• Waist size and shape assessed by 3D photonic scanning

      Stewart, Arthur D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Stephen, R.; Young, J. (Smith-Gordon, 2010)
      Objective: To quantify waist girth at alternative locations using 3D photonic scanning and to identify the relationship between shape and size in a heterogeneous sample. Methods: Sixty-two male and 32 female healthy adults (aged 30.1 + 14.5 y) were assessed for stature, mass and 3D shape via photonic scanning, which enables the digital analysis of an individual’s body shape, avoiding postural and breathing artefacts which affect repeated measures using conventional anthropometry. Waist locations inferior to the 10th rib, and superior to the iliac crest, were identified as the ‘maximum’, ‘minimum’, ‘umbilicus’, and ‘maximum anterior extension’ via digital landmarking using system software. Sagittal and coronal diameters were measured at each waist. Girths were compared using repeated-measures ANCOVA with gender and age included, and Bonferroni adjustments made for multiple comparisons. Results: Across sites, waist girths differed by 4.9% in males and 11.7% in females. Girths showed differences at all four sites except maximum v maximum anterior extension (P = 0.061), (umbilicus v maximum P = 0.003; all other comparisons P < 0.0001). Waist girths were different between men and women ( P < 0.001), with a site-by-gender interaction (P < 0.001) and increased with age all four sites (all P < 0.001; β slopes 0.59 - 0.74 cm.yr-1). All pairwise comparisons of girth became different after excluding four men whose umbilicus fell slightly below the iliac crest. Shape (identified as sagittal : coronal diameter ratio) was highly correlated with body size at all sites. Conclusion:Waist girth exhibits significant variation according to site and is more variable in women than men. Waist increases with age and shape shows a progressive change with increasing body size.
    • Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting

      Mercer, Tom (Taylor & Francis, 2014-01-13)
      Retroactive interference (RI)—the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory—is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting.
    • Walking on thin ice: Exploring demands and means of coping during an extreme expedition

      Devonport, Tracey; Meijen, Carla; Lloyd, Juliette (Purdue University Press, 2022-12-31)
      The present exploratory study was undertaken with two experienced explorers in order to examine daily events, perceived demands, coping strategies, and mood during a unique 636-675 km ‘double solo’ crossing of Lake Baikal, a frozen lake in Siberia. A 59-year-old female explorer and a 49-year-old male explorer completed a daily survey and written diary during the expedition to collect situational data. Two semi-structured interviews were also completed, one within 24-hours and a second within four months of their return. These interviews sought to identify demands and coping efforts perceived as being most pertinent during their expedition. Guided by the work of Skinner et al. (2003), families of coping were organised around three human concerns (autonomy, relatedness, and competence) and two targets of coping (self or context). Findings illustrate two very different expedition experiences as evidenced by demands faced and coping strategies utilised, which influenced perceptions of workload and emotions experienced. Each explorer brought idiosyncrasies, which, when combined with different expedition experiences, bore influence on coping behaviours (focused on the self or context) and outcomes relative to the concerns of autonomy, relatedness, and competency. In discussing the findings, recommendations are offered for those preparing to undertake expeditions in extreme environments.
    • Walking to improve cardiovascular health: a meta-analysis of randomised control trials

      Murtagh, Elaine M; Nichols, Linda; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Holder, Roger; Nevill, Alan M.; Murphy, Marie H (2014-11-19)
    • Warm-up. A brief review

      Volianitis, Stefanos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Carson, Ray J. (J Michael Ryan, 2001)
      This review critically examines the literature on warm-up in relation to various physical-fitness components in dance. Due to the scarcity of published scientific work specifically focussed on dance, relevant reports from other physical activities have also been included. Prior to the main components of dance class or performance, dancers normally engage in a preliminary activity known as warmup, which is aimed at enhancing performance and preventing injury. The general consensus is that warm-up is associated with positive effects on aerobic and anaerobic fitness parameters as well as on flexibility, muscular strength,and power. Individuals suffering from exercise-induced asthma may also benefit from warm-up. The main gain arising from warm-up seems to be related to temperature increases. However, there seems to be no agreement among scientists on the proper intensity, type, or duration of warm-up. Further research, performed with elite performers, may provide more insights on the dose-response relationship.
    • We Belong: differential sense of belonging and its meaning for different ethnicity groups in higher education

      Cureton, Debra; Gravestock, Phil (University of Greenwich, Educational Development Unit, 2019-06-30)
      This paper covers two studies that explore student belonging in higher education and how a sense of belonging differs between ethnicity groups. The research took a mixed methodology approach, collecting both quantitative data via a survey and qualitative data via focus groups. Study One explored the differential experiences of belonging via the Belongingness Survey (Yorke, 2016), with a group of 941 students. This was followed by Study Two, which used focus groups to generate a greater understanding of what belonging meant to the students, how belonging developed and to identify barriers to developing a sense of belonging. This work concluded that ethnicity-based differences in students sense of belonging are apparent, which mirror the differences that are witnessed at a sector level in degree outcomes. Additionally, belongingness is found to have an unstable nature in that it waxes and wanes, and can be lost or developed at any part of the student lifecycle. Some student-identified initiatives to support the development of belonging are presented. The findings are discussed in the light of the current literature on differential outcomes.
    • ‘We have to wait in a queue for our turn quite a bit’ Examining children’s physical activity during primary physical education lessons

      Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne; Nevill, Alan; Powell, Alexander J; Myers, Tony D (Sage, 2018-07-16)
      The overall purpose of this study was to examine children’s physical activity (PA) during primary physical education (PE). This was achieved through the following two research objectives: (1) to measure children’s PA, lesson context and teacher promotion of PA during PE lessons; and (2) to explore teachers’ and children’s perspectives on PA levels during PE lessons. Evidence suggests that children’s PA during PE is below recommended levels and further research is required to understand the reasons why. Through a mixed method design, 138 children were observed using the System for Observing Fitness and Instruction Time, 80 children participated in group interviews, and 13 teachers were interviewed, across three primary schools in England. Findings indicated that the mean percentage of lesson time allocated to moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was 42.4% and the average lesson length was 35.3 minutes. Qualitative themes identified were: ‘knowledge and beliefs’; ‘teacher pedagogy’; and ‘teacher development’. The findings indicate that a change in perspective is needed, which includes a focus on PA during primary PE lessons. Intervention work is required that targets teachers’ knowledge and beliefs towards PE along with the development of effective teaching strategies. However, this needs to be grounded in an ecological approach which will allow researchers and schools to target the various levels of influence. It is strongly recommended that interventions are grounded in behaviour change theory, as this study indicates that sharing knowledge about pedagogical strategies to increase children’s MVPA does not necessarily produce changes in teachers’ behaviours.
    • ‘We just have to get on with it’ Inclusive teaching in a standards driven system: the design decisions of a Q-Methodology study

      Brown, Zeta (2016-01-01)
      The purpose of this study was to explore United Kingdom (UK) primary school teachers’ positions on two key areas of education ideology: inclusive schools and standards in education. This article explains the research decisions made in developing the Q study and the impact they had on the study’s findings. From a sociological, interpretivist research position this study explored the positions of 26 teachers in six schools, selected through purposive sampling to give a range of individual and institutional demographics. A Q set of statements was developed that represented the standards and inclusion agendas. Participants were then asked to sort the statements twice, firstly for inclusion and then for the standards agenda. Factor analysis revealed two distinctive factors for teachers’ positions on the standards agenda that focused on their contrasting perspectives of practically implementing the agenda’s objectives. Additionally, the factor analysis revealed three factors related to teachers’ positions on the inclusion agenda. These factors represented varied perspectives on inclusive practice and the practical barriers that are present in implementing the agenda’s objectives.
    • Weight-management in children living with asthma: a qualitative study of the experiences of paediatric healthcare professionals

      Clarke, R; Heath, G; Pattison, H; Farrow, C; Department of Psychology, Aston University , Birmingham , UK. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-16)
      © 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Objective: Weight loss has been found to improve the symptoms of asthma in children who are overweight. However, many paediatric weight management programmes do not address the challenges associated with living with asthma. The aim of this study was to explore the views and experiences of paediatric healthcare professionals concerning weight management advice and support offered to families of children living with asthma. Methods: In-depth individual interviews with 10 healthcare professionals who work with a paediatric asthma population (n = 4 Respiratory Consultants, 3 Respiratory Nurses, 3 General Paediatricians). Data were analysed using a Framework approach. Results: Healthcare professionals highlighted that families’ perceptions of weight, their approach to physical activity and nutrition, the family’s social context and perceptions of asthma and asthma treatment all influence weight management in children living with asthma. Initiating weight management conversations and referring to weight management support were perceived as challenging. It was thought that tailoring weight management to the needs of children living with asthma and locating support within the community were important to the success of a family-centred intervention. Conclusions: The results highlight the added complexity of responding to excessive weight in a paediatric population with asthma. Training and referral guidance for healthcare professionals may help overcome weight management support challenges. Addressing family beliefs about the factors influencing paediatric asthma and exploring families’ motivations for behaviour change may enhance engagement with weight management.
    • ‘We’re the lassies from Lancashire’: Manchester Corinthians Ladies FC and the use of overseas tours to defy the FA ban on women’s football

      Williams, Jean (Taylor & Francis, 2019-10-15)
      The FA banned women’s football from the grounds of Association-affiliated clubs in 1921, on the grounds that the organisation perceived that football was ‘unsuitable’ for women and too much money raised for charity had been absorbed in player expenses. But women continued to play. This article analyses how Manchester Corinthians Ladies Football Club, which had been formed in 1949, was able to sustain a varied range of overseas tours and domestic matches in spite of the ban. Using a range of methods, including oral history, family history interviews, a reunion of the surviving players and player memorabilia, firstly, the article provides a history of Corinthians and Nomads from 1949 onwards. Secondly, the article uses oral history to reflect what the players felt about playing for the club and particularly its overseas tours, and charity work. Not all of the players are represented due to constraints of space, but this is an introduction to a larger ongoing project to reclaim the teams’ history. Finally, the article argues that it is important to examine the 1950s and 1960s, decades when women’s football was an unregulated activity, in order to understand that which followed once the FA ban was lifted in 1969.
    • We’ve got something for everyone: How individual differences predict different blogging motivations

      Fullwood, Chris; Nicholls, Wendy; Makichi, Rumbidzai (Sage, 2014-04-11)
      The principal aims of this study were to develop a Blogging Motivations Questionnaire (BMQ) and to test the hypothesis that sex, age, and personality would be associated with individual blogging motivations. One hundred and sixty bloggers completed the BMQ and the International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Six motivations for writing blogs were confirmed: personal revelation, emotional outlet, creative outlet, selective disclosure, social networking and advertising. Conscientiousness predicted the ‘social networking’ motivation, Agreeableness predicted ‘selective disclosure’ and Openness ‘creative outlet’. Women were motivated by ‘selective disclosure’, and men for ‘advertising’ and as an ‘emotional outlet’. Finally, older bloggers were motivated to use their blogs as a ‘creative outlet’. With reference to the Uses and Gratifications paradigm, it is likely that bloggers actively construct blogs to satisfy very personal needs. Moreover, the types of needs that one wishes to satisfy are likely to vary with personality type and with one’s age and sex.
    • What am I thinking? Perspective-taking from the perspective of adolescents with autism

      Atherton, Gray; Lummis, Ben; Day, Susan X.; Cross, Liam (Sage, 2018-10-11)
      Autistic people are often described as being impaired with regard to theory of mind, though more recent literature finds flaws in the theory of mind deficit paradigm. In addition, the predominant methods for examining theory of mind often rely on “observational” modes of assessment and do not adequately reflect the dynamic process of real-life perspective taking. Thus, it is imperative that researchers continue to test the autistic theory of mind deficit paradigm and explore theory of mind experiences through more naturalistic approaches. This study qualitatively examined theory of mind in 12 autistic adolescents through a series of semi-structured interviews. Interpretive phenomenological analysis of the data revealed four core themes in participants’ theory of mind experiences and strategies, all of which highlighted how a more accurate representation of autistic theory of mind is one of difference rather than deficit. For instance, data showed that autistic heightened perceptual abilities may contribute to mentalizing strengths and that honesty in autism may be less dependent on systemizing rather than personal experience and choice. Such findings suggest that future research should reexamine autistic characteristics in light of their ability to enhance theory of mind processing. Understanding how an autistic theory of mind is uniquely functional is an imperative step toward both destigmatizing the condition and advocating for neurodiversity.
    • What are the factors which contribute to level one social work students failing to progress or achieving low grades?

      Lees, Kate (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      This study is a preliminary review of the possible reasons for low achievement among some level one social work undergraduates. These may be viewed as challenges to the individual, attempting to study in a particular social context, or as challenges to the institution in raising achievement and accommodating differing needs. Much of the literature is concerned with the experiences of students from particular social groups. In some studies, these concerns are integrated with the identification of individual strategies for success and/or institutional practices which foster or inhibit achievement.
    • What constitutes high quality higher education pedagogical research

      Evans, Carol; Kandiko-Howson, Camile; Forsythe, Alexandra; Edwards, Corony (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-27)
      Over the last 20 years there has been significant growth in the volume of higher education pedagogical research across disciplines and national contexts, but inherent tensions in defining quality remain. In this paper we present a framework to support understanding of what constitutes internationally excellent research, drawing on a range of conceptual frameworks, international and national performance-based research funding systems, discipline/professional body frameworks, and research council guidance. While acknowledging the contested nature of excellence in higher education pedagogical research, we provide criteria to guide discussion and to support individual and organisational learning. A key premise is that if learning and teaching in higher education are to be enhanced, considerable investment is required in supporting the development of integrated academics where emphasis is on both research and practice to inform pedagogy. Research and evaluation are essential aspects of teaching and need to be embedded within it. The framework is designed to enable colleagues to develop the necessary tools and approaches to support understanding of educational research and adapt these within their disciplinary context.
    • What disability? I am a leader! Understanding leadership in HE from a disability perspective

      Emira, Mahmoud; Brewster, Stephanie; Duncan, Neil; Clifford, Angela (Sage, 2016-11-21)
      This article is based on the findings of an externally funded, mixed-methods research project conducted at one English university. This small-scale project aimed to examine leadership, barriers to becoming a leader and the support needed to overcome them, from the perspectives of disabled staff. An online questionnaire was sent to all 66 members of staff who had disclosed their disabled status to the university and 22 responses were received. Twelve participants were then interviewed as two focus groups to discuss their views on leadership and its relation to their role. Six more respondents opted for individual face-to-face/telephone interviews. The findings indicated that over half of the respondents were already engaged in ‘formal’ leadership and even more exercised ‘informal’ leadership. This key finding seems to contradict the under-representation of disabled academics in leadership reported in the literature. Despite their engagement in leadership, disabled staff faced several institutional and personal barriers. The findings suggest that having an impairment per se might not necessarily deter disabled staff from exercising leadership. A number of support strategies are recommended to facilitate their participation in (formal) leadership.
    • What do people really do at work? Job analysis and design

      Woods, Stephen A; Hinton, Danny; Chmiel, Nik; Fraccaroli, Franco; Sverke, Magnus (Wiley-Blackwell, 2017-03-11)
      What do people really do at work? Or to phrase the question differently, what is the content and nature of different jobs in organizations? What should people do in their respective jobs in order to deliver organizational strategy? This chapter introduces the means by which these questions are answered: job analysis. In this chapter, job analysis is defined, and its place within a number of wider organisational systems is explored. Following this, the distinction is drawn between two broad types of analysis: work-oriented and worker-oriented analysis in terms of their focus and the end products that they are used to generate. A number of both work- and worker-oriented methods for the collection of job analysis data are described, after which are considered some specific organisational contexts in which job analysis data is used in the form of Training Needs Analysis and job design. Finally, two modern alternatives to the classical approach to job analysis are described: competency profiling and work analysis. These approaches are explored in terms of the benefits that they can provide to practitioners in overcoming some of the limitations of traditional approaches to job analysis in the modern working world.
    • What do people with a learning disability say about orthopaedic and trauma hospital care?

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Eggison, Peter; Clinch, Christine (Royal College of Nursing, 2016-09-08)
      Aim: To share the results of a study about the experiences of people with a learning disability who have received orthopaedic and trauma hospital care Learning outcomes: Explain the rationale for the research Discuss the key themes from the study Consider how YOU can embrace the future for people with a learning disability in our care
    • What do we mean by student support? Staff and students’ perspectives of the provision and effectiveness of support for students

      Dhillon, Jaswinder; McGowan, Mhairi; Wang, Hong (University of Wolverhampton, 2006)
      The aim of this small-scale study is to explore the effectiveness of the support available to students registered for programmes of study in the School of Education. This includes the provision of university-wide student support and guidance services as well as the more localised study skills and academic and personal support provided by personal tutors. The perceptions of both staff and students were sampled through questionnaires and interviews. This paper presents a review of literature on the provision of student support for the increasingly diverse body of students in higher education and some preliminary findings from our survey of current students. The literature and findings from our investigation indicate discrepancies between the officially declared provision of student support services and the accessibility and use of these services in practice. There is ambiguity around the role of the personal tutor and inconsistency of practice in the level of support provided by ‘personal tutors’ which suggest that a review of the personal tutor role is needed. Student responses to our questionnaire also indicate that drop-in study skills provision in useful and being used but that other student support services, such as careers and counselling services are rarely used by students from the School of Education. This is mainly due to accessibility of these services and the lack of provision on the Walsall campus. The other major theme in the data is the process of induction to the University which students regard as being too intensive an ‘event’ and inappropriate for getting to know about support services.
    • What does it mean to be well for a person with prostate cancer?

      Matheson, David (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-04-06)
    • What have the changes made to primary and secondary assessment frameworks since 2014 done to the ‘London effect’ in school performance?

      Hayes, Sean; Jopling, Michael; Gul, Ruki (UCL IOE Press, 2018-11-03)
      This paper examines whether the so-called ‘London effect’, in which London’s schools improved rapidly and outperformed the rest of England on key performance measures between 2003 and 2013, has persisted through the high levels of change that have continued to characterise the school system in England since 2013. Using detailed analysis of educational attainment data, its primary focus is on determining whether the introduction in 2014 of significant changes to the primary curriculum and the national assessment frameworks in both primary and secondary phases affected the performance of London’s schools in 2016, when the first examinations were taken under the new assessment systems.