Krasnow, Donna; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (Hanley & Belfus, Inc., 2012-09)
This study examined utilization of the trunk and lower extremity muscles during grand battement devant in three conditions: at the barre (supported stationary condition in 1st position), in the center (unsupported stationary condition in 1st position), and traveling through space. Forty dancers (age 30.0 ± 13.0 yrs, height 1.63 ± 0.06 m, weight 59.0 ± 7.4 kg, and 13.9 ± 13.3 yrs of training in ballet and/or modern dance) volunteered and were placed in three skill level groups: beginner (n = 12), intermediate (n = 14), and advanced (n = 14). Dancers executed five grand battement devant in each of the three conditions in randomized order. We examined muscle activation bilaterally in eight muscles (abdominals, abductor hallucis, erector spinae, gastrocnemius, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps, and tibialis anterior) using surface electromyography, a three-dimensional video biomechanical tracking system to identify events, and force plates. All data were analyzed in four events: stance, initiation, peak, and end. Analysis was done using a linear mixed effects regression model with condition, event, muscle, level, and side as the fixed effects, and subject as the random effect. There were significant effects for muscle x event x condition (p<0.01) and for level x side x muscle (p<0.01). Muscle use varied according to the combination of event and condition that was executed, and these differences were also influenced by the level of training of the dancer and the side of the body used. It is recommended that dance educators consider the importance of allocating sufficient time to each of the three conditions (barre, center, and traveling) to ensure development of a variety of motor strategies and muscle activation levels for dance practice.
Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew A.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2012-06)
The purpose of this study was to examine grand battement devant at the barre, in the center, and traveling through space. The primary focus was to consider weight transfer in three conditions: from two feet to one foot for the barre and center conditions, and from one foot to the other foot in traveling. Forty female dancers volunteered (mean age 30.0 ± 13.0 yrs) and were placed in three groups: beginner (n = 12), intermediate (n = 14), and advanced (n = 14). Data were collected with a 7-camera Vicon motion capture system using a Plug-in Gait Full Body Marker set and with two Kistler force plates. Dancers executed five grand battement devant in each of three conditions in randomized order: at the barre in 1st position, in the center in 1st position, and traveling through space. Four variables were investigated: center of gravity of the full trunk, center of gravity of the pelvis, center of gravity of the upper trunk, and center of mass. Data were analyzed in three intervals-stance to battement initiation (STN to GBI), initiation to battement peak (GBI to GBP), and peak to end (GBP to END)-and in the x-axis and y-axis. The main effect condition was significant for all four variables in both x-axis and y-axis (p<0.001). There were no significant differences for training and no significant condition X training interactions. Condition was significant for all three intervals (STN to GBI, GBI to GBP, and GBP to END) for all four variables in both axes (p<0.01). Dance educators might consider the importance of allocating sufficient time in dance practice to each of the three conditions-barre, center, and traveling-to ensure development of a variety of motor strategies for weight transfer.
Krasnow, Donna; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Stecyk, Shane; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Wyon, Matthew A.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2011-12)
Surface electromyography (sEMG) has been used in dance medicine research since the 1970s, but normalization procedures are not consistently employed in the field. The purpose of this project was to develop a portable anchored dynamometer (PAD) specifically for dance-related research. Due to the limited studies in the dance research literature using normalization procedures for sEMG data, a review of the procedures used in the exercise science literature was conducted. A portable anchored dynamometer was then developed and tested with dancers, using methods validated in previous literature. We collected sEMG maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC, mV) from 10 female dancers (mean age 31.0 ± 15 yrs, mean height 163 ± 7.6 cm, mean weight 57.6 ± 6.9 kg, and 17.0 ± 13.9 yrs of training in ballet and/or modern dance) over three trials (5 sec each) for eight muscles bilaterally (quadriceps, tibialis anterior, abductor hallucis, gastrocnemius, hamstrings, gluteus maximus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominus). Consistency of data and feedback from dancers suggest that this dance-specific portable anchored dynamometer is effective for future sEMG studies in dance research.
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