Now showing items 1-20 of 1429

    • Cyberbullying: a storm in a teacup?

      Wolke, Dieter; Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-02-10)
      Cyberbullying has been portrayed as a rising ‘epidemic’ amongst children and adolescents. But does it create many new victims beyond those already bullied with traditional means (physical, relational)? Our aim was to determine whether cyberbullying creates uniquely new victims, and whether it has similar impact upon psychological and behavioral outcomes for adolescents, beyond those experienced by traditional victims. This study assessed 2745 pupils, aged 11–16, from UK secondary schools. Pupils completed an electronic survey that measured bullying involvement, self-esteem and behavioral problems. Twenty-nine percent reported being bullied but only 1% of adolescents were pure cyber-victims (i.e., not also bullied traditionally). Compared to direct or relational victims, cyber-victimization had similar negative effects on behavior (z = −0.41) and self-esteem (z = −0.22) compared to those not involved in bullying. However, those bullied by multiple means (poly-victims) had the most difficulties with behavior (z = −0.94) and lowest self-esteem (z = −0.78). Cyberbullying creates few new victims, but is mainly a new tool to harm victims already bullied by traditional means. Cyberbullying extends the reach of bullying beyond the school gate. Intervention strategies against cyberbullying may need to include approaches against traditional bullying and its root causes to be successful.
    • Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying

      Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter (Wiley, 2017-06-07)
      Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11–16 years) were screened for bullying involvement, and in stage 2, 723 of these participants (mean age = 13.95) were assessed on measures of emotion recognition, hostile attribution bias, and characterological self‐blame (CSB). No associations between bullying and early SIP were found. In contrast, victimization was associated with more hostile attribution bias and CSB attributions. Girls performed better than boys on the emotion recognition task while boys showed greater hostile attribution biases. No interaction effects of bullying or victimization with gender were found. Follow‐up categorical analyses that considered pure victims versus victims who also bullied (bully‐victims) on SIP, found a similar pattern of findings. These findings suggest that those who purely bully others are neither superior nor deficient in the early stages of SIP. Victimized adolescents, however, show biases in their interpretations of social situations and the intentions of others. These biases may lead to maladaptive responses and may increase risk for further victimization by peers.
    • Comparisons between adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims on perceived popularity, social impact, and social preference

      Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter (Frontiers Media SA, 2019-11-22)
      This study investigated the effect of bullying role, i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim, on three measures of peer status; perceived popularity, social preference, and social impact. In addition to completing peer nominations for these measures of peer status, adolescents (n = 2,721) aged 11 to 16 years from 5 secondary schools completed an online survey that assessed bullying involvement (self- and peer-reported), self-esteem, and behavioral difficulties. Compared to uninvolved adolescents, all bullying roles had a greater social impact. Bullies scored higher than all other roles for perceived popularity, whereas victims and bully-victims were the lowest in social preference. These significant group comparisons remained when controlling for demographic variables, behavioral difficulties, self-esteem and prosocial behavior. Overall, the perceived popularity found for bullies suggests that these adolescents are socially rewarded by peers for their victimization of others. These findings highlight the need to address the whole peer system in raising the social status of those who are victimized, whilst reducing the rewards received by bullies for their behavior.
    • The effects of physical activity or sport-based interventions on psychological factors in adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review

      Bondár, RZ; di Fronso, S; Bortoli, L; Robazza, C; Metsios, GS; Bertollo, M (Wiley, 2019-12-12)
      © 2019 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd Background: Inactivity is a major factor contributing to adverse health in people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). While it is generally agreed that physical activity (PA)/sport-based interventions promote cognitive and social development in the general population, little is known about their specific benefits in adults with ID. The aims of this systematic review were (a) to examine the effects of PA/sport-based interventions on intention, motivation and attitude regarding PA/sport participation in adults with ID and (b) to investigate the influence of these psychological factors on behavioural change (e.g. PA level) and quality of life. Methods: A systematic review has been conducted searching four electronic databases (i.e. SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane Library). Studies were included if written in English, peer reviewed, had primary research data, and measured intention, motivation, attitude, behavioural outcomes or quality of life. Results: Thirteen articles met our inclusion criteria of which 10 explored the effects of PA/sport as part of a multi-component intervention. Most investigated outcomes were exercise self-efficacy and quality of life. Five studies measured exercise self-efficacy, and four of them found significant changes. One study found a significant improvement in quality of life and another study in life satisfaction. We observed lack of sport-based interventions, few data about people with severe ID and limited psychological measures. Conclusions: Personal and environmental factors are key components of behavioural change. Support of caregivers and individualised instructions may benefit exercise self-efficacy. There is lack of information about the effects of psychological factors on behavioural change and quality of life in adults with ID.
    • Introduction to the second special edition of upfront and onside

      Williams, J (Informa UK Limited, 2019-11-10)
      While the first special edition dedicated to women’s football came out at the beginning of the Women’s World Cup 2019 tournament, held in France, this second edition is released as the legacy of that tournament is being debated. FIFA is a janus-faced institution. It both governs and develops world soccer. Many analysts think that the governance and developmental roles should be separated because the organisaton has proven that it lacks transparency, an ethical code and progressive policies. FIFA is also a central command economic regulator – it has a monopoly on international tournament soccer from girl scouts to the world cup, and it makes its own rules. But since the 1980s it has increasingly neglected development in favour of a governance strategy that commercializes its assets for maximum financial benefits.
    • The effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular physiology in rheumatoid arthritis

      Metsios, GS; Moe, RH; van der Esch, M; van Zanten, JJCSV; Fenton, SAM; Koutedakis, Y; Vitalis, P; Kennedy, N; Brodin, N; Bostrom, C; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-04)
      © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with debilitating effects for the individual as well as significant healthcare impact. Current evidence demonstrates that engaging in aerobic and resistance exercise (i.e. structured physical activity) can significantly improve patient-reported and clinical index-assessed outcomes in RA. In addition to this, engagement in exercise programmes improves, in a dose-dependent manner, the risk of developing CVD as well as CVD symptoms and outcomes. The present narrative review uses evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as controlled trials, to synthesize the current state-of-the-art on the potential effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on CVD risk factors as well as on cardiac and vascular function and structure in people with RA. Where there is a lack of evidence in RA to explain potential mechanisms, relevant studies from the general population are also discussed and linked to RA.
    • Getting involved in the community—What stops us? Findings from an inclusive research project

      Mooney, F; Rafique, N; Tilly, L (Wiley, 2019-07-08)
      © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Feeling alone and not connected to other people where you live affects many people and especially people with a learning disability. The government and the newspapers are talking a lot about this, they want to understand who is affected and what can be done. Our group did a research project to find out some of the things that stop us getting involved in local places with local people where we can make and keep friends. The people in the research project mainly lived independently and did not use learning disability services, so needed to use local community organisations. Pictorial cards, made by one of the group members, using photographs were used to sort out all the things we talked about into groups. These included transport, fear and anxiety, limits on our choice and control, risks and personal safety. We then talked about what could be done, this included more easy read information, so people know what is available locally, more support to go to places and advocacy to get involved. There also needs to be better community safety including more Safe Places in the community. Abstract: Background Social isolation is an issue that affects many people and especially people with a learning disability. There is an association between social exclusion and feeling lonely, an issue currently highlighted as a growing concern which needs to be addressed both in the media and by the government. Methods The Building Bridges Research Group do inclusive research projects about the issues that are important to them. Over the summer of 2018, the research group undertook an inclusive research project to identify some of the specific barriers that prevent community inclusion and the opportunity to develop friends. The people involved mainly lived independently and did not use learning disability services, with the exception of evening clubs, so needed to use universal services. Results Pictorial cards, made by one of the group, using photographs were used to organise the data into themes. These included transport, fear and anxiety, limits on choice and control, risks and personal safety. Conclusion The inclusive research design enabled people with a learning disability to contribute to all stages of the research project, from identifying the issue, gathering data, the analysis and writing up. They also made suggestions of ways to increase social networks, friendships and well-being and so decrease loneliness. These include more access to easy read information, more support and advocacy and measures to address community safety including a wider roll-out of the Safe Places scheme. There also needs to be further research undertaken with other people with a learning disability in different areas to widen the understanding of the impact of these barriers on people's lives.
    • The relationship between vitamin D levels, injury and muscle function in adolescent dancers

      de Rezende Araújo, Iris Iasmine; Sampaio, Lucas Henrique Ferreira; Bittar, Adriano Jabur; da Silva Hamu, Tânia Cristina Dias; Wyon, Matthew; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto (Thieme, 2020-03-31)
      Vitamin D has been shown to benefit a diverse range of health functions including muscle function. The aim of the present study was to identify serum 25(OH)D3 levels in a sample of adolescent dancers and compare them to muscle function and injury incidence. We incorporated a cross-sectional design to study 49 pre-professional male and female dancers (17±4.44yrs, 52.1±6.72kg, 1.63±0.07m) in full-time training in Brazil. Serum 25[OH]D3 was analyzed by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay; quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and muscle fatigue were measured by isokinetic dynamometer at 60 and 300° s-1. Injury type and location in the previous 6- months were determined by self-report questionnaire. Participants were categorized into 2 groups: normal or insufficient/deficient (>or<30 ng/ml 25[OH]D3). Results indicated the normal serum 25[OH]D3 group had significantly lower fatigue rates than the insufficient/deficient group (p<0.05) but not for the other muscle function parameters. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported at least 1 injury. The most common were sprains (33%) and tendinopathies (19%). Injured dancers had significantly lower peak torque at 60°/s. The link between serum 25[OH]D3 and reduced muscle fatigue resistance has not been shown before, though the underlying mechanisms aren’t apparent and the link between muscular strength and injury has been previously evidenced.
    • The visual non-verbal memory trace is fragile when actively maintained but endures passively for tens of seconds

      McKeown, Denis; Mercer, Thomas; Bugajska, Kinga; Duffy, Paul; Barker, Emma (Springer Nature, 2019-12-23)
      Despite attempts at active maintenance in the focus of attention, the rather fragile nature of the visual non-verbal memory trace may be revealed when the retention interval between target memoranda and probed recall on a trial is extended. In contrast, a passively maintained, or unattended visual memory trace may be revealed as persisting proactive interference extending across quite extended intervals between trials in a recent probes task. The present study, comprising five experiments, used this task to explore the persistence of such a passive visual memory trace over time. Participants viewed some target visual items (for example, abstract colored patterns) followed by a variable retention interval and a probe item. The task was to report whether the probe matched one of the targets or not. A decaying active memory trace was indicated by poorer performance as the memory retention interval was extended on a trial. However, when the probe was a member of the target set from the preceding trial, task performance was poorer than a comparison novel probe, demonstrating proactive interference. Manipulations of the inter-trial interval revealed that the temporal persistence of the passive memory trace of an old target was impressive, and proactive interference was largely resilient to a simple ‘cued forgetting’ manipulation. These data support the proposed two-process memory conception (active-passive memory) contrasting fragile active memory traces decaying over a few seconds with robust passive traces extending to tens of seconds.
    • Workload intensity and rest periods in professional ballet: Connotations for injury

      Kozai, Andrea; Twitchett, Emily; Morgan, Sian; Wyon, Matthew (Thieme, 2020-03-31)
      Fatigue and overwork have been cited as the main cause of injury with the dance profession. Previous research has shown a difference in workload between professional dancers of different rank, but the role of sex has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine workload intensity, rest, and sleep profiles of professional ballet dancers. 48 professional ballet dancers (M=25, F=23) took part in an observational design over 7-14 days using triaxial accelerometer devices. Minutes in METS at different intensities, total time asleep and rest breaks were analysed. Significant main effects for rank (p<0.001) and rank by sex (p=0.003) for total PA, working day activity, post work activity and sleep. Sleep ranged between 2.4-9.6 hours per night. All participants spent more time between 1.5-3 METS outside of work. Significant amounts of exercise where carried out outside of their work day, therefore when injury is reported per 1000 hours dance activity, this extra-curricular activity might need to be included. When looking at potential causes of injury in dance, a global perspective of physical activity is required that includes activity outside of work and sleep patterns, all activities that influence physiological recovery.
    • Weight-management in children living with asthma: a qualitative study of the experiences of paediatric healthcare professionals

      Clarke, R; Heath, G; Pattison, H; Farrow, C; Department of Psychology, Aston University , Birmingham , UK. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-16)
      © 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Objective: Weight loss has been found to improve the symptoms of asthma in children who are overweight. However, many paediatric weight management programmes do not address the challenges associated with living with asthma. The aim of this study was to explore the views and experiences of paediatric healthcare professionals concerning weight management advice and support offered to families of children living with asthma. Methods: In-depth individual interviews with 10 healthcare professionals who work with a paediatric asthma population (n = 4 Respiratory Consultants, 3 Respiratory Nurses, 3 General Paediatricians). Data were analysed using a Framework approach. Results: Healthcare professionals highlighted that families’ perceptions of weight, their approach to physical activity and nutrition, the family’s social context and perceptions of asthma and asthma treatment all influence weight management in children living with asthma. Initiating weight management conversations and referring to weight management support were perceived as challenging. It was thought that tailoring weight management to the needs of children living with asthma and locating support within the community were important to the success of a family-centred intervention. Conclusions: The results highlight the added complexity of responding to excessive weight in a paediatric population with asthma. Training and referral guidance for healthcare professionals may help overcome weight management support challenges. Addressing family beliefs about the factors influencing paediatric asthma and exploring families’ motivations for behaviour change may enhance engagement with weight management.
    • Perceptions and experiences of the implementation, management, use and optimisation of electronic prescribing systems in hospital settings: Protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies

      Farre, A; Bem, D; Heath, G; Shaw, K; Cummins, C; Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Research and Development, Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK. (BMJ, 2016-07-08)
      © 2016 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use. Introduction: There is increasing evidence that electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) or computerised provider/physician order entry (CPOE) systems can improve the quality and safety of healthcare services. However, it has also become clear that their implementation is not straightforward and may create unintended or undesired consequences once in use. In this context, qualitative approaches have been particularly useful and their interpretative synthesis could make an important and timely contribution to the field. This review will aim to identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative studies on ePrescribing/CPOE in hospital settings, with or without clinical decision support. Methods and analysis: Data sources will include the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice via Ovid, CINAHL via EBSCO, The Cochrane Library (CDSR, DARE and CENTRAL databases), Nursing and Allied Health Sources, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts via ProQuest and SCOPUS. In addition, other sources will be searched for ongoing studies ( and grey literature: Healthcare Management Information Consortium, Conference Proceedings Citation Index (Web of Science) and Sociological abstracts. Studies will be independently screened for eligibility by 2 reviewers. Qualitative studies, either standalone or in the context of mixed-methods designs, reporting the perspectives of any actors involved in the implementation, management and use of ePrescribing/CPOE systems in hospital-based care settings will be included. Data extraction will be conducted by 2 reviewers using a piloted form. Quality appraisal will be based on criteria from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist and Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research. Studies will not be excluded based on quality assessment. A postsynthesis sensitivity analysis will be undertaken. Data analysis will follow the thematic synthesis method. Ethics and dissemination: The study does not require ethical approval as primary data will not be collected. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences.
    • How do stakeholders experience the adoption of electronic prescribing systems in hospitals? A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

      Farre, Albert; Heath, Gemma; Shaw, Karen; Bem, Danai; Cummins, Carole; School of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. (BMJ, 2019-07-29)
      BACKGROUND:Electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) or computerised provider/physician order entry (CPOE) systems can improve the quality and safety of health services, but the translation of this into reduced harm for patients remains unclear. This review aimed to synthesise primary qualitative research relating to how stakeholders experience the adoption of ePrescribing/CPOE systems in hospitals, to help better understand why and how healthcare organisations have not yet realised the full potential of such systems and to inform future implementations and research. METHODS:We systematically searched 10 bibliographic databases and additional sources for citation searching and grey literature, with no restriction on date or publication language. Qualitative studies exploring the perspectives/experiences of stakeholders with the implementation, management, use and/or optimisation of ePrescribing/CPOE systems in hospitals were included. Quality assessment combined criteria from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Checklist and the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Data were synthesised thematically. RESULTS:79 articles were included. Stakeholders' perspectives reflected a mixed set of positive and negative implications of engaging in ePrescribing/CPOE as part of their work. These were underpinned by further-reaching change processes. Impacts reported were largely practice related rather than at the organisational level. Factors affecting the implementation process and actions undertaken prior to implementation were perceived as important in understanding ePrescribing/CPOE adoption and impact. CONCLUSIONS:Implementing organisations and teams should consider the breadth and depth of changes that ePrescribing/CPOE adoption can trigger rather than focus on discrete benefits/problems and favour implementation strategies that: consider the preimplementation context, are responsive to (and transparent about) organisational and stakeholder needs and agendas and which can be sustained effectively over time as implementations develop and gradually transition to routine use and system optimisation.
    • Improving reference equations for cardiorespiratory fitness using multiplicative allometric rather than additive linear models: Data from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database Registry

      Nevill, Alan M; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross (Elsevier, 2019-11-22)
      New improved reference equations for cardiorespiratory fitness have recently been published, using Data from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). The new linear equation for VO2max (−1.min−1) was additive, derived using multiple-linear regression. An alternative multiplicative allometric model has also been published recently, thought to improve further the quality of fit. The purpose of the current study was to compare the accuracy and quality/goodness-of-fit of the linear, additive model with the multiplicative allometric model using the FRIEND database. The results identified that the allometric model out performs the linear model based on all model-comparison criteria. The allometric model demonstrates; 1) greater explained variance (R2 = 0.645; R = 0.803) vs. (R2 = 0.62; R = 0.79), 2) residuals that were more normally distributed, 3) residuals that yielded less evidence of curvature, 4) superior goodness-of-fit statistics i.e., greater maximum log-likelihood (MLL) and smaller Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) statistics, 5) less systematic bias together with smaller unexplained standard error of estimates. The Bland and Altman plots also confirmed little or no evidence of curvature with the allometric model, but systematic curvature (lack-of-fit) in the linear model. The multiplicative allometric model to predict VO2max was; VO2max (−1.min−1) = M-0.854 · H1.44 · exp. (0.424–0.346 · (sex) -0.011.age), where M = body mass and H = height (R2 = 0.645; R = 0.803) and sex is entered as a [0,1] indicator variable (male = 0 and female = 1). Another new insight obtained from the allometric model (providing construct validity) is that the height-to-body-mass ratio is similar to inverse body mass index or the lean body mass index, both associated with leanness when predicting VO2max. In conclusion adopting allometric models will provide more accurate predictions of VO2max (−1.min−1) using more plausible, biologically sound and interpretable models.
    • Postdiagnosis sedentary behavior and health outcomes in cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

      Swain, Christopher TV; Nguyen, Nga H; Eagles, Tobyn; Vallance, Jeff K; Boyle, Terry; Lahart, Ian M; Lynch, Brigid M (Wiley, 2019-11-12)
      Background High levels of sedentary behavior may negatively affect health outcomes in cancer survivors. A systematic review and meta‐analysis was performed to clarify whether postdiagnosis sedentary behavior is related to survival, patient‐reported outcomes, and anthropometric outcomes in cancer survivors. Methods The Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from study inception to June 2019. Studies of adults who had been diagnosed with cancer that examined the association between sedentary behavior and mortality, patient‐reported outcomes (eg, fatigue, depression), or anthropometric outcomes (eg, body mass index, waist circumference) were eligible for inclusion. Meta‐analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest levels of sedentary behavior for all‐cause and colorectal cancer‐specific mortality outcomes. The ROBINS‐E (Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies‐of Exposures tool) and the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system were used to assess the risk of bias and the strength of evidence, respectively. Results Thirty‐three eligible publications from a total of 3569 identified articles were included in the review. A higher level of postdiagnosis sedentary behavior was associated with an increased risk of all‐cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06‐1.41; heterogeneity [I2 statistic], 33.8%) as well as colorectal cancer‐specific mortality (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14‐2.06; I2, 0%). No clear or consistent associations between sedentary behavior and patient‐reported or anthropometric outcomes were identified. The risk of bias in individual studies ranged from moderate to serious, and the strength of evidence ranged from very low to low. Conclusions Although avoiding high levels of sedentary behavior after a cancer diagnosis may improve survival, further research is required to help clarify whether the association is causal.
    • Development of inclusive education in England: Impact on children with special educational needs and disabilities

      Williams-Brown, Zeta; Hodkinson, Alan (Springer, 2019-07-29)
      This chapter considers a historical account of the development of inclusion in England and the changes made to the education of children with SEND since the 1940s. The chapter details the development of inclusive education, the complexity of defining inclusion, and what inclusion has come to mean in current practice. This historical account is considered alongside the development and dominance of the standards agenda. In considering inclusion in this manner, the original intentions of its agenda are questioned against the practical implementation of inclusive education in current practice. The chapter concludes by proposing that significant progress has not been made with inclusion because it has not been possible to accommodate it within the competing political agendas replete in England’s education system.
    • The technical and vocational provision in England: A comparative study with the Austrian secondary system

      Starr, Sean; Bartram, Brendan (Routledge, 2017-08-07)
      This chapter reviews the reintroduction of apprenticeships in England, with a focus on education into employment. This is achieved by comparing English secondary schools with the Austrian system. The Austrian system was chosen due to its having over 40 years of very diverse educational provision, including a significant vocational and apprenticeship programme. The curriculum offer in England is determined by the national curriculum and supported by governmental accountability measures, which focus on academic subjects. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) has been neglected in England, regardless of the student's interests, passion or abilities. With the introduction of more specialised TVET provision in England, it may possibly allow for routes to represent 'vocationalised' general education. The Austrian education system is run by the individual federal states and therefore there is no national curriculum standard as such. Intermediate and upper secondary technical and vocational schools/colleges offer pupils the possibility of choosing between different study courses.
    • Challenges to concordance: theories that explain variations in patient responses

      Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca (Mark Allen Group, 2019-10-23)
      Failing to establish a collaborative relationship between patient and health professional can be a significant obstacle to recovery. Julie Green and Rebecca Jester delve into the psychology behind patient responses and present methods to empower patients.
    • Granulated sugar treatment for leg ulcers: a case report

      Murandu, Moses Donald (RCN Publishing Ltd., 2016-02-02)
      The use of sugar in the treatment of wounds dates back to Ancient Egypt. This article begins with a summary of that history and, in the case study that follows, a patient describes his 13-year experience of living with leg ulcers. The patient explains the challenges these ulcers have brought to his day-to-day life and the particular problems he encountered with pain management. He discusses different approaches by doctors and district nurses to manage the ulcers and how, by chance, a newspaper article led to a meeting with a PhD student researching sugar and wound care – a meeting that was to lead to a new lease of life for the patient.
    • Try before you buy: a small business employer (SME) perspective of international student mobility in England

      Sutherland, Matthew; Thompson, David; Edirisingha, Prabash (Informa UK Limited, 2019-10-25)
      Attracting international students has become a strategic priority for UK immigration policy as well as for British universities. However, research shows that there are emergent intercultural barriers that challenge international students’ carrier aspirations and inhibit their ability to find employment. Also, small business employers (SMEs) are becoming a significant force in the post-Brexit UK economy and integral to creating innovation and employment opportunities. Despite this significance, we do not know what SME owners view the value of international students and how these perceptual discourses shape international student experience and mobility. In response, this research investigates small business employer discourses relating to international student employability. We base our data collection in strategically important North East of England and draw from semi-structured in-depth interviews with small business employers from the region. Our findings discuss their perception of international students as well as universities and discuss how these prevailing discourses influence international students’ employability. We specifically show how socio-cultural dispositions of international students, dominant British employer and market discourses, and universities strategic pursuits interplay and contribute to challenges international students confront within the highly competitive and dynamic higher education environment.