Russell, Jeffrey A.; Kruse, D. W.; Nevill, Alan M.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (Sage, 2010)
Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion, especially plantar flexion, but research about measuring such motion is lacking. The purposes of this study were to determine in a sample of ballet dancers whether non–weight-bearing ankle range of motion is significantly different from the weight-bearing equivalent and whether inclinometric plantar flexion measurement is a suitable substitute for standard plantar flexion goniometry. Fifteen female ballet dancers (5 university, 5 vocational, and 5 professional dancers; age 21 ± 3.0 years) volunteered. Subjects received 5 assessments on 1 ankle: non–weightbearing goniometry dorsiflexion (NDF) and plantar flexion (NPF), weightbearing goniometry in the ballet positions demi-plié (WDF) and en pointe (WPF), and non–weight-bearing plantar flexion inclinometry (IPF). Mean NDF was significantly lower than WDF (17° ± 1.3° vs 30° ± 1.8°, P < .001). NPF (77° ± 2.5°) was significantly lower than both WPF (83° ± 2.2°, P = .01) and IPF (89° ± 1.6°, P < .001), and WPF was significantly lower than IPF (P = .013). Dorsiflexion tended to decrease and plantar flexion tended to increase with increasing ballet proficiency. The authors conclude that assessment of extreme ankle motion in female ballet dancers is challenging, and goniometry and inclinometry appear to measure plantar flexion differently.
Russell, Jeffrey A.; Shave, Ruth M; Kruse, David W.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Inc., 2011)
Background: Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion. The objective of this study was to quantify the relative contributions of the ankle and various foot joints to extreme plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) in female ballet dancers using an X-ray superimposition technique and digital graphics software. Materials and Methods: One asymptomatic ankle was studied in each of seven experienced female ballet dancers. Three lateral weightbearing X-rays were taken of each ballet dancer's ankle: en pointe (maximum PF), in neutral position, and in demi-plié (maximum DF). Using graphics software, a subject's three X-ray images were superimposed and the tali were aligned. On each image the tibia, navicular, intermediate cuneiform, and first metatarsal were marked. Positional differences of a bone's line among the three images demonstrated angular movement of the bone in degrees. The neutral position was the reference from which both PF and DF of the bones were calculated. Results: The talocrural joint contributed the most motion of any pair of bones evaluated for both PF and DF, with mean movements of 57.6 ± 5.2 degrees en pointe and 24.6 ± 9.6 degrees in demi-plié. Approximately 70% of total PF and DF were attributable to the talocrural joint, with the remaining 30% coming from motion between adjacent pairs of the studied foot bones. Conclusion: Superimposed X-rays for assessing ankle and foot contributions to the extreme positions required of female ballet dancers offer insight into how these positions are attained that is not available via goniometry. Clinical Relevance: Functional information gained from this study may assist clinicians in assessessing ankle and foot pain in these individuals.
Koutedakis, Yiannis; Khaloula, M.; Pacy, P.; Murphy, Marie H.; Dunbar, G. (International Association for Dance Medicine & Science, 1997)
The purpose of this study was to identify possible relationships between the sum of knee flexion and extension peak torques and the severity of lower-body injuries in professional dancers. Twenty male (age 26.6 (+/- 6.0) years) and 22 female (age 27.1 (+/- 5.4) years) ballet and contemporary dancers reported one or more low-back, pelvis, leg, knee and foot injuries. The severity of injuries was established by recording the days off dance activities. Subjects were then monitored on a Cybex II or a KIN-CON isokinetic dynamometer. Knee flexion and extension peak torques were obtained bilaterally during three normal contractions at the velocities of 1.04 and 4.19 rad/sec. No musculoskeletal injuries were reported at the time of data collection. At 1.04 rad/sec, results revealed significant correlation coefficients between relative thigh peak torques - expressed in Nm/kg fat free mass (FFM) - and prevalence of low extremity injuries. These findings suggest that the lower thethigh-power output, the greater the degree of injury. Female dancers demonstrated higher correlation coefficients (r = -0.70; p < 0.005) than their male counterparts (r = -0.61; p < 0.01). However, no such correlations were found at the angular velocity of 4.19 rad/sec, nor when low-back injuries and thigh-power outputs were considered at both velocities. The main conclusions are: a ) low thigh power outputs are likely to be associated with the severity of low extremity injuries, and b) such relationships are better identified at lower compared to higher isokinetic velocities
Lane, Andrew M.; Hewston, Ruth M.; Redding, Emma; Whyte, Gregory P. (Society for Personality Research, 2003)
Full-time dancers typically spend a large proportion of time participating in dance classes. The present study examined mood state changes following two contrasting modern-dance styles on a sample of full-time dancers. Twenty-three dancers completed the Brunel University Mood Scale (Terry, Lane, Lane, & Keohane, 1999) to assess anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigor before and after two different dance classes. One class taught was the Jose Limon technique style, characterized by light flowing movement, and the other class taught was the Martha Graham technique style, characterized by bound movements. Results showed that participants reported a positive mood profile before and after both dance classes. Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance results indicated a significant interaction effect (Pillai's Trace 6, 15 = .32, p < .01), whereby Vigor increased following the Limon class but remained stable after the Graham class. Future research is also needed to investigate mood changes over a sustained period to evaluate more fully mood states responses to the demands of dance classes.
Russell, Jeffrey A.; Kruse, David W.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; McEwan, Islay M.; Wyon, Matthew A. (Wiley, 2010)
Dance is a high performance athletic activity that leads to great numbers of injuries, particularly in the ankle region. One reason for this is the extreme range of ankle motion required of dancers, especially females in classical ballet where the en pointe and demi-pointe positions are common. These positions of maximal plantar flexion produce excessive force on the posterior ankle and may result in impingement, pain, and disability. Os trigonum and protruding lateral talar process are two common and well-documented morphological variations associated with posterior ankle impingement in ballet dancers. Other less well-known conditions, of both bony and soft tissue origins, can also elicit symptoms. This article reviews the anatomical causes of posterior ankle impingement that commonly affect ballet dancers with a view to equipping healthcare professionals for improved effectiveness in diagnosing and treating this pathology in a unique type of athlete. Clin. Anat. 23:613-621, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Whyte, Gregory P.; George, Keith; Redding, Emma; Wilson, Mathew; Lane, Andrew M.; Firooz, Sam (International Association for Dance, Medicine and Science, 2003)
Alterations in cardiac structure and function as a result of chronic training have been extensively reported in the literature. To date, there is limited data on dancers. This study attempts to define cardiac electrical, structural, and functional characteristics of the heart in female contemporary dancers. Forty-four female full-time contemporary dance students (age: 23.0 ± 5.6 years, height: 165.2 ± 7.9 cm, body mass: 59.2 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered for the study and underwent 12-lead electrocardiography and twodimensional echocardiography. Echocardiographic results were compared with 30 age-matched and gendermatched controls. Sixteen percent (7/ 44) of dancers presented with sinus bradycardia (< 60 bpm) and seven percent (3/44) demonstrated shortened PR intervals (< 120 ms). Sokolow voltage criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy was observed in only 4% (2/44). Fourteen percent of dancers (6/44) demonstrated right axis deviation and nine percent (4/44) had incomplete right bundle branch block. One dancer exhibited nodal rhythm. Minor ST segment elevation (< 0.2 mV) was present in 7% (3/ 44) of dancers, and equally minor ST segment depression (£ 0.2 mV) was present in 7% (3/44). Negative T waves and large T waves (>1.0mV) were observed in 14% (6/44) and 4% (2/44) of the dancers respectively. QRS and QT duration were within normal limits for all dancers. Echocardiography revealed no significant differences between dancers and controls for all structural and functional indices. It is concluded that contemporary dancers demonstrate limited cardiac structure and function changes compared to matched controls.
Tiemens, Annemiek; van Rijn, Rogier M; Wyon, Matthew A; Redding, Emma; Stubbe, Janine H (Science & Medicine, 2018-06-01)
To explore whether movement quality has influence on heart rate (HR) frequency during the dance-specific aerobic fitness test (DAFT). Thirteen contemporary university dance students (age 19 ± 1.46 yrs) underwent two trials performing the DAFT while wearing a Polar HR monitor (Kempele, Finland). During the first trial, dancers were asked to perform the movements as if they were performing on stage, whereas during the second trial, standardized verbal instructions were given to reduce the quality of movement (e.g., no need to perform technically correct pliés). The variables measured at each trial were HR for all five stages of the DAFT and HR recovery (1 and 2 min after finishing the DAFT), movement quality (MQ) score, and rate of perceived exertion score (RPE). There were significant differences in HR between Trial 1 and Trial 2. For all stages and the resting period, HR was lower during Trial 2 (p<0.001). Also, the RPE score was significantly lower and the MQ score was significantly higher, indicating a poorer performance, during Trial 2 (both p<0.001). The results suggest that DAFT performance with lower movement quality elicits lower HR frequency and RPE during the DAFT. We recommend that specific instructions be given to participants about executing the movement sequence during the DAFT before testing commences. Also, movement quality must be taken into account when interpreting HR results from the DAFT in order to distinguish if a dancer's low HR results from good aerobic fitness or from poor performance of the movement sequence.
Wyon, Matthew A.; Abt, Grant; Redding, Emma; Head, Andrew; Craig, N.; Sharp, C. (Allen Press, 2004)
The aim of the present study was to examine whether the workload, expressed in oxygen uptake and heart rate, during dance class and rehearsal prepared the dancer for performance. Previous research on the demands of class and performance has been affected by equipment limitations and could only provide limited insight into the physiological demands placed on the dancer. The present study noted that dance performance had significantly greater mean oxygen uptake and heart rate than noted in both class and rehearsal (p < 0.05). Further analysis noted that, during class and rehearsal, heart rates were rarely within the aerobic training zone (60-90%HRmax, where HRmax is the maximum heart rate). Dance performance placed a greater demand on the aerobic and anaerobic glycolytic energy systems than seen during class and rehearsal, which placed a greater emphasis on the adenosine triphosphate-creatine phosphate system. Practical implications suggest the need to supplement training within dance companies to overcome this deficit in training demand.
Wyon, Matthew A.; Allen, Nicolas; Angioi, Manuela; Nevill, Alan M.; Twitchett, Emily (International Association for Dance Medicine and Science, 2006)
Jumping plays an integral part of ballet performance and this study examines some of the ballet dancer’s characteristics that influence jump height. Forty-nine dancers (M = 21; F = 28) completed a series of tests that included two footed vertical jump height, single leg vertical jump height and anthropometric measurements. Supplemental training history and company position were also recorded. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA and MANOVA) indicated males had a greater vertical jump height than females (p < 0.01) and soloist and first artists had significantly greater vertical jump height than principals and artists for both male and females (p < 0.05). Anthropometric data indicated males having significantly larger leg girths than females. Males and females had no significant bilateral differences in girth measurements though male artists had significantly smaller thighs and calves than the other seniority levels (p < 0.05). Supplemental training did not influence jump height in this study’s population though males carried out significantly more weight training (p < 0.01) and females more aerobic training (p < 0.05). When jump height was analyzed in relation to cross-sectional area of the calf and thigh, there was no gender difference (p > 0.05). These results corroborate to previous research and also provide greater insight on how anthropometric and choreographic factors potentially influence vertical jump height in ballet dancers. The ineffective influence of supplemental training on vertical jump height needs greater examination. How other training regimens could influence jump height in dancers needs to be examined.
This paper investigates the dilemma that has been projected upon Indian female dancers’ bodies by contemporary Indian audiences when female desire occupies the centrality of a performance, projecting the female body as sexual, articulate and independent of the discipline and propriety of classicism. The hostility and discomfort towards the expression of female desire and sexuality in performance by the Kolkata (Calcutta) audience demonstrates a socio-culturally specific, post-colonial and nationalist codification of corporeal aesthetics and female sexuality. Using the frameworks of the Indian nationalist construction of womanhood and chaste postcolonial sensibilities of femininity as the basis for this dilemma, this paper adopts Victor Turner’s notions of liminal and liminoid phenomenon and Brechtian defamiliarisation technique as a feminist strategy to construct a framework within which the contemporary Indian dancer can reclaim her sexuality in performance. To investigate the nature of this complex nationalist trope of chaste Indian womanhood, and to analyse the audience’s reception of a performance that attempts to subvert this trope by placing agency on the female body as sexual, I locate my argument in the discussion of The Silk Route: Memory of a Journey by Kinaetma Theatre, UK which was performed in Kolkata in August 2004.
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