Now showing items 1-20 of 1269

    • Socioeconomic and ethnic status of two- and three-year-olds undergoing dental extractions under general anaesthesia in Wolverhampton, 2011-2016

      Harper, Robert; Nevill, Alan M.; Senghore, Ngimbe; Khan, Ishfaq (Springer Nature Publishing, 2019-03-08)
      Introduction Socioeconomic and ethnic status have in the past been implicated as possible causes of dental caries. Aims To assess the role that relative social depravation and ethnicity has on dental caries in two- and three-year-olds undergoing DGA in Wolverhampton. Design and methods Retrospective analysis of hospital records of 213 patients over a six-year period (2011-2016). A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests were used to test statistical significance. Results The most significant factor between ethnicity, year and sex, was ethnicity (P = 0.026), with the greatest difference between mean number of teeth extracted per treatment visit for Other Whites (mean = 6.3) compared with White British (mean = 4.0) (difference P = 0.012). The association between the difference in extracted quadrant and year of treatment was significant (P = 0.011), with the greatest frequency of extractions involving three and four quadrants in the later years of 2015 and 2016. Seventy percent of children treated were living in the 20% most deprived areas (deciles one and two) compared with children living in more affluent areas (deciles three to ten) (P <0.001). Conclusion An important public health issue is highlighted which needs to be addressed, both at a national level and locally, through early oral health education for mothers from relatively deprived areas; particularly those of Other White ethnicity.
    • Anticipating a 4th Industrial revolution and the futures of learning: a discussion paper for Wolverhampton Learning City Region

      Connor, Stuart; Mahoney, Mary; Lewis, Natalie (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-12-31)
      What learning is needed for the 21st Century and what changes can be made for learners today and for tomorrow? What skills, knowledge and experience are needed for jobs that do not exist yet? What institutions and relations and practices will be needed to support the school leavers, apprentices and graduates of 2020 and 2040? In a world that it is projected to change rapidly and unevenly, what role will learning have in helping anticipate and shape the future? Public sector, market, third sector leaders are faced with some critical challenges and choices. Exponential advances in genetic engineering, nanotechnology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, robotics, graphene and additive manufacturing (3D printing) are set to constitute a 4th industrial revolution. A 4th industrial revolution is not just characterised by particular technologies but the fusions between these technologies, the capacity to redraw the lines between physical, digital, and biological domains and the potential scale, speed and spread of these changes. The breadth of skills and functions afforded by new technologies will not only have an impact on the number and type of jobs available across all sections of the job market, but also have the potential to challenge existing divisions of labour and the nature, value and meaning of work and learning. Of course, one of the major challenges and contradictions when anticipating futures, is how can one prepare for the unknown? This is a major challenge. There is no consensus as to the number of jobs that will be lost or created as a result of a 4th industrial revolution, but it is anticipated there will be no more routine jobs in the future. Investment in the development of knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) subjects is self-evident, but social, creative and critical thinking skills will be vital as they not only prove resistant to automation, but are essential to efforts to anticipate and engage with the disruption and challenges of a 4th industrial revolution. By anticipating the changes on the horizon, there is an opportunity to review and redefine the needs of today’s and tomorrow’s learners. Due to the scale of change that is anticipated it is argued that no one agency will be in a position to meet the grand challenges of a 4th industrial revolution. The level, scale and pace of change require both long-term thinking and cross-sector action. Subsequently a potential role for a nascent learning region will be to help to surface, assess and develop the future readiness of all those who live and work in the region.
    • Introduction: Women’s football and the #MeToo movement 2019

      Williams, Jean (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      This special edition of Sport in History is an output from the largest academic conference dedicated to the international history of women’s football held so far, at the National Football Museum on the 8 and 9 March, 2018, to mark International Women’s Day. Twenty speakers presented across a range of topics, and community artists worked with a range of contributors to make a new textile-based artwork, as part of the wider Hidden Histories of Women’s Football project, which concluded on 30 September 2018 with the inaugural reunion of women football players mentioned by Jean Williams in the final article of this collection. So one of the key themes of this collection as a whole is how the memory of football as both a sport and as a cultural industry is changing, in part thanks to the revised commitment of the museum and heritage sector to better celebrate the women’s game. From 1 March 2019 the National Football Museum has committed to improve its representation of women in football to 50% of the work. As the museum was founded in Preston in 1995 and moved to Manchester in 2012, with a mission to research, interpret and publicize the football history, most of which have been based on collector Harry Langton’s acquistions. The commitment in 2019 to diversify women’s football therefore is a major change in the Museum’s approach and evidence of how academics can work with public history bodies to produce rigorous, and readily accessible, work that reaches a wide and varied audience. This collection reflects that collaboration with work from key individuals in the Museum, Archives and Library sectors, as well as academics and independent researchers.
    • Sporting reunions, contemporary collections and collective biographies: a case study Harry Batt’s ’71 England Team

      Williams, Jean; Compton, Joanna; Scarlett, Belinda (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      As befits its status as the world’s most popular team sport, football has fared better than most other sports and disciplines in its coverage of academic titles. In the twenty first century, increasingly public sites of soccer have also made women and girls contribution to football more easily available to wider audiences. From 2016-2018, an eighteen-month Arts Council England funded project, delivered by the National Football Museum, researched and re-interpreted its women’s football collection. The Chris Ungar collection was purchased in 2015 from a private collector and covered the women’s game internationally from the late nineteenth century to 2015. The documentation process gave curatorial and academic staff the time to explore and research the material, making connections between objects and giving a revised focus to future collection policies. Documentation was the essential first step in opening up a collection for public engagement and academic research. This now forms part of the National Football Museum’s permanent collection given designated collection status by the Arts Council in 2014. This recognises the National Football Museum’s collection as one of outstanding resonance, national significance and quality.
    • The moral impact of studying science

      Riordan, Sally (Springer, 2019-08-11)
      Science and religion are most usually compared on epistemic grounds: what do they tell us about the natural world and what methods do they use to determine those truths? The suggestion here is that the two fields should be compared on moral grounds: how do scientific and religious experiences affect the way a person lives his or her life? A hypothesis is presented in this vein: engaging in scientific work or education alters a person’s moral outlook on everyday matters. In this chapter, I articulate and motivate this claim by framing it against both theological and philosophical debate. I explore how it might be tested as a claim in moral psychology. The resulting vision presented here is of science and religion engaged in dialogue—at times necessarily embroiled—not only about the nature of the world, but regarding how best we navigate our way in it.
    • Adopting a Janus perspective: moving forwards and backwards through our teacher professional experiences

      Bates, Sandi; Wright, Victoria (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-20)
      The paper reports on collaborative journal writing and dialogue sustained by two education professionals with a view to engaging in meaningful reflective practice. The transition from journal writing to reporting in this paper was underpinned by knowledge of the place of reflective practice in teacher education and continuous professional development. Knowledge of the limited opportunities and time for meaningful continuous professional development; as experienced across the education sector, also informed a desire to share the writing experience with a view to encouraging other teachers to develop writing communities. As teacher educators, we relate how we came to write together and sustained a dialogue that provided us with newly framed insights in to our professional lives and experiences. Our journalling told our stories and was very much in the spirit of evocative autoethnography. We describe how we naturally included sensory description related to the time and place of writing. We also used more evocative language, including the use of metaphors. Themes of critical reflection, reflexivity, embodied reflection and evocative autoethnography are therefore explored in the light of our writing experience. The journals and the associated dialogue highlight the values of such small and time constrained moments as informal professional development opportunities.
    • Acquiring knowledge prior to diagnosis: a grounded theory of patients’ experiences

      Roddis, Jennifer K.; Holloway, Immy; Bond, Carol S; Galvin, Kathleen T. (The Beryl Institute, 2019-12-31)
      This paper will specifically consider one of the major findings of a wider study (previously reported in Roddis, Holloway, Bond and Galvin1), concerning how patients acquired knowledge and information about their condition before being formally diagnosed. The overall purpose of this research was to explore and explain how people make sense of long-term health conditions. Through the use of both purposive and theoretical sampling within a grounded theory design, experiences of individuals with thrombophilia and asthma were explored.
    • And how experiments begin: the international prototype kilogram and the Planck constant

      Riordan, Sally; de Courtenay, Nadine; Darrigol, Olivier; Schlaudt, Oliver (Routledge, 2019-01-15)
      The artefact that has defined the kilogram since 1889 is to be retired and the kilogram will instead be defined by fixing the value of the Planck constant. In this paper, I detail some of the elements of this reform, believing that the case study should prompt philosophers to reassess the role scientific standards play in the progress of the physical sciences. A metrological account of scientific standards should explain metrology’s more theoretical motivations and also acknowledge its empirical contribution to the physical sciences. I present three theses towards this end. I develop a more thoroughgoing and yet much weaker version of Bridgman’s operational attitude. I present a picture of the physical sciences united by metrology. Finally, I present the case for a quiet form of realism that attempts to accommodate both the more theoretical and the more pragmatic motivations of the metrologist.
    • An encounter between 4e cognition and attachment theory

      Petters, Dean David (Taylor & Francis, 2016-08-03)
      This paper explores a constructive revision of the conceptual underpinnings of Attachment Theory through an encounter with the diverse elements of 4e cognition. Attachment relationships involve the development of preference for one or a few carers and expectations about their availability and responsiveness as a haven of safety and a base from which to explore. In attachment theory, mental representations have been assigned a central organising role in explaining attachment phenomena. The 4e cognition approaches in cognitive science raise a number of questions about the development and interplay of attachment and cognition. These include: (1) the nature of what Bowlby called ‘internal working models of attachment’; (2) the extent to which the infant–carer dyad functions as an extension of the infant's mind; and (3) whether Bowlby's attachment control system concept can be usefully re-framed in enactive terms where traditional cognitivist representations are: (3i) substituted for sensorimotor skill-focused mediating representations; (3ii) viewed as arising from autopoietic living organisms; and/or (3iii) mostly composed from the non-contentful mechanisms of basic minds? A theme that cross-cuts these research questions is how representations for capturing meaning, and structures for adaptive control, are both required to explain the full range of behaviour of interest to Attachment Theory researchers.
    • Capturing personality from Facebook photos and photo-related activities: How much exposure do you need?

      Eftekhar, Azar; Fullwood, Chris; Morris, Neil; Eftekhar (Elsevier, 2014-05-21)
      Photo-related activities are noticeably prevalent among social media users. On Facebook, users predominantly communicate visually and manage their self-presentation. Such online behaviours tend to mimic what would be expected of individuals’ offline personalities. This study sought to address the link between Facebook users’ photo-related activities and the Big Five personality traits by encoding basic Facebook visual features. Content analysis on the actual profiles (n = 115) and multiple regression analyses revealed many associations as a manifestation of users’ characteristics. For instance, Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted more photo uploads. Conscientiousness was predictive of more self-generated albums and video uploads and Agreeableness predicted the average number of received ‘likes’ and ‘comments’ on profile pictures. Additionally, the Facebook experience in interaction with the personality factors was found to be influential on the type of photo-related activity and the level of photo participation of users. The findings provide evidence that Facebook users with various personality traits set up albums and upload photos differently. Given the uses and gratification model, users adapt the construction of their profiles and manage their interactions to gratify their psychological needs on Facebook.
    • Late development of metric part-relational processing in object recognition

      Jüttner, Martin; Petters, Dean David; Wakui, Elley; Davidoff, Jules (American Psychological Assocation, 2014-08-01)
      Four experiments with unfamiliar objects examined the remarkably late consolidation of part-relational relative to part-based object recognition (Jüttner, Wakui, Petters, Kaur, & Davidoff, 2013). Our results indicate a particularly protracted developmental trajectory for the processing of metric part relations. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years and adults were tested in 3-Alternative-Forced-Choice tasks to judge the correct appearance of upright and inverted newly learned multipart objects that had been manipulated in terms of individual parts or part relations. Experiment 1 showed that even the youngest tested children were close to adult levels of performance for recognizing categorical changes of individual parts and relative part position. By contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that performance for detecting metric changes of relative part position was distinctly reduced in young children compared with recognizing metric changes of individual parts, and did not approach the latter until 11 to 12 years. A similar developmental dissociation was observed in Experiment 3, which contrasted the detection of metric relative-size changes and metric part changes. Experiment 4 showed that manipulations of metric size that were perceived as part (rather than part-relational) changes eliminated this dissociation. Implications for theories of object recognition and similarities to the development of face perception are discussed.
    • Developmental commonalities between object and face recognition in adolescence

      Jüttner, Martin; Wakui, Elley; Petters, Dean David; Davidoff, Jules (Frontiers Media, 2016-03-15)
      In the visual perception literature, the recognition of faces has often been contrasted with that of non-face objects, in terms of differences with regard to the role of parts, part relations and holistic processing. However, recent evidence from developmental studies has begun to blur this sharp distinction. We review evidence for a protracted development of object recognition that is reminiscent of the well-documented slow maturation observed for faces. The prolonged development manifests itself in a retarded processing of metric part relations as opposed to that of individual parts and offers surprising parallels to developmental accounts of face recognition, even though the interpretation of the data is less clear with regard to holistic processing. We conclude that such results might indicate functional commonalities between the mechanisms underlying the recognition of faces and non-face objects, which are modulated by different task requirements in the two stimulus domains.
    • Misconception of online sharing and associated security risks

      Attrill-Smith, Alison (Software Box Ltd., 2014-09-08)
    • Endocrine parameters in association with bone mineral accrual in young female vocational ballet dancers

      Amorim, Tânia; Metsios, George S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Wyon, Matthew; Marques, F; Nogueira, L; Adubeiro, N; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Maia, José; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose Little is known on bone mass development in dancers involved in vocational training. The aim of the present study was to model bone mineral content (BMC) accruals and to determine whether circulating levels of oestrogens, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) explain differences in bone mass gains between vocational dance students and matched-controls. Methods The total of 67 vocational female dancers (VFD) and 68 aged-matched controls (12.1±1.9yrs and 12.7±2.0yrs at baseline, respectively) were followed for two consecutive years (34 VFD and 31 controls remained in the study for the full duration). BMC was evaluated annually at impact [femoral neck (FN); lumbar spine (LS)], and non-impact sites (forearm) using DXA. Anthropometry, age at menarche (questionnaire) and hormone serum concentrations (immunoradiometric assays) were also assessed for the same period. Results VFD demonstrated consistently reduced body weight (p<0.001) and BMC at all three anatomical sites (p<0.001) compared to controls throughout the study period. Menarche, body weight, GH and IGF-1 were significantly associated with bone mass changes over time (p<0.05) but did not explain group differences in BMC gains at impact sites (p>0.05). However, body weight did explain the differences between groups in terms of BMC gains at the forearm (non-impact site). Conclusion Two consecutive years of vocational dance training revealed that young female dancers demonstrate consistently lower bone mass compared to controls at both impact and non-impact sites. The studied endocrine parameters do not seem to explain group differences in terms of bone mass gains at impact sites.
    • Are professional footballers becoming lighter and more ectomorphic? Implications for talent identification and development

      Nevill, Alan M.; Okojie, Daniel I.; Smith, Julian; O'Donoghue, Peter G.; Webb, Tom (SAGE, 2019-03-21)
      The identification and development of talent is an essential component of modern professional football. The recognition of key physical characteristics of such footballers who successfully progress through talent development programs is of considerable interest to academics and those working in professional football. Using Football Yearbooks, we obtained the height, body mass and ages of all players from the English top-division over the seasons 1973–4, 1983–4, 1993–4, 2003–4 and 2013–4, calculating body-mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) and reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) (cm/kg0.333). The mean squad size increased over these decades from n = 22.4 (1973–4) to n = 27.8 (2013–4). Height also increased linearly by approximately 1.2 cm per decade. Body mass increased in the first four decades, but declined in the final season (2013–4). Regression analysis confirmed inverted “u” shape trends in both body mass and BMI, but a “J” shape trend in RPI, indicating that English top-division professional footballers are getting more angular and ectomorphic. We speculate that this recent decline in BMI and rise in RPI is due to improved quality of pitches and increased work-load required by modern-day players. Defenders were also found to be significantly taller, heavier, older and, assuming BMI is positively associated with lean mass, more muscular than other midfielders or attackers. The only characteristic that consistently differentiated successful with less successful players/teams was age (being younger). Therefore, English professional clubs might be advised to attract young, less muscular, more angular/ectomorphic players as part of their talent identification and development programs to improve their chances of success.
    • Between the blabbering noise of individuals or the silent dialogue of many: a collective response to ‵Postdigital Science and Education′ (Jandrić et al. 2018)

      Arndt, Sonja; Asher, Gordon; Knox, Jeremy; Ford, Derek R.; Hayes, Sarah; Lăzăroiu, George; Jackson, Liz; Mañero Contreras, Julia; Buchanan, Rachel; D’Olimpio, Laura; Smith, Mark; Suoranta, Juha; Pyyhtinen, Olli; Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Steketee, Anne; Mihăilă, Ramona; Stewart, Georgina; Dawson, Mark; Sinclair, Christine; Peters, Michael A. (Springer, 2019-03-18)
      This article is a multi-authored response to an editorial ‵Postdigital Science and Education′ published in 2018 by Petar Jandrić, Jeremy Knox, Tina Besley, Thomas Ryberg, Juha Suoranta and Sarah Hayes in Educational Philosophy and Theory as a mission statement for the journal Postdigital Science and Education. Nineteen authors were invited to produce their sections, followed by two author-reviewers who examined the article as a whole. Authors’ responses signal the sense of urgency for developing the concept of the postdigital and caution about attempts at simplifying complex relationships between human beings and technology. Whilst the digital indeed seems to become invisible, we simultaneously need to beware of its apparent absence and to avoid overemphasizing its effects. In this attempt, authors offer a wide range of signposts for future research such as ‘the critical postdigital’ and ‘postdigital reflexivity’; they also warn about the group’s own shortcomings such as the lack of ‘real’sense of collectivity. They emphasize that postdigital education must remain a common good, discuss its various negative aspects such as smartphone addiction and nomophobia, and exhibit some positive examples of postdigital educational praxis. They discuss various aspects of postdigital identities and point towards the need for a postdigital identity theory. With these varied and nuanced responses, the article opens a wide spectrum of opportunity for the development of postdigital approaches to science and education for the future.
    • Language in online dating texts: trait identification, homophily, and their effect on attraction

      Fox Hamilton, Nicola; Fullwood, Chris; Kirwan, Grainne (Interactive Media Institute, 2015-07-31)
      Research has indicated that online daters may pick up on language cues connected to personality traits in online dating profile texts, and act upon those cues. This research seeks to investigate the level of accuracy of detection of personality in dating profile texts, and the extent to which perceived or actual similarity of personality has an effect on attractiveness of the author. An online survey was conducted collecting the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) for each participant and text author, a peer-report TIPI score by participants for each text author, and an attractiveness rating on a Likert scale for each author. Participants correctly identified Extraversion, though the effect size was small. Contrary to the hypotheses, participants preferred texts when written by an author with a personality they perceived as dissimilar to their own, specifically in Openness and Conscientiousness, and no relationship was found between actual similarity of personality and attractiveness. Online daters may choose partners with complementary or desirable traits rather than similar traits, or other factors in attraction may be more salient in the initial stages of determining attraction.
    • Causal attribution of mental illness in south-eastern Nigeria

      Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Nyatanga, Lovemore (SAGE, 2013-05-15)
      Background: Understanding of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa has remained under-researched in spite of the high and increasing neuropsychiatric burden of disease in the region. Aims: This study investigated the causal beliefs that the Igbo people of south-eastern Nigeria hold about schizophrenia, with a view to establishing the extent to which the population makes psychosocial, biological and supernatural attributions. Method: Multi-stage sampling was used to select participants (N = 200) to which questionnaires were administered. Results: Mean comparison of the three causal models revealed a significant endorsement of supernatural causation. Logistic regressions revealed significant contributions of old age and female gender to supernatural attribution; old age, high education and Catholic religious denomination to psychosocial attributions; and high education to biological attributions. Conclusions: It is hoped that the findings would enlighten, augment literature and enhance mental health care service delivery.
    • The effect of immersion and presence in a virtual reality public speaking task

      Wilsdon, Luke; Fullwood, Chris (Interactive Media Institute, 2017-07-31)
      Three virtual environments (with varying immersive features) of a small teaching classroom with an audience were tested to determine whether higher graphical fidelity (Immersion) improved public speaking anxiety after participating in a mock public speaking task. The UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL) was administered from the perspective that participants were going to complete a public speaking task in the immediate future and the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) were taken before and after along with the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ). By manipulating technical quantitative elements of Virtual Environment construction, dimensions of presence significantly differed between conditions. Public speaking anxiety did not improve after participating in the task and increased immersion did not significantly reduce fear of public speaking within one session. Participants in all conditions however experienced a positive mood shift after participating in the public speaking task.
    • Imagined steps: mental simulation of coordinated rhythmic movements effects on pro-sociality

      Cross, Liam; Atherton, Gray; Wilson, Andrew; Golonka, Sabrina (Frontiers Media, 2017-10-13)
      Rhythmically coordinating with a partner can increase pro-sociality, but pro-sociality does not appear to change in proportion to coordination success, or particular classes of coordination. Pro-social benefits may have more to do with simply coordinating in a social context than the details of the actual coordination (Cross et al., 2016). This begs the question, how stripped down can a coordination task be and still affect prosociality? Would it be sufficient simply to imagine coordinating with others? Imagining a social interaction can lead to many of the same effects as actual interaction (Crisp and Turner, 2009). We report the first experiments to explore whether imagined coordination affects pro-sociality similarly to actual coordination. Across two experiments and over 450 participants, mentally simulated coordination is shown to promote some, but not all, of the pro-social consequences of actual coordination. Imagined coordination significantly increased group cohesion and de-individuation, but did not consistently affect cooperation.