aimed to investigate indirect aggression between females from an evolutionary perspective, considering indirect aggression as a mechanism of intra-sexual competition. Previous research suggests that females who are dressed provocatively, or appear ‘sexually available’, are more likely to be victims of indirect aggression from other females. Investigating this notion via an empirical measure and a word-selection task, this study involved a female confederate posing as a participant, who was dressed provocatively in one condition and conservatively in the other. Sixty-five females completed an intra-sexual competition scale and a word selection task in which they were able to select complimentary or derogatory phrases to describe the confederate. Making derogative comments is a common form of indirect aggression; therefore, those who selected derogatory phrases could be considered to be exhibiting indirect aggression. Consistent with our hypotheses, participants in the provocative condition obtained significantly higher intra-sexual competition scores and selected more derogatory words than those in the conservative condition, indicating that females dressed provocatively are indirectly aggressed against to a greater extent than those that are not. This paper adds further support to the notion that indirect aggression is used by females as a method of intra-sexual competition, particularly towards provocatively dressed females.
  • Do the Dark Triad and Self-Perceived Mate Value Predict Intention to Mate Poach?

    Erik, Ezgi; Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Human Behavior and Evolution Society of Japan, 2016-07-13)
    Although much research has been conducted on the psychology of mate poaching, little research has been conducted on the factors that predict intention to mate poach, particularly from the perspective of the poacher. Although some research has paid attention to the role of the dark triad in mate poaching, no research, to our knowledge, has explored the relationship between self-perceived mate value and intention to mate poach. We explored the role of the dark triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy), self-perceived mate value, and sex on one’s intention to mate poach, in 82 participants from Coventry University. We find that psychopathy was the only trait to significantly predict intention to mate poach, suggesting those who scored higher on psychopathy were more likely to mate poach. Furthermore, we find that self-perceived mate value significantly predicted intention to mate poach, suggesting those who perceive themselves as having a high mate value are likely to engage in mate poaching, which is a novel finding.
  • The Influence of Aggressiveness on Rape-Myth Acceptance among University Students

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Corbett, Stacey (Taylor and Francis, 2016-02-11)
    The detrimental effects of rape are well established. In order to support victims of rape in reporting sexual assault, the factors which predict rape myths need to be investigated. Aggression has been linked to sexual violence, but little is known about the role of aggressive behaviour in rape-myth acceptance. The present study aimed to investigate whether rape myths could be predicted by verbal aggression, physical aggression, hostility, anger or sex in a sample of 121 participants. A regression analysis found that an individual’s sex and self-reported physical aggression significantly predicted rape-myth acceptance.
  • The roles of altruism, heroism, and physical attractiveness in female mate choice

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Margana, Lacey; Bartlett, James E.; Farrelly, Daniel (Elsevier, 2018-08-25)
    The role of prosocial behaviour in female mate choice has been extensively explored, focusing on the desirability of altruism in potential mates, as well as altruism being a mating signal. However, little research has focused on the desirability of heroism and altruism in potential partners. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of attractiveness on the desirability of prosocial behavior has only recently been explored, and to our knowledge, has not been explored in relation to the desirability of heroism in a romantic partner. We explored the effect of prosociality and attractiveness on female desirability ratings (n =198), and whether desirability was influenced by whether women were seeking a short-term or long-term relationship. We find that women are attracted to men who display heroism and altruism, and this preference is higher when the male is attractive compared to unattractive. Furthermore, preferences for prosocial traits were higher when seeking a long-term compared to a short-term partner. Our findings add to the literature on prosocial behaviour and mate choice. Data and materials [Open Science Framework Project A76P8].
  • Mate value discrepancy and attachment anxiety predict the perpetration of digital dating abuse

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Howman, Jessica M. (Springer, 2018-09-13)
    Research suggests that individual differences in attachment style predict the perpetration of digital dating abuse. In addition to attachment style, no research, to our knowledge, has explored the role of mate value in the perpetration of digital dating abuse. In this paper, we argue that digital dating abuse is a contemporary cost-inflicting mate retention behaviour, where larger mate value discrepancies between partners are associated with higher levels of digital dating abuse (n = 167). As expected, high mate value discrepancy and attachment anxiety were associated with high levels of digital dating abuse. We provide novel support for the relationship between mate value discrepancy and digital dating abuse. Our findings provide support for additional, unexplored factors which lead to the perpetration of digital dating abuse
  • Lurking towards empowerment: Explaining propensity to engage with online health support groups and its association with positive outcomes

    Fullwood, Chris; Chadwick, Darren; Keep, Melanie; Attrill-Smith, Alison; Asbury, Titus; Kirwan, Grainne (Elsevier, 2018-08-22)
    Online health support groups (OHSGs) offer opportunities for people with various health conditions to gain support and associated physical and mental health benefits, however evidence suggests that those who choose to lurk in OHSGs may be less likely to accrue benefits (e.g. empowering outcomes) than those who actively contribute. Most research to date has focused on comparing the outcomes of OSHG engagement for lurkers and participators, yet there has been little research which has considered how the different reasons for lurking might be associated with levels of participation and empowering processes. In this investigation we used a survey to gather data from 237 participants to develop a new scale to measure factors influencing the Propensity for Online Community Contribution (POCCS), and to explore the relationship between these factors and OHSG engagement behaviour and empowering processes accrued from OHSG use. The POCCS comprised nine factors, 1) poor sense of community; 2) struggles with self-expression; 3) inhibited disclosure and privacy; 4) negative online interactions; 5) ease of access and use; 6) health preventing contribution; 7) delayed and selective contribution; 8) goals met without contribution; and 9) lack of time. Five of these factors (1, 3, 6, 7, and 8) significantly predicted OHSG contribution and positive experiences in the form of empowering processes. Findings advocate a more nuanced approach to OHSG engagement, rather than a simple lurking/engaging dichotomy, and may enhance understanding of the relationship between OHSG use and perceived benefits.
  • Time-Dependent Forgetting and Retrieval Practice Effects in Detailed Visual Long-Term Memory.

    Mercer, Tom; Jones, Gemma (Sage, 2018-08-24)
    Memories – especially those containing fine details – are usually lost over time, but the present study assessed whether detailed visual memories can survive a one-week delay if retrieval practice is provided. In three experiments, participants viewed 300 objects and then completed recognition tests assessing memory for precise object exemplars and their state. The recognition tests occurred immediately after encoding and one week later, and required participants to distinguish between a previously seen target object and an incorrect foil. Whilst there was forgetting when participants were tested on different sets of stimuli across the delay, retrieval practice led to an advantage in recognition performance. This effect was not simply due to mere exposure, as retrieval practice boosted recognition beyond a restudy condition, which had a second encoding opportunity but no retrieval practice. Yet more detailed analyses revealed that the effect of retrieval practice was highly dependent upon the type of information being tested (exemplar or state) and the specific foil that was presented. In addition, state information was harder to retain over the delay than exemplar information, suggesting that memory for different properties is forgotten at different rates.
  • Involving People With Intellectual Disabilities Within Research Teams: Lessons Learned from an Irish Experience

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; Chadwick, Darren; National Institute for Intellectual Disability; Trinity College Dublin; Dublin Ireland; Centre for Developmental Disabilities Studies; University of Sydney; Sydney New South Wales Australia; University of Wolverhampton; Wolverhampton England (Wiley, 2014-06)
    A growing body of literature has shed light into the process of conducting research with people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, there is limited research on the feasibility of conducting research projects including various groups of people with ID, their supporters, and researchers. This paper reviews three studies conducted with these three groups of people in light of their feasibility, the knowledge generated, and their impact on individual and social change. This study used a reflective analysis focused on the main findings from the three studies, focus groups with people with ID and supporters who conducted the research, and interviews with people to whom the findings were disseminated. The analysis suggested that a team approach including active supporters and experienced researchers was critical to their feasibility. The studies generated knowledge particularly on the perspectives of people with ID on their rights. As a result of participation in these studies, some changes at the individual and social levels occurred, but these were relatively limited. The implications of this analysis for future research are discussed in the context of the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
  • Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis (Springer, 2014-02)
    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.
  • Can Serial Rapists be Distinguished from One-off Rapists?

    Slater, Chelsea; Woodhams, Jessica; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Chelsea Slater, School of Psychology, Frankland Building; University of Birmingham; Edgbaston Birmingham B15 2TT UK; University of Birmingham; UK; University of Birmingham; UK (2014-03)
    There are investigative advantages to being able to determine early in a police investigation whether a rape has been committed by a serial or one-off rapist. Previous research has found some differences in the crime-scene behaviours of serial and one-off rapists, however, this research suffers from the limitation of utilising a sample of rapes within which there was a mixture of victim-offender relationships. To address this limitation, this study sampled 38 serial (two or more convictions) and 50 one-off (one conviction) stranger rapists and compared their crime scene behaviour across four domains (control, sex, escape and style behaviours). Serial and one-off rapists differed in some control and sexual behaviours; in particular, in the type of victim targeted, the offence locations, methods of control and the sexual acts forced upon the victim. However, the results did not indicate a striking difference in the offending behaviour of the two groups. The implications of these findings for criminal investigations are discussed.
  • Assessing Dispositions Toward Ridicule and Laughter in the Workplace: Adapting and Validating the PhoPhiKat-9 Questionnaire

    Hofmann, Jennifer; Ruch, Willibald; Proyer, René T.; Platt, Tracey; Gander, Fabian (Frontiers in Psychology, 2017-05-12)
    The current paper addresses the measurement of three dispositions toward ridicule and laughter; i.e., gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (the joy of laughing at others). These traits explain inter-individual differences in responses to humor, laughter, and social situations related to humorous encounters. First, an ultra-short form of the PhoPhiKat-45 (Ruch and Proyer, 2009) was adapted in two independent samples (Construction Sample N = 157; Replication Sample N = 1,774). Second, we tested the validity of the PhoPhiKat-9 in two further independent samples. Results showed that the psychometric properties of the ultra-short form were acceptable and the proposed factor structure could be replicated. In Validation Sample 1 (N = 246), we investigated the relation of the three traits to responses in a ridicule and teasing scenario questionnaire. The results replicated findings from earlier studies by showing that gelotophobes assigned the same emotions to friendly teasing and malicious ridicule (predominantly low joy, high fear, and shame). Gelotophilia was mainly predicted by relating joy to both, teasing and ridicule scenarios, while katagelasticism was predicted by assigning joy and contempt to ridicule scenarios. In Validation Sample 2 (N = 1,248), we investigated whether the fear of being laughed at is a vulnerability at the workplace: If friendly teasing and laughter of co-workers, superiors, or customers are misperceived as being malicious, individuals may feel less satisfied and more stressed. The results from a representative sample of Swiss employees showed that individuals with a fear of being laughed at are generally less satisfied with life and work and experience more work stress. Moreover, gelotophilia went along with positive evaluations of one's life and work, while katagelasticism was negatively related to work satisfaction and positively related to work stress. In order to establish good work practices and build procedures against workplace bullying, one needs to consider that individual differences impact on a person's perception of being bullied and assessing the three dispositions may give important insights into team processes.
  • Evaluation of a Picture-Based Test for the Assessment of Gelotophobia

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Bruntsch, Richard; Ďurka, Róbert (Frontiers in Psychology, 2017-11-21)
    This study examines whether coding open answers in a picture-based test, as to the extent they reflect the fear of being laughed at (i.e., gelotophobia), demonstrates sufficient validity to construct a semi-projective test for the assessment of gelotophobia. Previous findings indicate that cartoon stimuli depicting laughter situations (i.e., in the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph; Ruch et al., 2009) on average elicit fear-typical responses in gelotophobes stronger than in non-gelotophobes. The present study aims to (a) develop a standardized scoring procedure based on a coding scheme, and (b) examine the properties of the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph in order to select the most acceptable items for a standard form of the test. For Study 1, a sample of N = 126 adults, with scores evenly distributed across the gelotophobia spectrum, completed the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph by noting down what they assumed the protagonist in each of 20 cartoons would say or think. Furthermore, participants answered the GELOPH<15> (Ruch and Proyer, 2008), the established questionnaire for the subjective assessment of the fear of being laughed at. Agreement between two independent raters indicated that the developed coding scheme allows for objective and reliable scoring of the Picture-Geloph (mean of intraclass correlations = 0.66). Nine items met the criteria employed to identify the psychometrically most reliable and valid items. These items were unidimensional and internally consistent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78). The total score of this selection (i.e., the Picture-Geloph<9>) discriminated significantly between non-fearful, slightly, markedly, and extremely fearful individuals; furthermore, it correlated sufficiently high (r = 0.66; rc = 0.79 when corrected for reliability of both measures) with the GELOPH<15>. Cronbach’s alpha (0.73) was largely comparable whereas the estimate of convergent validity was found to be lower in one (r = 0.50; rc = 0.61; N = 103) of the two samples in Study 2. Combining all three samples (N = 313) yielded a linear relationship between the self-report and the Picture-Geloph. With the Picture-Geloph<9> and the developed coding scheme, an unobtrusive and valid alternative instrument for the assessment of gelotophobia is provided. Possible applications are discussed.
  • Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

    Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y. El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B.; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V.; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S. O.; Torres-Marín, Jorge (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018-02-09)
    Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.
  • Broadening Humor: Comic Styles Differentially Tap into Temperament, Character, and Ability

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja; Platt, Tracey; Wagner, Lisa; Proyer, René T. (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018-01-18)
    The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test–retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1–2 weeks was 0.86 (N = 148). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- (N = 303) and German-speaking samples (N = 1018 and 368). Comparing self- and other-reports (N = 210) supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism) to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism). Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data) or three unipolar factors (based on normative data). Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality (N = 999), intelligence (N = 214), and character strengths (N = 252), showing that (a) wit was the only style correlated with (verbal) intelligence, (b) fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c) humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d) comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony) correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral goodness that was lacking in sarcasm and cynicism. Most importantly, the two studies revealed that humor might be related to a variety of character strengths depending on the comic style utilized, and that more styles may be distinguished than has been done in the past. The CSM is recommended for future explorations and refinements of comic styles.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of lifestyle and body mass index predictors of successful assisted reproductive technologies.

    Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, S C E; van den Akker, O B A (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-27)
    Lifestyle (smoking, drinking alcohol) and body mass index (BMI) predictors of successful outcomes in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments were examined in this meta-analysis.
  • Individual Differences as Predictors of Social Networking

    Orchard, Lisa J; Fullwood, Chris; Galbraith, Niall; Morris, Neil; University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby, DE22 1GB; UK; University of Wolverhampton, City Campus - North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1AD; UK; University of Wolverhampton, City Campus - North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1AD; UK; University of Wolverhampton, City Campus - North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1AD; UK (Wiley, 2014-04)
    Research suggests that personality dictates specific Internet preferences. One area that remains relatively unexplored is the influence of personality on engagement with social networking sites (SNSs). The current study employs a ‘Uses and Gratifications’ framework to investigate whether personality, age, and sex predict motivations for using SNSs. The study explores both global and specific factors of personality using Eysenck's EPQ-R short form (extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism) and Beck's SAS (sociotropy and autonomy). Principal component analysis identified ten distinct motivational components, which were then successfully predicted by individual differences through regression analyses. It is therefore suggested that individuals with different profiles vary in their motivations for using SNSs. Results support theoretical assumptions based on previous literature and personality dispositions.
  • Investigating the Facebook experience through Q Methodology: Collective investment and a ‘Borg’ mentality

    Orchard, Lisa J; Fullwood, Chris; Morris, Neil; Galbraith, Niall (SAGE Publications, 2014-04-02)
    Several recent studies have explored social networking sites, such as Facebook, in light of the uses and gratifications approach. However, research has tended to ignore the latter part of this paradigm. This article uses Q methodology to explore user experiences of Facebook, allowing further exploration of gratification from site usage. Four distinct viewpoints were found: Facebook as a superficial environment; Facebook as a valid and valuable social environment; Facebook as an environment of surveillance; and Facebook as a destructive environment. Although the viewpoints show elements of user satisfaction, some users view Facebook in an almost entirely negative way. The article concludes by theorising a model of Facebook usage, drawing upon a metaphor from Star Trek, specifically an analogy with the Borg. It is argued that a level of ‘collective investment’ resides over social networks that may sometimes promote compliance.

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