• A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer

      Reilly, Thomas; Williams, A. Mark; Nevill, Alan M.; Franks, A. (Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2000-09)
      The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one (16 elite, 15 sub-elite) young players matched for chronological age (15± 16 years) and body size were studied. Test items included anthropometric (n = 15), physiological (n = 8), psychological (n = 3) and soccer-specific skills (n = 2) tests. Variables were split into separate groups according to somatotype, body composition, body size, speed, endurance, performance measures, technical skill, anticipation, anxiety and task and ego orientation for purposes of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function analysis. The most discriminating of the measures were agility, sprint time, ego orientation and anticipation skill. The elite players were also significantly leaner, possessed more aerobic power (9.0 ± 1.7 vs 55.5 ± 3.8 ml´kg- 1 ´min- 1) and were more tolerant of fatigue (P < 0.05). They were also better at dribbling the ball, but not shooting. We conclude that the test battery used may be useful in establishing baseline reference data for young players being selected onto specialized development programmes.
    • A National Learning Entitlement: Moving Beyond University Tuition Fees

      Schuller, Tom; Tuckett, Alan; Wilson, Tom (LLAKES Centre, UCL Institute of Education, 2018-01)
      The paper sets out a proposal for a National Learning Entitlement as a means of supporting all post-secondary students. The proposal takes the debate beyond the current narrow focus on university education and student debt, to a broader and more inclusive system which would encourage learning at all ages by a diverse range of students, at a lower cost than the abolition of university fees. The proposal is for a national learning entitlement which would enable free access to publicly provided, or publicly recognised, education and training for the equivalent of two years for all those aged 18 and above. It would be valid for further and adult education colleges as well as higher education. The entitlement would be pitched at around £5K per year, but could be used flexibly for part-time study, and spread over a lifetime. By going beyond university students the NLE spreads public subsidy far more equitably and efficiently. It brings into play the other 50% of the youth cohort, as well as adults who have missed out first time round. It strongly encourages diversity of provision and so matches supply better to demand. It wins on fairness, efficiency and future orientation.
    • A new quality of life consultation template for patients with venous leg ulceration

      Green, J.; Jester, R.; McKinley, R.; Pooler, A.; Mason, S.; Redsell, S.; Lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST4 6QG; Professor, Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, SE1 0AA.; Professor of Education in General Practice, Keele University Medical School, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG.; Lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST4 6QG; et al. (MA Healthcare Ltd, 2015-03-02)
      OBJECTIVE: Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) are common and recurrent, however, care for patients predominantly has a focus which overlooks the impact of the condition on quality of life. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, evidence-based consultation template, with patients and practitioners, which focuses consultations on quality of life themes. METHOD: A nominal group was undertaken to develop a new consultation template for patients with CVLUs based on the findings of earlier qualitative study phases. RESULTS: A user-friendly two-sided A4 template was designed to focus nurse-patient consultations on the quality of life challenges posed by CVLUs. CONCLUSION: CVLUs impact negatively on the quality of life of the patient but this receives inadequate attention during current consultations. This new template will help to ensure that key concerns are effectively raised, explored and addressed during each consultation. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: The NHS West Midlands Strategic Health Authority funded this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
    • A new waist-to-height ratio predicts abdominal adiposity in adults.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Stewart, Arthur D; Olds, Tim; Duncan, Michael J (Taylor & Francis, 2018-07-25)
      Our aim was to identify the best anthropometric index associated with waist adiposity. The six weight-status indices included body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHTR), and a new waist-by-height
    • A Policy pathway to reducing teenage pregnancy in Africa

      Odejimi, O; Bellingham-Young, Denise (Journal of Human Growth and Development, 2014-06)
      Background: Teenage pregnancy remains an important and complex issue around the world, with reports indicating that Africa has higher rates than other continents. Studies have indicated that social and economic determinants are associated with these higher rates. Therefore this study aims to identify the social and economic influencers of teenage pregnancy which would help develop a best-practice approach to reduce its incidence in Africa. Methods: Data sets from the World Bank Organisation between 2008 and 2010 specific to 51 Africa countries were obtained to conduct this study, based on availability. Independent t-test, Spearman’s correlation and regression analysis were performed. The eight social and economic variables used in this study are: GDP per capita, GINI index, Female Literacy rate, Health expenditure, Unemployed female rate, Gender equality, Contraceptive prevalence and urban population rate. Results: Independent t-test revealed that in countries where teenage pregnancy rate is high, Literacy rate, contraceptive prevalence rate and Healthcare expenditure rate was low. Spearman correlation indicated that female literacy rate, Healthcare expenditure, GDP per capita and Contraceptive prevalence had a significant inverse relationship with teenage pregnancy rate. Logistic regression indicates that Female Literacy rate is the best predictor of teenage pregnancy in Africa. Conclusion: Result suggest that a practical approach to reduce teenage pregnancy rate in Africa is to implement strategies and policies aimed at improving female literacy rate, Health care expenditure and the GDP per capita of a country. Additionally, an increase in female literacy rate would concurrently increase Contraceptive prevalence rate.
    • A qualitative study of self-evaluation of junior doctor performance: is perceived ‘safeness’ a more useful metric than confidence and competence?

      Roland, Damian; Matheson, David; Coats, Timothy; Martin, Graham (BMJ, 2015-11-04)
      Objectives: The terms confidence and competence have been poorly defined and are often misused by junior doctors. Given safe practice relies on healthcare professionals being aware of their own skill sets improving self-assessment of confidence and competence is important. The aim of this work was to explore junior doctors’ understanding of how they perceive their own performance in respect of managing feverish children in an emergency department. Setting: A children’s emergency department in a tertiary hospital in the East Midlands, UK. Participants: 22 Junior doctors volunteered to undertake focus groups via a meta-planning methodology over 2 years (14 participants in the first year and 8 in the second). Results: Although doctors were aware of the difference between confidence and competence they were not able to distinguish between them in practical terms. The feeling of being ‘safe’ emerged as a term in which there was a shared understanding compared to reported confidence and competence. Conclusions: A perception of ‘safeness’ is a concept that may aid self-evaluation and we present a matrix that might be used by supervisors and educators to examine this and its relationship with confidence and competence.
    • A randomised controlled trial in diabetes demonstrating the positive impact of a patient activation strategy on diabetes processes and HbA1c: The WICKED project

      Gillani, Syed M R; Nevill, Alan M.; Singh, Baldev M (ABCD (Diabetes Care) Ltd, 2017-06-25)
      Background: Patient activation is a demonstration of people participating effectively in their own care as measurable in objective outcomes. Techniques of activating patients are various. Aims: We developed a structured information booklet to promote patient activation and report the 1-year outcomes of a randomised controlled trial assessing its impact on diabetes care processes and on glycaemic control. Design and setting: It is an open label cluster randomised trial involving all people with diabetes aged more than 18 years within Wolverhampton Clinical Commissioning Group. Methods: All people with diabetes were cluster randomised into a group who were multiply mailed (MM) at 0, 3 and 6 months whilst a control group was mailed once at 3 months. Comparison of a Failed Process Score (FPS) between active and control groups was performed at 0, 3 and 12 months and of HbA1c at baseline and 12 months. Results: FPS improved significantly with multiple mailing (p=0.013), with particular impact on those with poor baseline FPS (≥2) (achieved FPS ≤1 at 12 months 49.2% vs. 46.0%, χ2=6.09, p<0.05). Overall HbA1c% across the year (adjusted) was significantly better with MM (p=0.021), with specific impact in those with a baseline HbA1c ≤7.5 (MM HbA1c% 6.7±0.07 (mean±SEM) vs. 7.0±0.09; mean±SEM difference 0.3±0.1, F=11.1, p=0.009). Conclusion: The direct provision of structured information to people with diabetes activates them to engage in their care delivery as reflected in care process and glycaemic control outcomes.
    • A research note on the Influence of relationship length and sex on preferences for altruistic and cooperative mates

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-04-04)
      Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one’s character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss’s Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate. We also found that although women placed greater importance on cooperativeness in a mate compared to men, this preference was not influenced by whether they were seeking a short-term or a long-term mate. We successfully replicate previous literature exploring the role of altruism in mate choice.
    • A simple explanation for the inverse association between height and waist in men.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Stewart, Arthur D.; Olds, Tim (American Society for Nutrition, 2010)
    • A sphere of resonance for networked learning in the ‘non-places’ of our universities

      Hayes, Sarah (Sage, 2015-02-27)
      The logic of ‘time’ in modern capitalist society appears to be a fixed concept. Time dictates human activity with a regularity, which as long ago as 1944, George Woodcock referred to as The Tyranny of the Clock. Seventy years on, Hartmut Rosa suggests humans no longer maintain speed to achieve something new, but simply to preserve the status quo, in a ‘social acceleration’ that is lethal to democracy. Political engagement takes time we no longer have, as we rush between our virtual spaces and ‘non-places’ of higher education. I suggest it is time to confront the conspirators that, in partnership with the clock, accelerate our social engagements with technology in the context of learning. Through Critical Discourse Analysis I reveal an alarming situation if we do not. With reference to Bauman’s Liquid Modernity, I observe a ‘lightness’ in policy texts where humans have been ‘liquified’ Separating people from their own labour with technology in policy maintains the flow of speed a neoliberal economy demands. I suggest a new ‘solidity’ of human presence is required as we write about networked learning. ‘Writing ourselves back in’ requires a commitment to ‘be there’ in policy and provide arguments that decelerate the tyranny of time. I am, though, ever-mindful that social acceleration is also of our own making, and there is every possibility that we actually enjoy it.
    • A summary of research into Knowledge Exchange and Enterprise Network (KEEN) projects. Report 2

      Boucher, David; Jones, Andrew; Lyons, Gillian; Royle, Karl; Saleem, Shazad; Simeon, Paula; Stokes, Michael (University of Wolverhampton Business Solutions, 2015-10-20)
    • A survey of engagement and competence levels in interventions and activities in a community mental health workforce in England.

      Lang, Linda; Orton, Sophie; Sallah, David; Hewitt-Moran, Teresa; Zhang, Dongmei; Cullen, Sean; Dixon, Sheila; Bell, Brian; Bell, David; Meeson, Lesley; et al. (Biomed Central, 2011-12-29)
      National Health Service (NHS) mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6%) and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%). The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient). There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent), Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38), Occupational therapists (3.76), Nurses (4.01), Medical staff (4.05), Social workers (4.25) and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert). These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner) and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert). In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. There was a reasonable competence level in the community-setting mental health workforce, but competence varied with professional groups and cluster activities. New staff and other non-qualified support professions need to receive efficient training, and the training content is more important than frequency to increase level of competence.
    • A systematic review and meta-analysis of lifestyle and body mass index predictors of successful assisted reproductive technologies.

      Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, S C E; van den Akker, O B A (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-27)
      Lifestyle (smoking, drinking alcohol) and body mass index (BMI) predictors of successful outcomes in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments were examined in this meta-analysis.
    • A systematic review of the association between emotions and eating behaviour in normal and overweight adult populations

      Devonport, Tracey; Nicholls, Wendy; Fullerton, Christopher L. (Sage Publications LTD, 2017-03-20)
      A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive search of four electronic databases (2004-2015) yielded 60017 articles, of which 29 met inclusion criteria. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis in terms of randomization and controlling for confounding factors. Participant’s BMI scores range from 19.73 (SD = 1.54) to 28.4 (SD = 1.4) kg/m2. Where positive and negative affect were compared, food was more likely to be consumed in response to positive affect. With regards to discrete emotions; stress, depression, and sadness consistently elicited eating behaviours that fall outside of nutritional recommendations (e.g., increased food intake, poor nutritional food choices). The role of moderators including individual differences in dietary restraint and emotional eating, as well as methodological considerations, such as means of eliciting and measuring emotions, may account for equivocality with regards to some emotion and eating associations. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research and implications for practice.
    • A systematic review of the association between emotions and eating behaviour in normal and overweight adult populations

      Devonport, Tracey J; Nicholls, Wendy; Fullerton, Christopher (SAGE Publications, 2017-03-20)
      A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive search of four electronic databases (2004–2015) yielded 60,017 articles, of which 29 met inclusion criteria. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis in terms of randomisation and controlling for confounding factors. Participant’s body mass index scores range from 19.73 (standard deviation = 1.54) to 28.4 (standard deviation = 1.4) kg/m2. Where positive and negative affects were compared, food was more likely to be consumed in response to positive affect. With regard to discrete emotions; stress, depression and sadness consistently elicited eating behaviours that fall outside of nutritional recommendations (e.g. increased food intake or poor nutritional food choices). The role of moderators including individual differences in dietary restraint and emotional eating, as well as methodological considerations, such as means of eliciting and measuring emotions, may account for equivocality with regard to some emotion and eating associations. This article concludes with recommendations for future research and implications for practice
    • A systematic review of the traits and cognitions associated with use of and belief in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

      Galbraith, Niall; Moss, Tim; Galbraith, Victoria; Purewal, Satvinder (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-22)
      Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread despite the controversy over its effectiveness. Although previous reviews have examined the demographics and attitudes of CAM users, there is no existing review on the traits or cognitions which characterise either CAM users or those who believe in CAM effectiveness. The current systematic review set out to address these gaps in the literature by applying a narrative synthesis. A bibliographic search and manual searches were undertaken and key authors were contacted. Twenty-three papers were selected. The trait openness to experience was positively associated with CAM use but not CAM belief. Absorption and various types of coping were also positively associated with CAM use and belief. No other trait was reliably associated with CAM use or belief. Intuitive thinking and ontological confusions were positively associated with belief in CAM effectiveness; intuitive thinking was also positively associated with CAM use. Studies researching cognitions in CAM use/belief were mostly on non-clinical samples, whilst studies on traits and CAM use/belief were mostly on patients. The quality of studies varied but unrepresentative samples, untested outcome measures and simplistic statistical analyses were the most common flaws. Traits and cognition might be important correlates of CAM use and also of faith in CAM.
    • A tale of two narratives: student voice – what Lies before us?

      Hall, Valerie Joyce (Taylor & Francis, 2016-12-20)
      As the last century closed, and a bright new millennium dawned, the concept of ‘student voice’ within education emerged as something to be ‘identified’ and ‘captured’. In effect, it became reified and driven by a raft of government and institutional policies and strategic initiatives; initially within the compulsory sector, but soon followed by the post-compulsory sector as the 2000s moved on. In an increasingly quasi-consumerist environment, a mechanism had emerged with potential to ‘measure’ student satisfaction. Institutions quickly took up the ‘call to arms’, assigning responsibilities to ensure there was evidence of ‘student voice’ engagement; but there was no conversation with the ‘students’ about how this was experienced by them. This concept had become a ‘portmanteau’ term; a ‘catch all’ (Fielding, 2009) competing between two narratives – student voice as democratic and transformational; and student voice as ‘policy’ and strategic initiative. Formal research that could contribute to this discussion has been sparse and this paper takes a critical stance to the literature and policy, exploring the current status of student voice and proposing a research focus that has the potential to involve students in a discussion about how their voice is heard, and for what purpose.
    • A test and extension of Lane and Terry’s (2000) conceptual model of mood-performance relationships using a large internet sample

      Lane, Andrew M; Terry, Peter C.; Friesen, Andrew P; Devonport, Tracey J.; Totterdell, Peter (Frontiers iMedia, 2017-04-18)
      The present study tested and extended Lane and Terry’s (2000) conceptual model of mood-performance relationships using a large dataset from an online experiment. Methodological and theoretical advances included testing a more balanced model of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, and evaluating relationships among emotion regulation traits, states and beliefs, psychological skills use, perceptions of performance, mental preparation, and effort exerted during competition. Participants (N = 73,588) completed measures of trait emotion regulation, emotion regulation beliefs, regulation efficacy, use of psychological skills, and rated their anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, energy, and happiness before completing a competitive concentration task. Post-competition, participants completed measures of effort exerted, beliefs about the quality of mental preparation, and subjective performance. Results showed that dejection associated with worse performance with the no-dejection group performing 3.2% better. Dejection associated with higher anxiety and anger scores and lower energy, excitement, and happiness scores. The proposed moderating effect of dejection was supported for the anxiety-performance relationship but not the anger-performance relationship. In the no-dejection group, participants who reported moderate or high anxiety outperformed those reporting low anxiety by about 1.6%. Overall, results showed partial support for Lane and Terry’s model. In terms of extending the model, results showed dejection associated with greater use of suppression, less frequent use of re-appraisal and psychological skills, lower emotion regulation beliefs, and lower emotion regulation efficacy. Further, dejection associated with greater effort during performance, beliefs that pre-competition emotions did not assist goal achievement, and low subjective performance. Future research is required to investigate the role of intense emotions in emotion regulation and performance.
    • A three year study of coronary heart disease risk factors in Greek adolescents.

      Bouziotas, Constantin; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Human Kinetics, 2003)
      We examined the prevalence of 14 modifiable CHD risk factors in a sample of 210 provincial Greek children as they progressed from age 12 to 14. It was found that 46.2 % of boys and 49.5 % of girls (p > 0.05) exhibited three or more risk factors at their 12th year, with values of 42 % for boys and 51.1 % (p > 0.05) for girls for their 13th year, and 29.4 % for boys and 55 % (p < 0.001) for girls in their 14th year. Risk factors with the highest prevalence in both sexes included low vigorous physical activity, low aerobic fitness, and elevated body fatness. The fact that boys exhibited progressively fewer risk factors with age was mainly attributed to increased time spent on vigorous physical activity (P < 0.001) and higher predicted oxygen intake (P < 0.001) with a concomitant decrease in body fat (P < 0.001). The opposite pattern demonstrated by girls was primarily due to elevated predicted % body fat (P < 0.05), % saturated fat intake (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (TC; P <0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; P < 0.001), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/TC; P < 0.001). In conclusion, a high percentage of young adolescent Greek boys and girls exhibit three or more modifiable CHD risk factors. However, as the children progress from age 12 to 14, gender differences emerge regarding the development of their CHD risk profiles. The present data support the notion that preventive strategies for combating CHD should begin early in life.