What do effective managerial leaders really do? Using qualitative methodological pluralism and analytical triangulation to explore everyday ‘managerial effectiveness’ and ‘managerial coaching effectiveness.
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AbstractThe present study analyses the qualitative research methodologies used for several 'emic' case-study explorations of managerial behaviours that we have carried out independently within various UK and US public, corporate/private and voluntary sector organisations. These results have subsequently been used for a collaborative cross-cultural 'etic' study. The aim of each 'emic' study was to identify either the criteria and/or behavioural indicators/categories of 'managerial and leadership effectiveness', or of 'managerial coaching effectiveness'. The aim of our collaborative cross-cultural 'etic' study was to search for evidence of commonalities and relative generalisations between the findings of our respective 'emic' studies and, if possible, synthesise a 'unified perspective' from the 'multiple realities' identified. The main conclusion of the present article is that research designs embracing 'qualitative methodological pluralism' and 'rigorous analytical triangulation' can result in meaningful generalised findings, and these can lead to the production of 'general knowledge' and 'management theory'.
CitationInternational Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy, 2(3): 255-276
PublisherInderscience Enterprises Limited
JournalInternational Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy
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Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in Mexico and the USA: a comparative study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviourRuiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G. (Emerald, 2019-04-25)Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of Mexican and US employees about effective and ineffective managerial behaviour. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative multiple cross-case comparative analysis of findings obtained from two past emic replication studies of observed effective and ineffective managerial behaviour carried out in Mexico and the USA respectively was conducted. Findings Notwithstanding the significant cultural variances between Mexico and the US underlined by various cross-cultural studies, our findings suggest that Mexican and US employees perceive effective and ineffective managerial behaviour in a very similar manner. Research limitations While the results of our study suggest that culture may not play a significant role in the way people perceive managerial and leadership effectiveness, we suggest that more replication studies with larger and more balanced gender samples using different methods need to be performed in both countries. Practical implications The findings of our study may be relevant for HRD professionals in both countries when providing training to expatriates for international assignments. Reinforcing the set of managerial practices that are perceived as effective in these two countries, and emphasizing those practices that may be particular to Mexico and the US respectively, could lead to an improvement in the performance of Mexican executives managing in the US and US executives managing in Mexico.
The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of biomarkers for the prioritisation of patients awaiting coronary revascularisation: a systematic review and decision model.Hemingway, H; Henriksson, M; Chen, R; Damant, J; Fitzpatrick, N; Abrams, Keith; Hingorani, A; Janzon, M; Shipley, M; Feder, G; et al. (NIHR, 2010-02-01)To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a range of strategies based on conventional clinical information and novel circulating biomarkers for prioritising patients with stable angina awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 1966 until 30 November 2008. We carried out systematic reviews and meta-analyses of literature-based estimates of the prognostic effects of circulating biomarkers in stable coronary disease. We assessed five routinely measured biomarkers and the eight emerging (i.e. not currently routinely measured) biomarkers recommended by the European Society of Cardiology Angina guidelines. The cost-effectiveness of prioritising patients on the waiting list for CABG using circulating biomarkers was compared against a range of alternative formal approaches to prioritisation as well as no formal prioritisation. A decision-analytic model was developed to synthesise data on a range of effectiveness, resource use and value parameters necessary to determine cost-effectiveness. A total of seven strategies was evaluated in the final model. We included 390 reports of biomarker effects in our review. The quality of individual study reports was variable, with evidence of small study (publication) bias and incomplete adjustment for simple clinical information such as age, sex, smoking, diabetes and obesity. The risk of cardiovascular events while on the waiting list for CABG was 3 per 10,000 patients per day within the first 90 days (184 events in 9935 patients with a mean of 59 days at risk). Risk factors associated with an increased risk, and included in the basic risk equation, were age, diabetes, heart failure, previous myocardial infarction and involvement of the left main coronary artery or three-vessel disease. The optimal strategy in terms of cost-effectiveness considerations was a prioritisation strategy employing biomarker information. Evaluating shorter maximum waiting times did not alter the conclusion that a prioritisation strategy with a risk score using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was cost-effective. These results were robust to most alternative scenarios investigating other sources of uncertainty. However, the cost-effectiveness of the strategy using a risk score with both eGFR and C-reactive protein (CRP) was potentially sensitive to the cost of the CRP test itself (assumed to be 6 pounds in the base-case scenario).
Toward an emergent Asian behavioural model of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness: a cross-nation comparative analysis of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour of private sector managers in India and South KoreaHamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-28)This Type 4 (emic-and-etic) indigenous cross-case/cross-nation comparative study compares the results of two Type 3 (emic-as-emic) indigenous replication studies of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour carried out within private companies in India and South Korea respectively. The method used was ‘realist qualitative content analysis’ involving inductive open and axial coding. Of the Indian findings 100% were found to be convergent in meaning with 94.43% of the equivalent South Korean findings. This has led to the identification of a two-factor emergent Asian behavioural model of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness comprised of 16 positive (effective) and 6 negative (ineffective) generic behavioural criteria. These criteria could be used in both countries to critically review and improve extant, or develop new, competency-based management/leadership development programmes. The research findings lend no support to claims that national culture has a major impact on managerial and leadership practices, styles, and effectiveness.