Investigation into Mobile Development Tools and Technology for Mobile Games and Application
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Other TitlesProceedings of CGAMES’2006
AbstractMobile devices have come a long way with the advancements in terms of processors, memory etc. This has brought about flexibility for development of platforms and different applications far more superior to older ones used and has prompted research into better methods of deployment and use of mobile device capabilities. This paper looks at different technological advancements in progress and also proposes a plan for future work evaluates current and future developments.
CitationIn: Mehdi, Q. and Elmaghraby, A. (Eds.), Proceedings of CGAMES’2006. 8th International Conference on Computer Games: Artificial Intelligence and Mobile Systems, 24-27 July 2006, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
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Towards Suitable Communication Protocols For Mobile Multiplayer Games on Heterogeneous Mobile DevicesSalim, Aly; Mehdi, Qasim (The University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2007)Currently research into communication protocols with regards to multiplayer gaming requirements has been sparse. There are a number of surveys on multicasting in mobile device communication which addresses latency reduction, density and traffic. Moreover, these studies have not addressed multiplayer gaming issues. Recent research in the area of mobile devices has focused in mobile communication and distribution systems for homogeneous devices but they have not fully addressed communication between heterogeneous devices. This work investigates suitable communication protocols for mobile multiplayer games on heterogeneous mobile devices. In particular issues such as scalability, reliability, bandwidth and data transportation time of communication systems and content distribution of mobile heterogeneous devices will be addressed. This paper proposes a hybrid protocol solution that addresses communication issues related to heterogeneous mobile devices as existing MANET protocols seem to lack the capability of solving these issues collectively.
Investigation of pollution coming from copper, lead, and zinc mining, and factors controlling mobility and bioavailability of pollutants at Ecton Hill, Staffordshire, UKAl-Ibrahim, Zahid Omar Mustafa (2017)Former mining areas are well-known globally to be a significant anthropogenic source of contaminants being dispersed into the surrounding environment. Various human activities, including ore mineral mining, industrial activities, domestic waste production, and the agricultural application of fertilisers and pesticides, are likely to contribute to the release of huge amounts of potentially toxic metals into the ecosystem, which have harmful effects on the flora and fauna and on human health. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to evaluate the contamination that arises from some selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, and V) in topsoil and floodplain samples from the Ecton mining area. Ecton Hill is located in the southern part of the Peak District, Staffordshire, England, and bounded by the River Manifold from the west. This area has been mined for sulphide minerals, which were extracted extensively from the 16th century until the mid-19th century; the area is currently being used for cattle rearing and agricultural purposes. Therefore, it would be worth finding out the extent to which the area has been polluted by the aforementioned metals. To this end, topsoil and floodplain samples were collected and analysed for their total concentrations using XRF technique and different granulometric classes (i.e. clay, silt, and sand) using a (Malvern Mastersizer Long Bed) laser granulometer with a presentation unit of MS-17. In addition, soil specific factors, including organic matter content, organic carbon, pH, Eh, and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Spatial distribution maps were constructed using a GIS approach for the metals studied over the study area. Contamination and ecological risk assessments were carried out via the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factors (EF) respectively. Moreover, collected soils for different land uses have been assessed using the UK government soil guidelines (i.e. ICRCL and CLEA’s SGVs soil values). Furthermore, the bioavailability, leachability, and fractionation (using five-steps sequential extraction) of the metals in various soil phases were characterised using correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA) approaches. The GIS- based spatial analysis maps reveal that elevated concentrations of the metals are located around the sites of the mining waste in the area. The contamination assessment results indicate that Cu, Pb, Zn have a contamination degree ranging between strongly contaminated (class 4) and extremely contaminated (class 6). The results of the ecological assessment by enrichment factor (EF) show that Pb has the highest enrichment factor. The bioavailability results of the heavy metals under study, via EDTA, show that Cu, Pb, Zn have the highest bioavailable fractions. The regression analysis demonstrates that Mn gives the best fit regression equation with the highest R2 value of 0.825. The leachability results reveal that, of the seven heavy metals, Zn has the highest leachable value, whereas the lowest leachable was recorded for Cr. Speciation was measured using the five-steps procedure, and the results show that Cu, Pb and Zn are mainly associated with the organic matter fraction, whilst, Cr, Ni and V are associated with the residual fraction. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that oxides of Fe/Al, organic matter, and the clay and silt fractions are the main soil parameters responsible for binding heavy metals to the soil surfaces of the study area. Changing the redox potential conditions and acidification was investigated and the results indicate that such changes have significant effects on the release of heavy metals from the soil particles at Ecton Hill.
An investigation of Turbo Codes over Mobile Wireless ChannelsDennett, Christopher Paul (University of Wolverhampton, 2006-10)Turbo codes have been the subject of much research in recent years, producing results very close to the theoretical limit set by Shannon. The codes have been successfully implemented in satellite and video conferencing systems and provision has been made in 3rd generation mobile systems. These codes have not been used for short frame systems due to the delay at the decoder. In this thesis, comprehensive comparisons of the two common decoding algorithms are made, with reference to short frames. The effects of increasing memory size of component codes, frame sizes, utilising puncturing and errors in channel estimation are investigated over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. The decoder systems are compared for complexity as well as for equal numbers of iterations. Results show that less complex decoder strategies produce good results for voice quality bit error rates. Investigations are also made into the effects of errors in signal-to-noise ratio estimation at the SOVA turbo decoder, showing this decoding algorithm to be more resilient than Log-MAP decoders in published literature. The decoders are also tested over channels displaying inter-symbol interference. Channels include a time-invariant channel and three ETSI standard time-varying channels simulating indoor, pedestrian and vehicular situations, upgraded for more realistic Doppler effect. To combat these types of channels, a derivative of turbo codes, turbo equalisation is often used. To keep receiver delay to a minimum, decision feedback equalisation is used here. Results show that the combination can produce improvements in decoded results with increasing turbo iterations where ISI is low, but that iterative improvements do not occur under harsh circumstances. The combination produces much superior results compared with codes on their own under even the most extreme circumstances.