• Validation of a Feedback in Learning Scale; behaviourally anchoring module performance

      Jellicoe, Mark; Forsythe, Alexandra (7th International Assessment in Higher Education Conference, Manchester UK, 2019-06-01)
      Research attention has seen a move away from feedback delivery mechanisms to those that support learners to receive feedback well (Winstone, Nash, Parker, & Rowntree, 2017). Recognising feedback and the action necessary to take the next steps are vital to self-regulated task performance (Panadero, 2017; Zimmerman, 2000). The evaluative judgements which support these mechanisms are vital forces that support academic endeavour and lifelong learning (Ajjawi, Tai, Dawson, & Boud, 2018). Whilst measuring such mechanisms is well developed in occupational settings (Boudrias, Bernaud, & Plunier, 2014), understanding how these relate to self-regulated gains in learning is less well understood (Forsythe & Jellicoe, 2018). Two groups of psychology undergraduates at a University in the north-west of England endorsed perspectives associated with feedback integration. Here we refined a measure of feedback integration from the occupational research domain (Boudrias, Bernaud, & Plunier, 2014) and considered its application to gainful learning in Higher Education. The measure examines process characteristics including message valence, source credibility, and the challenge associated with feedback interventions. Action characteristics included acceptance of feedback, awareness, motivational intentions, and the desire to make behavioural changes and undertake development activities as a result of feedback. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the nature of feedback integration. Exploratory factor analysis in the first cohort revealed that undergraduate learners endorsed a single process feedback factor, which we termed credible challenge. Message valence was not endorsed by learners and therefore was dropped. From the action characteristics, learners endorsed four factors. These include acceptance of feedback, awareness, motivational intentions. Finally, the desire to take behavioural changes and participate in development activities was collapsed into a single factor. The structure of the instrument was confirmed in confirmatory factor analysis. Both models achieved mostly good, and at least acceptable fit measures endorsing the robustness of the measure in these participants. The results confirmed here in two samples of undergraduate psychology students increase understanding in a number of ways. Firstly, this increases our understanding of how students relate to feedback. These results suggest that a credible challenge may lead to greater student acceptance and awareness resulting from feedback. Together, these may lead to greater motivations to make self-regulated gains during learning. These promising results, whilst cross-sectional, also have implications for programmes. Further research employing this instrument is necessary to understand changes in learner attitudes in developing beneficial self-regulated skills that support both programmes of study and graduates in their careers
    • Validity and reliability of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt during exercise tests

      Kent, Lisa; O'Neill, Brenda; Davison, Gareth; Nevill, Alan M.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Bradley, Judy M. (Elsevier, 2009-06)
      The LifeShirt is a novel ambulatory monitoring system that records cardiorespiratory measurements outside the laboratory. Validity and reliability of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt were assessed and two methods of calibrating the LifeShirt were compared. Participants performed an incremental treadmill test and a constantwork rate test (65% peak oxygen uptake) on four occasions (>48 h apart) and wore the LifeShirt, COSMED system and Polar Sport Tester simultaneously. The LifeShirt was calibrated using two methods: comparison to a spirometer; and 800ml fixed-volume bag. Ventilation, respiratory rate, expiratory time and heart rate recorded by the LifeShirtwere compared to measurements recorded by laboratory equipment. Sixteen adults participated (6M:10F); mean (SD) age 23.1 (2.9) years. Agreement between the LifeShirt and laboratory equipment was acceptable. Agreement for ventilation was improved by calibrating the LifeShirt using a spirometer. Reliability was similar for the LifeShirt and the laboratory equipment. This study suggests that the LifeShirt provides a valid and reliable method of ambulatory monitoring.
    • Validity and reliability of three self-report instruments for assessing attainment of physical activity guidelines in university students

      Murphy, Joseph J.; Murphy, Marie H.; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Murphy, Niamh; Nevill, Alan M.; Woods, Catherine B. (Taylor & Francis, 2017-03-23)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the validity and reliability of three short physical activity self-report instruments to determine their potential for use with university student populations. The participants (N = 155; 44.5% male; 22.9 ± 5.13 years) wore an accelerometer for 9 consecutive days and completed a single-item measure, the a brief two item measure and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Short Form questionnaires on day 1 and 9. Correlations between self-reported and accelerometer derived moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels were moderate for the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Short Form, while poor for the single-item measure and the a brief two item measure. The agreement level was high with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Short Form (77.4%) and moderate for both the single-item measure (45.2 %) and a brief two item measure (44.5 %). The intraclass correlations between the two administrations were moderate to strong across all measures (0.52–0.70) in 133 participants. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Short Form is the most suitable of these three self-report instruments for use with this population due to higher correlations and levels of agreement with accelerometry.
    • Validity of a noninvasive estimation of deep body temperature when wearing personal protective equipment during exercise and recovery

      Hunt, AP; Buller, MJ; Maley, MJ; Costello, JT; Stewart, IB; School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences & Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. ap.hunt@qut.edu.au. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-06-14)
      © 2019 The Author(s). Background: Deep body temperature is a critical indicator of heat strain. However, direct measures are often invasive, costly, and difficult to implement in the field. This study assessed the agreement between deep body temperature estimated from heart rate and that measured directly during repeated work bouts while wearing explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) protective clothing and during recovery. Methods: Eight males completed three work and recovery periods across two separate days. Work consisted of treadmill walking on a 1% incline at 2.5, 4.0, or 5.5 km/h, in a random order, wearing EOD protective clothing. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 24 °C and 50% [Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) (20.9 ± 1.2) °C] or 32 °C and 60% [WBGT (29.0 ± 0.2) °C] on the separate days, respectively. Heart rate and gastrointestinal temperature (TGI) were monitored continuously, and deep body temperature was also estimated from heart rate (ECTemp). Results: The overall systematic bias between TGI and ECTemp was 0.01 °C with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) of ±0.64 °C and a root mean square error of 0.32 °C. The average error statistics among participants showed no significant differences in error between the exercise and recovery periods or the environmental conditions. At TGI levels of (37.0-37.5) °C, (37.5-38.0) °C, (38.0-38.5) °C, and > 38.5 °C, the systematic bias and ± 95% LoA were (0.08 ± 0.58) °C, (-0.02 ± 0.69) °C, (-0.07 ± 0.63) °C, and (-0.32 ± 0.56) °C, respectively. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate acceptable validity of the ECTemp up to 38.5 °C. Conducting work within an ECTemp limit of 38.4 °C, in conditions similar to the present study, would protect the majority of personnel from an excessive elevation in deep body temperature (> 39.0 °C).
    • Validity of Using Heart Rate as a Predictor of Oxygen Consumption in Dance

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Redding, E; Shearman, J; Doggart, L (2004)
      The validity of predicting oxygen uptake (VO2) from heart rate (HR) was examined in 19 professional modern dancers of both genders ranging in age from 21 to 29 years. The subjects were measured on two occasions; once during a multi-stage graded treadmill test and again during their usual modern dance class. The data showed significant differences during both the treadmill test or dance class at lower intensities of less than 20 ml·kg‑1·min‑1 (p ≤ 0.03) and paradoxically no significant differences between the relationships at intensities greater than 20 ml·kg‑1·min-1. However results also identified large individual variability and when taken into account the great variability, it would seem unacceptable to predict the VO2 from HR values in dance, based on the HR-VO2 relationship established from a progressive treadmill protocol. Furthermore, given that dance is a non-steady-state activity and is executed at low to moderate intensities with occasional anaerobic bursts, it seems unlikely that the HR-VO2 relationship established from a steady-state laboratory test can be relied upon as a predictor of VO2 in dance. An understanding of the energy requirements of dance can help in the development of more effective and appropriate training programs for dancers. However because of the intermittent and random movement pattern of dance, it has been difficult to accurately measure energy expenditure during the activity itself. Attempts at measuring the energy requirements of dance in previous studies have either involved the use of Douglas bag equipment1,2 where movement restriction was noted or they have assumed oxygen uptake (VO2) values from dance heart rates (HR) on the basis that the linear relationship between HR and VO2 3,4 established in laboratory tests (treadmill or cycle ergometer) holds true for dance.1,5 Dance is considered a nonsteady- state activity6,7 and, although the indirect method of predicting VO2 from HR has been noted as reliable during steady-state activities,3,8 the extent to which the relationship can be relied upon in non-steady-state conditions is questionable.8-10 The degree to which HR and VO2 are related during activities that involve different muscle groups and changing work intensities is far from established. In 1995, Lothian and Farrally11 found that heart rate gave a close estimate of VO2 during intermittent exercise, while in 1996, Bernard and colleagues8 suggested that the method can be depended upon during non-steady-state conditions providing that individual subject relationships are used. Dance can consist of fast jerky movements, off-balance turns, twists, and falls to the floor. Dance is multi-directional and involves the use and coordination of different muscle groups at varying times. No previous research has established the validity of this method of work rate prediction in dance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of the use of HR in estimating VO2 in dance from the HR-VO2 relationship established in a steady-state laboratory test.
    • The value of postdigital humans as objects, or subjects, in McDonaldised Society

      Hayes, Sarah; Maggi, Savin-Baden (Springer, 2021-04-26)
      Postdigital human encounters could be said to take shape differently depending on how they are either subjectively valued, or objectively evaluated. Digital technologies and humans are now intimately intertwined with shared and sometimes equal capabilities to perform human tasks. Yet still it may be argued that different disciplinary identities prevent computing and the humanities from being thought of as equivalent. Over many decades, humans and computers have been objectively evaluated in McDonaldised society, via rational language and measures where computing techniques are simply applied to improve productivity. Since the Covid-19 lockdown people have described more personal and subjective digital encounters from their homes, with their virtual identities growing as their physical presence has diminished. This chapter speculates on whether new postdigital positionalities are emerging that might finally challenge more dominant, rational interpretations of what computing means in individual lives. If so, perhaps a more subjective analysis of these new forms of postdigital participation will bring the humanities into computing, instead of vice versa. This could help to reveal the unique positionality in each individual postdigital human encounter, where subjective self-description may now be seen to be more appropriate than objective rationality.
    • The value of pro-environmental behaviour in mate choice

      Daniel, Farrelly; Bhogal, Manpal (Elsevier, 2021-05-03)
      Previous research shows that prosocial behaviour such as altruism is important in mate choice. A plethora of research shows that people are attracted to prosocial mates, and in turn, display prosocial behaviours towards those they find attractive. However, most of this research has focused on everyday forms of prosociality. Here, we apply this theoretical framework to pro-environmental behaviours, which are important prosocial behaviours, considering there is a time cost involved in engaging in such behaviours. In addition, encouraging people to engage in pro-environmental behaviours has great implications for the protection of our planet. Here, across two experiments, we successfully show that engaging in pro-environmental behaviours can increase one’s desirability in the mating market (experiment 1, n = 157) and that people display a motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviours in the presence of attractive, opposite sex targets (experiment 2, n = 307). We therefore show that it could be possible to increase pro-environmental behaviours via mate choice motivation and also demonstrate their positive role in mate evaluation. These findings have implications for marketing and increasing environmental behaviour through the lens of evolutionary theory. Note: data and materials for both experiments are available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/g42bd/?view_only=916a807650ab4f77ae66b3fc56021752).
    • Valuing and supporting teachers: a survey of teacher satisfaction, dissatisfaction, morale and retention with an English Local Education Authority

      Rhodes, Christopher; Nevill, Alan M.; Allan, Joanna (Manchester University Press, 2004)
      his study focuses on schoolteacher job satisfaction, dissatisfaction, morale, and facets of professional experience likely to lead to retention or exit from the profession within five years. It was undertaken in an English local education authority which has experienced difficulty in recruiting and retaining teachers. Forty facets of professional experience likely to impinge upon job satisfaction or dissatisfaction were created in a focus group phase and are shown to be valid using a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. A subsequent questionnaire survey of 368 teachers invited respondents to specify which of the facets they found most or least satisfying. A rank order of the relative importance of the facets, along with rank orders of factors likely to lead to teacher retention or exit from the profession within five years, was created. Chi-square tests of independence were used to identify differences in the five top-ranked factors likely to lead to retention or exit by gender, sector and years of service. The outcomes are used to suggest LEA and school leadership interventions designed to improve professional experience and increase both satisfaction and retention.
    • Vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene polymorphisms and coronary collateral formation in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions.

      Amoah, Vincent; Wrigley, Benjamin; Holroyd, Eric; Smallwood, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel L; Nevill, Alan M.; Cotton, James (SAGE Publications, 2016)
      We evaluated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and one of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and the degree of coronary collateral formation in patients with a coronary chronic total occlusion.
    • Vascular responses of the extremities to transdermal application of vasoactive agents in Caucasian and African descent individuals

      Maley, MJ; House, JR; Tipton, MJ; Eglin, CM; Extreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 2ER, UK, matthew.maley@port.ac.uk. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2015-04-04)
      © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Purpose: Individuals of African descent (AFD) are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury than Caucasians (CAU) which may be due, in part, to differences in the control of skin blood flow. We investigated the skin blood flow responses to transdermal application of vasoactive agents. Methods: Twenty-four young males (12 CAU and 12 AFD) undertook three tests in which iontophoresis was used to apply acetylcholine (ACh 1 w/v %), sodium nitroprusside (SNP 0.01 w/v %) and noradrenaline (NA 0.5 mM) to the skin. The skin sites tested were: volar forearm, non-glabrous finger and toe, and glabrous finger (pad) and toe (pad). Results: In response to SNP on the forearm, AFD had less vasodilatation for a given current application than CAU (P = 0.027–0.004). ACh evoked less vasodilatation in AFD for a given application current in the non-glabrous finger and toe compared with CAU (P = 0.043–0.014) with a lower maximum vasodilatation in the non-glabrous finger (median [interquartile], AFD n = 11, 41[234] %, CAU n = 12, 351[451] %, P = 0.011) and non-glabrous toe (median [interquartile], AFD n = 9, 116[318] %, CAU n = 12, 484[720] %, P = 0.018). ACh and SNP did not elicit vasodilatation in the glabrous skin sites of either group. There were no ethnic differences in response to NA. Conclusion: AFD have an attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in non-glabrous sites of the fingers and toes compared with CAU. This may contribute to lower skin temperature following cold exposure and the increased risk of cold injuries experienced by AFD.
    • The velvet cage of educational con (pro) sumption

      Ritzer, George; Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis Online, 2018-11-13)
      In the year that George Ritzer publishes the ninth edition of The McDonaldization of Society, moving his famous theory firmly Into the Digital Age, critical educator Petar Jandrić and sociologist Sarah Hayes invited George to a dialogue on the digital transformation of McDonaldization and its critical application to Higher Education. In this article, George first traces for us the origins of his theory that has endured for four decades. A key dimension of McDonaldization is the ‘iron cage’ of control, via rationalization. Once contained within physical sites of bricks and mortar, now, we encounter a ‘velvet cage’ in sites of digital consumption, at the hands of non-human technologies, that threaten human labor and autonomy. Whilst the concept of the McUniversity is not without some critique, this interview provides compelling reasons to open new dialogue about McDonaldization in augmented settings such as Higher Education. With the rise of prosuming machines such as blockchain and bitcoin, that can both produce and consume without intervention from human ‘prosumers’, universities cannot afford to ignore the challenges of prosumer capitalism, which George concludes, will explode into unprecedented and unpredictable directions in the years to come.
    • Vibration training improves balance in unstable ankles.

      Cloak, R.; Nevill, Alan M.; Clarke, F; Day, S.; Wyon, Matthew A.; The University of Wolverhampton, School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, Walsall, United Kingdom. r.cloak@wlv.ac.uk (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2010)
      Functional ankle instability (FAI) is a common condition following ankle injury characterised by increased risk of injury. Ankle sprains are a common acute form of injury suffered in dancing and loss of balance can affect not only risk of injury risk but also performance aesthetics. Whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a new rehabilitation method that has been linked with improving balance and muscle function. 38 female dancers with self reported unilateral FAI were randomly assigned in 2 groups: WBVT and control. Absolute centre of mass (COM) distribution during single leg stance, SEBT normalised research distances and Peroneus longus mean power frequency (f(med)) where measured pre and post 6-week intervention. There was a significant improvement in COM distribution over the 6 weeks from 1.05 ± 0.57 to 0.33 ± 0.42 cm² (P<0.05), and 4 of the 8 planes of direction in the SEBT Ant, Antlat, Med and Antmed from 77.5 ± 7.1 to 84.1 ± 5.8% (P<0.05) compared to control groups during the course of the 6 week training intervention. There was no evidence of improvement in peroneus longus (f(med)) over time (P=0.915) in either group. WBVT improved static balance and SEBT scores amongst dancers exhibiting ankle instability but did not affect peroneus longus muscle fatigue.
    • Video analysis of classical ballet performance.

      Twitchett, Emily; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (J. Michael Ryan, 2009)
      Video analysis of classical ballet to date has been largely limited to examining the artistic elements of choreography. The aim this study was to employ a method of video analysis to describe the physiological demands of classical ballet performance and to examine differences between artists, soloists, and principal dancers. Forty-eight performances [male = 24, female = 24; artists (corps de ballet) = 16, soloists = 16, principals = 16] were analyzed in four fields: work intensity, body movement, partner work, and number of transitory movements occurring per minute. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between ranks in two intensity bands: time at rest (p < 0.05) and time performing at moderate intensity (p < 0.05), with soloists and principals resting for 75.2 +/- 15.1% and 53 +/- 24.1% of the total performance, respectively (p < 0.05). Principals also spent a significantly greater percentage of time at moderate intensity than both soloists and artists (p < 0.05). Significant differences between males and females (p < 0.05) were seen in the number of lifting and supporting movements performed. It was concluded that classical ballet is an intermittent form of exercise, utilizing both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems, a finding that supports previous studies. The demands of the performances analyzed varied according to role. Therefore, it was also concluded that video analysis can help provide a basis for rank-specific supplemental training.
    • Views on and perceptions of a paperless NHS

      Sque, Magi; Onifade, Adams (Emap Ltd, 2016-08-08)
      Little research has been undertaken to ascertain nurses' views of a paperless NHS so health professionals in a hospital in the West Midlands were asked about the initiative through face-to-face interviews and a focus group. This article outlines their responses. It shows that some were unaware of the scheme, while others were generally positive about electronic healthcare records (EHRs) but concerned about their use in practice.
    • The visual non-verbal memory trace is fragile when actively maintained but endures passively for tens of seconds

      McKeown, Denis; Mercer, Thomas; Bugajska, Kinga; Duffy, Paul; Barker, Emma (Springer Nature, 2019-12-23)
      Despite attempts at active maintenance in the focus of attention, the rather fragile nature of the visual non-verbal memory trace may be revealed when the retention interval between target memoranda and probed recall on a trial is extended. In contrast, a passively maintained, or unattended visual memory trace may be revealed as persisting proactive interference extending across quite extended intervals between trials in a recent probes task. The present study, comprising five experiments, used this task to explore the persistence of such a passive visual memory trace over time. Participants viewed some target visual items (for example, abstract colored patterns) followed by a variable retention interval and a probe item. The task was to report whether the probe matched one of the targets or not. A decaying active memory trace was indicated by poorer performance as the memory retention interval was extended on a trial. However, when the probe was a member of the target set from the preceding trial, task performance was poorer than a comparison novel probe, demonstrating proactive interference. Manipulations of the inter-trial interval revealed that the temporal persistence of the passive memory trace of an old target was impressive, and proactive interference was largely resilient to a simple ‘cued forgetting’ manipulation. These data support the proposed two-process memory conception (active-passive memory) contrasting fragile active memory traces decaying over a few seconds with robust passive traces extending to tens of seconds.
    • A visual scan analysis protocol for postural assessment at school in young students

      Alves, ME; Marinho, DA; Carneiro, DN; Alves, J; Forte, P; Nevill, AM; Morais, JE; Department of Sports, Higher Institute of Educational Sciences of the Douro, 4560-708 Penafiel, Portugal. (MDPI, 2020-04-23)
      © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The aim of this study was to compare the X-ray diagnosis with a non-invasive method for spine alignment assessment adopting a visual scan analysis with a plumb line and simetograph in middle-school students. The sample of this study was composed of 31 males and 50 females with an average age of 14.23 (± 3.11) years. The visual scan analysis was assessed at a school; whereas, the X-ray was performed in a hospital. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess the differences between methods and scoliosis classifications (non-accentuated <10º and scoliosis >10º), and the Kappa was used to assess the agreement between methods. The comparisons between the methods revealed non-significant differences (z = −0.577; p = 0.564), with almost perfect agreement between tests (K = 0.821; p < 0.001). Moreover, no statistical significance was observed between methods by the scoliosis classification (z = −1.000; p = 0.317), with almost perfect agreement between tests (K = 0.888; p < 0.001). This research supports the conclusion that there are no significant differences between the two methods. Therefore, it should be highlighted that this field test should be used by physical education teachers in their classes, or in a school context, in order to determine misalignments or scoliosis prevalence among middle-school students.
    • Vitamin D status in professional ballet dancers: Winter vs. summer.

      Wolman, Roger; Wyon, Matthew A.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Nevill, Alan M.; Eastell, Richard; Allen, Nick (2013-02-01)
      OBJECTIVE: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is produced by the exposure of the skin to sunlight. Therefore athletes who train indoors, such as dancers, are vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in UK professional dancers during periods of reduced and increased sunlight exposure (i.e., winter vs. summer), and to assess the impact on bone metabolism and risk of injury. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: 19 elite classical ballet dancers (age 26±8.86yr; height 1.66±8.84m; mass 54.3±10.47kg) were monitored over a 6 month period for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, PTH and blood serum bone turnover markers (CTX and PINP) along with injury data. Repeated measure ANOVA and Wilcoxon and Chi-square analyses were used and significance was set at p≤0.05. RESULTS: Significant changes were noted between the winter and summer test dates for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (14.9ng/ml vs. 23.9ng/ml; p<0.001), PTH (38.7pg/ml vs. 26.3pg/ml; p<0.001) and PINP (89.9ng/ml vs. 67.6ng/ml; p<0.01). The oral contraceptive had a significant effect on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, PTH and CTX. Soft tissue injuries were significantly lower in summer compared to winter period (winter=24, summer=13; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Professional ballerinas characterized by a high incidence of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels which improve marginally in the summer. These dancers also demonstrate a higher injury incidence in the winter. Oral contraception seems to increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and has a positive effect on bone metabolism.
    • 'Voice', young people and action research

      Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye (Routledge, 2001)
      This article moves from an overview of what is meant by the term 'voice' to discussing the significance of its links with action research. It does this through using a simple typology of three types of voice: Authoritative, Critical and Therapeutic. Each type of voice represents a different process of articulation and intended outcome. It then moves on to consider 'voice' and the collaboration of young people in educational action research by unpicking a series of four assumptions which delineate major theoretical and practical possibilities and limitations. These assumptions provide a critique of the underpinning ideologies held by professionals when supporting and listening to young people
    • The voices of people with an intellectual disability and a carer about orthopaedic and trauma hospital care in the UK: An interpretative phenomenological study

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (Elsevier, 2020-11-07)
      Introduction People with intellectual disabilities (PWID) have a greater prevalence ofmusculoskeletal conditions and injuries than the general population. Orthopaedic andtrauma hospital care has not been investigated with this group who seldom have theirvoices heard or their experiences valued and interpreted. Aim To understand theorthopaedic and trauma hospital experiences from the perspective of PWID. Methods A qualitative approach, focusing on peoples’ lived experiences, was utilised. Apurposive sample of five participants was recruited and one-to-one, semi-structuredinterviews were undertaken. Analysis of the interviews employed an interpretative phenomenological analytical framework. Findings There were communicationchallenges, a lack of person-centred care, issues with pain management, a lack ofconfidence in hospital care, valuable support and expertise of carers, incompetence ofhospital staff and isolation and loneliness. Discussion and conclusions There weresignificant shortcomings as PWID and a carer perceived they were unsupported andreceived poor care. Recommendations for practice: Person-centred care is neededalong with specific education and training, including close liaison with the experts byexperience – PWID, their carers as well as the specialists in intellectual disability.