Now showing items 1-20 of 1585

    • Patient, carer and health service outcomes of nurse-led early discharge after breast cancer surgery: A randomised controlled trial

      Wells, M; Harrow, A; Donnan, P; Davey, P; Devereux, S; Little, G; McKenna, E; Wood, R; Chen, R; Thompson, A; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2004-08-16)
      Patients with breast cancer who require axillary clearance traditionally remain in hospital until their wound drains are removed. Early discharge has been shown to improve clinical outcomes, but there has been little assessment of the psychosocial and financial impact of early discharge on patients, carers and the health service. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-led model of early discharge from hospital. Main outcome measures were quality of life and carer burden. Secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction, arm morbidity, impact on community nurses, health service costs, surgical cancellations and in-patient nursing dependency. A total of 108 patients undergoing axillary clearance with mastectomy or wide local excision for breast cancer were randomised to nurse-led early discharge or conventional stay. Nurse-led early discharge had no adverse effects on quality of life or patient satisfaction, had little effect on carer burden, improved communication between primary and secondary care, reduced cancellations and was safely implemented in a mixed rural/urban setting. In total, 40% of eligible patients agreed to take part. Nonparticipants were significantly older, more likely to live alone and had lower emotional well being before surgery. This study provides further evidence of the benefits of early discharge from hospital following axillary clearance for breast cancer. However, if given the choice, most patients prefer to stay in hospital until their wound drains are removed. © 2004 Cancer Research UK.
    • Association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and dementia syndromes

      Chen, Ruoling; Wilson, Kenneth; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Dongmei; Qin, Xia; He, M; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Copeland, John R; School of Health Administration, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. (BMJ, 2013-01-01)
      Objectives: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a range of adverse health effects, but its association with dementia remains unclear and with dementia syndromes unknown. We examined the dose-response relationship between ETS exposure and dementia syndromes. Methods: Using a standard method of GMS, we interviewed 5921 people aged ≥60 years in five provinces in China in 2007-2009 and characterised their ETS exposure. Five levels of dementia syndrome were diagnosed using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy instrument. The relative risk (RR) of moderate (levels 1-2) and severe (levels 3-5) dementia syndromes among participants exposed to ETS was calculated in multivariate adjusted regression models. Results: 626 participants (10.6%) had severe dementia syndromes and 869 (14.7%) moderate syndromes. Participants exposed to ETS had a significantly increased risk of severe syndromes (adjusted RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.59). This was dose-dependently related to exposure level and duration. The cumulative exposure dose data showed an adjusted RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.28) for >0-24 level years of exposure, 1.15 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.42) for 25-49 level years, 1.18 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.59) for 59-74 level years, 1.39 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.84) for 75-99 level years and 1.95 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.83) for ≥100 level years. Significant associations with severe syndromes were found in never smokers and in former/current smokers. There were no positive associations between ETS and moderate dementia syndromes. Conclusions: ETS should be considered an important risk factor for severe dementia syndromes. Avoidance of ETS may reduce the rates of severe dementia syndromes worldwide.
    • Data for development: shifting research methodologies for Covid-19

      Traxler, John; Smith, Matthew (Commonwealth of Learning, 2021-03-31)
      Successful and appropriate informal digital learning can help individuals and communities build sustainable and meaningful livelihoods, strengthen social cohesion and resilience, preserve and enhance cultural traditions and engage constructively and robustly with the wider world. Building digital learning that embodies participative and collaborative development and community ownership and control rests on the work of educators who understand these individuals and communities and their cultures, which may be very distant and different from global norms and the mainstream of their countries. These educators may however be reliant on research tools and techniques that are inappropriate or inadequate in these different settings and situations. This paper sets out a brief critique of these established tools and techniques as the prelude to reviewing a range of more innovative and eclectic ones drawn from a variety of disciplines. This is timely because COVID-19 has increased the barriers that separate educators from would-be learners whilst also increasing the education that these people and communities need.
    • A tribute to Professor Edward Winter

      Nevill, AM; Williams, C; Copeland, RJ; Flint, SW (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-03)
      This tribute honours Professor Edward Winter who, during a distinguished career, made a substantial contribution to the discipline of Sport and Exercise Science. Edward authored more than 200 publications, was involved in the review of more than 2000 manuscripts and abstracts and had extensive experience of supervising and examining research candidates. Specifically here, Professor Winter made a major contribution to the Journal of Sport Sciences as section editor for Sport Performance for over a decade. The editorial Board wishes to formally acknowledge the contribution made by Edward to; the work of the Journal, the development of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences and the science of sport and exercise. This editorial comprises contributions from colleagues across the sport and exercise community that are published elsewhere (Copeland et al., 2020).
    • Developing a new curvilinear allometric model to improve the fit and validity of the 20-m shuttle run test as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults and youth

      Nevill, Alan; Ramsbottom, Roger; Sandercock, Gavin; Bocachica-González, Carlos Eduardo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tomkinson, Grant (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Background and Objectives: Doubts have been raised concerning the validity of the 20m shuttle run test (20mSRT) as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth based on Léger’s equation/model. An alternative allometric model has been published recently that is thought to provide, not only a superior fit (criterion validity) but also a more biologically and physiologically interpretable model (construct validity). The purposes of this study were to explore whether allometry can provide a more valid predictor of CRF using 20mSRT compared with Léger’s equation/model. Methods: We fitted and compared Léger’s original model and an alternative allometric model using two cross-sectional datasets (youth, n=306; adult n=105) that contained measurements of CRF (V ̇O2peak /V ̇O2max) and 20mSRT performance. Quality-of-fit was assessed using explained variance (R2) and Bland and Altman’s limits of agreement. Results: The allometric models provided superior fits for the youth (explained variance R2=71.9%) and adult (R2=77.7%) datasets compared with Léger’s equation using their original fixed (R2=35.2%) or re-estimated parameter models (R2=65.9%), confirming that the allometric models demonstrate acceptable criterion validity. However, the allometric models also identified a non-linear “J-shaped” increase in energy cost (V ̇O2peak/V ̇O2max) with faster final shuttle-run speeds, (fitted speed exponent =1.52; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.65). Conclusion: Not only do allometric models provide more accurate predictions of CRF (V ̇O2peak/V ̇O2max; for both youth and adults (evidence of criterion validity), the “J-shaped” rise in energy demand with increasing final shuttle-run speed also provides evidence of construct validity, resulting in a more plausible, physiologically sound and interpretable model.
    • Inclusion, measurement and relevance… and Covid-19

      Traxler, John (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-17)
      This paper addresses the theme of ‘widening student access, participation and lifelong learning’ within the wider issue of ‘measuring excellence’ in the UK higher education and finds them both to be problematic. An earlier paper entitled ‘Inclusion in an age of mobility’ (Traxler 2016) written over 4 years ago made the case that the inclusion agenda of the UK higher education of 1990s was largely a failure in its own terms but had in any case been made irrelevant by the subsequent onset of pervasive and ubiquitous connectivity and mobility, profoundly transforming the production, ownership, distribution and nature of learning and knowing and problematising the role and status of universities and lecturers.
    • From elitist to inclusive higher education

      Brewster, Stephanie; Brown, Zeta (Routledge, 2016-04-28)
    • Putting children forward for epilepsy surgery: A qualitative study of UK parents' and health professionals' decision-making experiences

      Heath, G; Abdin, S; Begum, R; Kearney, S; Department of Psychology, Aston University, Birmingham, UK; Department of Psychology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address: (Elsevier, 2016-06-29)
      © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Background Against a backdrop of recommendations for increasing access to and uptake of early surgical intervention for children with medically intractable epilepsy, it is important to understand how parents and professionals decide to put children forward for epilepsy surgery and what their decisional support needs are. Aim The aim of this study was to explore how parents and health professionals make decisions regarding putting children forward for pediatric epilepsy surgery. Methods Individual interviews were conducted with nine parents of children who had undergone pediatric epilepsy surgery at a specialist children's hospital and ten healthcare professionals who made up the children's epilepsy surgery service multidisciplinary healthcare team (MDT). Three MDT meetings were also observed. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings Four themes were generated from analysis of interviews with parents: presentation of surgery as a treatment option, decision-making, looking back, and interventions. Three themes were generated from analysis of interviews/observations with health professionals: triangulating information, team working, and patient and family perspectives. Discussion Parents wanted more information and support in deciding to put their child forward for epilepsy surgery. They attempted to balance the potential benefits of surgery against any risks of harm. For health professionals, a multidisciplinary approach was seen as crucial to the decision-making process. Advocating for the family was perceived to be the responsibility of nonmedical professionals. Conclusion Decision-making can be supported by incorporating families into discussions regarding epilepsy surgery as a potential treatment option earlier in the process and by providing families with additional information and access to other parents with similar experiences.
    • Disability, diversity and inclusive placement learning

      Brewster, Stephanie; Thompson, David; Bartram, Brendan (Routledge, 2020-10-30)
    • Les facteurs qui influencent le choix de traitement ou l’éducation des patients et de leurs proches pour choix de traitement en pleine connaissance de cause

      Matheson, David; Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Djeumeni Tchamabe, M; Voulgre, E; Groux, D; Nyebe Atangana, S (l'Harmattan, 2019-06-28)
    • Making the case for lifelong learning: PIAAC and policy change

      Tuckett, Alan (2018-11-28)
      My paper looks first at why learning through the adult lifespan is important and valuable for individuals, communities, companies and for governments. Secondly, it looks at the relationship between the range of challenges facing countries in the light of economic, technological and demographic change, and the available evidence of adults’ competence to address those challenges. For this it draws heavily on the very rich evidence in the OECD Programme of International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) (OECD 2013). The paper notes PIAAC’s primary focus on skills related to the labour market and productivity, and its useful survey of aspects of social capital. It complements this by considering other forms of quantifiable data, and qualitative studies relevant to policy making that affect a wider range of lifelong and life-wide learning. These include looking at evidence from longitudinal studies, more targeted surveys, and the rich range of narratives drawn on in advocacy work.
    • ‘Because it’s fun’: English and American girls’ counter-hegemonic stories of alcohol and marijuana use

      Arnull, E; Ryder, J (Informa UK Limited, 2019-02-20)
      Girls’ alcohol and other drug (AOD) use are depicted culturally as problematic. In this comparative, qualitative, study the voices of 59 English and American justice-involved girls give a counter-hegemonic portrayal of their alcohol and marijuana use. In their stories, we see how their AOD use is pleasurable and boundaried. AOD use involves negotiated risk within the situated context of shared experience and friendship networks that heighten and promote pleasure and fun. The findings offer the opportunity to address the ‘credibility gap’ in international health promotion policy. Our aim is to promote the adoption of policy approaches that recognize the complexity of girls’ lives and draw on strategies they have devised.
    • Being a girl who gets into trouble: narratives of girlhood

      Arnull, E (Berghahn Journals, 2019-07-01)
      In this article I focus on the narratives of girls who describe the events that shape their lives and get them into trouble. The narratives are explored against Darrell Steffensmeier and Emilie Allan's (1996) proffered Gender Theory, to consider whether it offers an adequate explanatory framework. The article adds to the body of knowledge about girlhood, gender norms, and transgression and provides fresh insight into the relevance of physical strength to girls' violence. I conclude that girls are defining girlhood as they live it and it is the disjuncture with normative concepts that leads them into conflict with institutions of social control.
    • Exploring ethical issues arising from ten years of inclusive research with people with a learning disability

      Tilly, Liz (South-East Network for the Social Sciences, 2020-12-31)
      Inclusive research enables people with a learning disability, with support, to take a lead role at all stages of the research, including the design, process and dissemination, rather than just contributing to the data collection (Walmsley and Johnson, 2003). In 2010 a short-term research project enabled a group of people with a learning disability to ‘research their own lives’. An unexpected outcome was that the members greatly valued the opportunity to tell their stories and wanted to continue. Ten years later the group continues to research issues affecting them and their peers from a disability rights (United Nations General Assembly, 2006) and social model of disability perspective. This article is based on the personal observations and reflections of their non-disabled group facilitator and fellow researcher, regarding a range of ethical issues and dilemmas raised by this inclusive research approach. They include anonymity and confidentiality, the need for flexible roles of the group facilitator, including advocate and supporter, and the extent that this conflicts with the role of co-researcher. Power, ownership and control of the research agenda are also discussed.
    • Patterns of occupational stress in police contact and dispatch personnel: Implications for physical and psychological health

      Galbraith, Niall; Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Galbraith, Victoria (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose Occupational stress in police call handlers is researched less frequently than in operational or front-line police, despite the role’s unique challenges. Occupational stress is potentially manageable, thus improved understanding of its contributors and consequences is important for effective intervention. We aimed to compare levels and sources of organisational stress in police contact and dispatch personnel with UK benchmarks. Secondly, to test whether different typologies of stress were associated with physical health, mental health and substance use. Finally, to examine whether non-organisational factors (socio-demographic factors and family interference with work (FIW)) predicted organisational stress typologies. Methods A sample (n = 720) of police and civilian staff in a UK police call and dispatch centre were surveyed. Results The strongest sources of stress were competing and high demands, low control, insufficient managerial support and ambiguity surrounding workplace change – all of which indicated need for ‘urgent action’ according to UK benchmarks. Substance use and particularly mental health difficulties were higher than published norms. A latent profile analysis grouped respondents into a low stress group and two high stress profiles: As stress increased across profiles, this corresponded with worse physical and mental health and higher substance use. FIW predicted membership of both high stress profiles. Conclusion Despite non-operational roles, police contact and despatch personnel can experience high occupational stress which is associated with physical and mental health difficulties and substance use. Organisational-level interventions which address lack of control, conflicting role demands as well as enhance management support and communication around change might be most effective in this group.
    • Learning as development: Rethinking international development in a changing world

      Tuckett, Alan (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-08-07)
    • The perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care among people From Chinese backgrounds living in England: a grounded theory method

      Niu, Y; Mcsherry, W; Partridge, M; Department of Nursing, School of Health and Social Care, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK. (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-13)
      Introduction: There has been a growing number of people from Chinese backgrounds entering England and their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care need to be addressed when their cultural context changes. Methodology: A Straussian grounded theory method was used. Twenty-five participants were recruited, after which point data saturation was reached. Results: Four themes emerged showing participants’ perceptions of the terms: holistic; family involvement; religious care; abstract and sensitive. Discussion: Participants held holistic and culturally sensitive perspectives of spirituality, which demonstrates that patient-centered care is important. Also, health care professionals need to consider methods to involve family member and use religious or cultural values to support their spiritual needs. Particularly, when implementing spiritual care, they need to be aware that people from Chinese backgrounds blend Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism together in their understanding of the terms and may provide contradictory information about their religious belief.
    • The need to redefine age- and gender-specific overweight and obese body mass index (bmi) cut-off points

      Nevill, Alan M; Metsios, George S (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2016-05)
      For convenience, health practitioners and clinicians are inclined to classify people/patients as overweight or obese based on body mass index (BMI) cut-off points of 25 and 30 kg/m^2 respectively, irrespective of age and gender.
    • The relationship between adductor squeeze strength, subjective markers of recovery and training load in elite rugby players

      Tiernan, C; Lyons, M; Comyns, T; Nevill, AM; Warrington, G; Department of Physical Education and Sport Science (PESS), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2019-11)
      © 2019 National Strength and Conditioning Association. The adductor squeeze strength test has become a popular training monitoring marker, particularly in team sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adductor squeeze strength scores, subjective markers of recovery and training load in elite Rugby Union players, because of limited research in this area. Nineteen elite male Rugby Union players completed daily monitoring markers (adductor squeeze strength and 5 selected subjective markers of recovery), over a 10-week preseason training period. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was collected to determine training load (session RPE; RPE × session duration) and to calculate weekly training load. Spearman’s correlation was used to analyze the relationship between adductor squeeze strength scores, subjective markers of recovery, and weekly training load. The results found that where adductor squeeze scores decreased, both perceived fatigue levels (r = -0.335; R2 = 11.2%; p < 0.001) and muscle soreness (r = -0.277; R2 = 7.7%; p < 0.001) increased. A weak correlation was found between Monday adductor squeeze strength scores and the previous week’s training load (r = -0.235; R2 = 5.5%; p < 0.001) and Friday adductor squeeze strength scores and the same week’s training load (r = -0.211; R2 = 4.5%; p < 0.05). These results show that adductor squeeze strength may provide coaches with a time-efficient, low‐cost objective, player monitoring marker. Additionally, the combination of adductor strength squeeze, with subjective markers, perceived fatigue, and muscle soreness, and appropriately planned training load may help coaches to optimize training adaptations by determining a player’s training status.
    • Teacher candidate perceptions of the edTPA in physical and health education

      Holden, Shelley L; Parkes, Craig; O’Leary, Nick (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-21)
      The purpose of this exploratory case study was to investigate physical and health education teacher candidate’s perceptions of factors influencing effective implementation of edTPA at one teacher preparation program in the Southeastern United States. The participants were six physical and health education teacher candidates who had recently completed the edTPA portfolio. In line with the principles of case study methodology data were collected through the application of a Qualtrics survey, followed by focus group and one-on-one interviews. NVivo 11 Pro software package was employed to analyse data using analytic induction and constant comparison techniques. The analysis revealed that the factors that influenced participant experiences of the edTPA fell into four themes: (a) tandem cooperating teachers and teacher candidates’ edTPA learning, (b) essential faculty support, (c) boot camp workshop support, and (d) effective mock submissions. The study reveals that there are a number of strategic interventions that can improve the effectiveness of edTPA programs. These include, but are not limited to, targeted training for cooperating teachers, involving physical and health education faculty in boot camp workshops, and assigning mock edTPA assignments during methods courses.