• Ultra-brief non-expert-delivered defusion and acceptance exercises for food cravings: A partial replication study

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hulbert-Williams, Nick J; Nicholls, Wendy; Williamson, Sian; Poonia, Jivone; Hochard, Kevin D (SAGE Publications, 2017-03-10)
      Food cravings are a common barrier to losing weight. This article presents a randomised comparison of non-expert group-delivered ultra-brief defusion and acceptance interventions against a distraction control. A total of 63 participants were asked to carry a bag of chocolates for a week while trying to resist the temptation to eat them. A behavioural rebound measure was administered. Each intervention out-performed control in respect of consumption, but not cravings. These techniques may have a place in the clinical management of food cravings. We provide tentative evidence that the mechanism of action is through decreased reactivity to cravings, not through reduced frequency of cravings.
    • Uncovering familialism: cash-for-care schemes in England and Finland

      Morgan, Fiona; Zechner, Minna (Bristol University Press, 2021-10-26)
      This article compares cash-for-care schemes supporting older people with health-related social care needs, as well as their informal carers, in England and Finland. The meso-level policy analysis drills down into the governance arrangements underpinning cash-for-care schemes, including their eligibility criteria, generosity and territorial variations. It explores their implicit and explicit intentions, function and effects in defamilialising, familialising or refamilialising families’ caring responsibilities. This reveals inconsistencies in the familialising and defamilialising effects of schemes according to individuals’ characteristics, choices and policy restrictions. It also exposes an overarching tendency to familialise or refamilialise the activity of caring for older people, which is exacerbated by austerity-related politics.
    • Undergraduate examination and assessment of knowledge and skills is crucial in capacity planning for the future healthcare workforce in physical activity interventions

      Gates, AB; Swainson, MG; Moffatt, F; Kerry, R; Metsios, GS; Ritchie, I (BMJ, 2020-01-14)
      Background The WHO Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (GAPPA) (#GAPPA)1 highlights the importance of a systems-wide approach to achieving the global goals for reducing physical inactivity at the national, community, individual and patient levels. Within this scope, objective 1.4 of that plan details the vision and strategy for capacity planning for the health workforce and the collaborations required for success. This objective is closely linked to existing global and national efforts to enable the future healthcare professional (HCP) workforce to have the capability and competencies to make every contact count for physical activity support and advice (via brief interventions). A significant part of these goals is to enable the future and current healthcare workforce to meet the challenges of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), sustainable development goals (SDGs) and person-centred healthcare, exemplars of which have been identified in most European countries.2 3 Indeed, a physical activity resource focused approach in undergraduate healthcare courses such as medicine, nursing and allied health is critical in higher education institutes’ (HEIs) strategies2 4 5 to deliver on these directives.
    • Understanding digital dating abuse from an evolutionary perspective: Further evidence for the role of mate value discrepancy

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Rhead, Courtney; Tudor, Courtney (Elsevier BV, 2019-08-09)
      Decades of research have been dedicated to understanding intimate partner violence. A recent form of intimate partner violence is digital dating abuse, which involves electronic intrusion in romantic relationships. Previous research has focused on the effects of digital dating abuse on victims, yet little research has focused on the factors which drive the perpetration of digital dating abuse, especially from an evolutionary perspective. Recent research has focused on whether mating-relevant factors such as mate value discrepancy predict the perpetration of digital dating abuse, suggesting digital dating abuse could be a mate retention tactic. Here, we replicated and extended that finding in two independent samples (study 1, n = 177; Study 2, n = 134) by showing large mate value discrepancies positively predict digital dating abuse, therefore suggesting that digital dating abuse could be a contemporary cost-inflicting mate retention strategy. We also explored whether intrasexual competition, self-esteem, and experience of previous infidelity predicted the perpetration of digital dating abuse, finding no significant relationships. These findings from two studies, replicate, extend, and provide further support that digital dating abuse is a mate retention tactic. This research advances our understanding of digital dating abuse from an evolutionary psychological perspective.
    • Understanding leadership in higher education from a disability perspective

      Duncan, Neil; Williams-Findlay, Bob; Clifford, Angela; Emira, Mahmoud; Taysum, Alison; Brewster, Stephanie; City and Guilds, London; University of Leicester (British Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Society, 2015-07-12)
      There is considerable evidence of widespread exclusion of disabled people from the labour market generally (Bebbington 2009); and in the lifelong learning sector Fullick described a situation of "widespread institutional discrimination against disabled staff" (2008:1). Furthermore, there is a lack of disabled people in senior and leadership positions in the sector. This research project explored how disabled staff in one University perceive leadership, the barriers preventing them from taking on leadership roles and how they could be supported to overcome these challenges. Many participants aspired to leadership and reported positive experiences. But many identified barriers such as the nature of their impairments, lack of appropriate support, inadequate training and development and the competitive organisational culture that could impact on their health and work-life balance. Participants felt that investment in supportive opportunities for professional development was needed, along with improved awareness of equality and diversity among managers and colleagues.
    • Understanding the causes, prevention and treatment of osteoporosis (part 1):the structure of bone and the remodelling process

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Kumari, R; Hawkey, A; Metsios, G (2011)
      Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disabling disease characterised by chronic inflammation. moderate to high intensity exercise is recommended for the management of RA, although this is not always achievable due to pain caused by local inflammation. Identifying the current status of the swollen, tender joints and the patient’s perception of pain can be assessed using the ‘disease activity score’ (DAS28). Recently, vibration training has been shown to improve performance within healthy individuals, but has yet to be used in the treatment of RA. one female patient (age: 43yrs; height: 1.53m; mass: 48kg) with active RA was recruited for the current study. A sit and reach test was performed pre- and post- vibration. the DAS28 was recorded pre-, immediately post-, and 24hrs post- vibration. During vibration exposure, the patient performed three exercises (squat, lunge and calf raise), each for 30s with 60s recovery, at a frequency of 30Hz, and amplitude of 2mm. Results of the DAS28 showed no change in swollen joints 15 minutes post- vibration, but a reduction 24 hours post- vibration. there was no change in the number of tender joints 15 minutes post- training, but an increase 24 hours post- training. there was a 10% increase in the patient’s perception of health 15 minutes posttraining, with no change 24 hours post- training. there was also an increase (0.02m) in sit and reach test scores post- training. the current study suggests that a single bout of vibration training can have positive affects on patients’ perceived health, flexibility measures, and potentially reduce factors contributing to inflammation. However, the increased joint tenderness postvibration warrants further investigation, in a randomised controlled trial, to verify the effectiveness of vibration on inflammation and joint tenderness.
    • Understanding the complexity and implications of the English care policy system

      Morgan, Fiona; Carmel, Emma (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019-10-25)
      This chapter presents an empirical case study that explores public policy affecting informal care in England. The focus of the governance analysis is the state’s treatment of the informal care of people aged 65 and over, in public policy. Informal care describes the care and support delivered by people well known to the care recipient, such as relatives, spouses, partners, friends or neighbours (Cantor, 1991; Kraus et al., 2010) (making a ‘caring dyad’). Older people may require a wide range of support to address their long-term care needs including personal care; domestic help; health care; social and emotional support; support with managing finances; advocacy and supervision (Bittman et al., 2004; Wolf, 2004; Kraus et al., 2010). In requiring, and providing, informal care support, both members of the caring dyad may experience inter-related poverty and welfare risks. As noted in Morgan (2018), caring can give rise to increased expenditure on care-related costs (Carers UK, 2014), and affect working-aged carers’ labour market participation leading to current and future income deficits (Evandrou and Glaser, 2003; King and Pickard, 2013; Milne et al., 2013). Care-giving can also have physical and mental health impacts (Tommis et al., 2009; The NHS Information Centre, 2010), and create time-poverty risks as informal carers attempt to reconcile their caring role with other responsibilities and pursuits.
    • Understanding the impact of ‘wish-granting’ interventions on the health and wellbeing of children with life-threatening health conditions and their families: A systematic review

      Heath, Gemma; Screti, Cassandra; Pattison, Helen; Knibb, Rebecca (SAGE, 2021-05-08)
      This review aimed to explore how wish-granting interventions impact on the health and wellbeing of children with life-threatening health conditions and their families, using any study design. Six electronic databases (Medline; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Embase; AMED; HMIC) were systematically searched to identify eligible research articles. Studies were critically appraised using a Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Findings were synthesised narratively. Ten papers were included, reporting studies conducted across five countries, published from 2007-2019. Study designs were diverse (four quantitative; two qualitative; four mixed method). Results indicated improvements to physical and mental health, quality of life, social wellbeing, resilience and coping for wish children, parents and siblings. In conclusion, wish-granting interventions can positively impact health and therefore, should not be discouraged; however, more research is needed to define and quantify the impact of wish-fulfillment and to understand how it can be maximized.
    • Underweight and obese states both associate with worse disease activity and physical function in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis.

      Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Metsios, Giorgos S.; Panoulas, Vasileios F.; Nevill, Alan M.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Kitas, George D. (Springer London, 2009)
      Obesity is characterised by low-grade inflammation and could potentially affect disease activity and severity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Body mass index (BMI), body fat (BF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, disease activity score 28, physical function (health assessment questionnaire) and presence of erosions and joint surgery were assessed in 294 (female=219) volunteers with established RA [age 63.3 (56.2-69.6); disease duration 13 (7-20) years]. Smoking status, rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity were also assessed. BMI and BF independently associated with disease characteristics. Compared to normal-weight patients, underweight and obese had higher C-reactive protein (p=0.046) and physical dysfunction (p=0.034). BMI or BF did not associate with presence of erosions or joint surgery. In patients with established RA, both very low and very high BMI and BF associate independently with increased disease activity and physical dysfunction; however, this does not seem to associate with presence of erosions or joint surgery. Further longitudinal studies are required to address this apparent dissociation.
    • Uniform and prolonged changes in blood oxidative stress after muscle-damaging exercise

      Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Karatzaferi, Christina; Kouretas, Dimitris; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z. (International Institute of Anticancer Research, 2007)
      Background: The effect of eccentic exercise on the time-course changes in several indices of muscle damage and blood oxidative stress as examined. Materials and methods: Isometric rorque, delayed-onset muscle soreness, creatine kinase, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, catalase, uric acid, bilirubin and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in blood were measured pre-, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise of knee extensors in ten females. Results: The concentration of all oxidative stress indices changed significantly in a way indicating increased oxidative stress in the blood (GSH and GSH/GSSG, decreased, whereas GSSG, TBARS, protein carbonyls, catalase, uric acid, bilirubin and TAC increased) peaking, in all but TBARS, at 48 h and returning towards baseline afterwards. Conclusion: We believe that muscle-damaging exercise should be viewedd as a different challenge compared to non-muscle-damaging exercise with regard to its effects on blood oxidative stress.
    • United Kingdom national cataract training survey.

      Alexander, Philip; Matheson, David; Baxter, Julia; Tint, Naing Latt (Elsevier, 2011-08)
      A nationwide postal survey of all consultant ophthalmologists in the United Kingdom was conducted to determine attitudes and techniques of cataract surgery trainers, identify trainer-related factors that determine surgical opportunity, and ascertain whether trainers had received adequate training in how to teach surgery. The response rate was 43% (410/950). Seventy-nine percent of respondents were men; 46% worked in a university teaching hospital (UTH). University teaching hospital consultants provided more surgical opportunities to their trainees (P<.001). Surgical opportunity was directly correlated with number of vitreoretinal surgeons in the department independent of UTH status (P<.001). Eighty-three percent of trainers had received no formal training in how to teach surgery; only 12% of these expressed a desire to undertake such training. Further research is required to determine optimal methods for delivery of ophthalmic surgical training.
    • University students and emotional bargaining – a comparative study of staff perspectives in Northern Europe

      Bartram, Brendan (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-08)
      This paper examines lecturers’ perspectives on students’ ‘emotional bargaining’ in higher education (HE). Based on a social-functional understanding of emotions, it utilises a small-scale qualitative survey approach to explore and compare the views of 43 teaching staff at three universities in England, the Netherlands and Sweden. Particular consideration is given to staff perceptions of students’ motives for engaging in such behaviour and the factors potentially driving it. Findings suggest broadly similar views are held by the respondents across the three settings, and staff views on potential ‘solutions’ are investigated. The study offers tentative evidence that the neo-liberal logics perceived to guide university policies and practices may be a central factor in engendering student bargaining behaviours, particularly in the English context, where neo-liberal regimes are arguably more pronounced. Finally, an attempt is made to identify a number of recommendations for institutional consideration and potential practice.
    • Up-dating: ratings of perceived dating success are better online than offline

      Fullwood, Chris; Attrill-Smith, Alison; Institute of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.; Institute of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. (Mary Ann Liebert, 2017-06-28)
      The primary aims of this study were to test whether perceived dating success would differ between offline and online zero-acquaintance dating contexts, and to investigate the role that self-esteem might play in these evaluations. Participants were presented with the same photos of targets in either an offline or online dating scenario and rated their chances of dating success along with their perceptions of how attractive they thought the target would consider them. Higher self-esteem individuals believed they would be rated as more attractive. There was an overall perception that, irrespective of self-esteem level, meeting online would lead to better chances of dating success. These findings are considered in relation to an increased ability to more precisely manage impressions and develop an image of the self which would be evaluated more positively online.
    • Updating the UK competence framework for orthopaedic and trauma nurses 2019

      Barnard, Karen; Clarke, Sonya; Drozd, Mary; Flynn, Vikki; Jester, Rebecca; Judd, Alice; Moore, Pamela; Mahoney, Heather (Elsevier, 2020-04-16)
      The updated RCN Competence Framework for orthopaedic and trauma practitioners was published in 2019 following completion of a 2 year project undertaken by a working group of representatives from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Expert musculoskeletal practitioners, inclusive of an allied health professional and working across the lifespan, in varying domains of orthopaedic and trauma practice collaborated to produce a working document applicable to trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) practitioners from all NHS pay bands. The 2019 document builds on the original and subsequent versions (2005 and 2012), importing new evidence and reformatting so that it is contemporary and easily cross referenced with the NMC Code (2018). The restructure includes an example of a learning contract demonstrating how the framework can be applied in practice, whether for self-learning, or in conjunction with the revalidation process. This paper reflects on and describes the process undertaken by the working group in the development and restructuring of the 2019 framework, including its evaluation to date and planned in the future.
    • Upfront and onside: women, football, history and heritage special edition. Introduction: Women’s football and the #MeToo movement 2019

      Williams, Jean (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-12)
      This special edition of Sport in History is an output from the largest academic conference dedicated to the international history of women’s football held so far, at the National Football Museum on the 8 and 9 March, 2018, to mark International Women’s Day. Twenty speakers presented across a range of topics, and community artists worked with a range of contributors to make a new textile-based artwork, as part of the wider Hidden Histories of Women’s Football project, which concluded on 30 September 2018 with the inaugural reunion of women football players mentioned by Jean Williams in the final article of this collection. So one of the key themes of this collection as a whole is how the memory of football as both a sport and as a cultural industry is changing, in part thanks to the revised commitment of the museum and heritage sector to better celebrate the women’s game. From 1 March 2019 the National Football Museum has committed to improve its representation of women in football to 50% of the work. As the museum was founded in Preston in 1995 and moved to Manchester in 2012, with a mission to research, interpret and publicize the football history, most of which have been based on collector Harry Langton’s acquistions. The commitment in 2019 to diversify women’s football therefore is a major change in the Museum’s approach and evidence of how academics can work with public history bodies to produce rigorous, and readily accessible, work that reaches a wide and varied audience. This collection reflects that collaboration with work from key individuals in the Museum, Archives and Library sectors, as well as academics and independent researchers.
    • Upper-limb kinematics and kinetics imbalances in the determinants of front-crawl swimming at maximal speed in young international level swimmers

      Morais, JE; Forte, P; Nevill, AM; Barbosa, TM; Marinho, DA; Department of Sport Sciences, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Sta. Apolónia, Apartado 1101, 5301-856, Bragança, Portugal. morais.jorgestrela@gmail.com. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-15)
      © 2020, The Author(s). Short-distance swimmers may exhibit imbalances in their upper-limbs’ thrust (differences between the thrust produced by each upper-limb). At maximal speed, higher imbalances are related to poorer performances. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between thrust and swim speed, and whether hypothetical imbalances exist in the speed achieved while performing each upper-limb arm-pull. This could be a major issue at least while swimming at maximal speed. This study aimed to: (1) verify a hypothetical inter-upper limb difference in the determinants related to front-crawl at maximal swim speed, and; (2) identify the main predictors responsible for the swim speed achieved during each upper-limb arm-pull. Twenty-two male swimmers of a national junior swim team (15.92 ± 0.75 years) were recruited. A set of anthropometric, dry-land strength, thrust and speed variables were assessed. Anthropometrics identified a significant difference between dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs (except for the hand surface area). Dry-land strength presented non-significant difference (p < 0.05) between the dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs. Overall, thrust and speed variables revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs over a 25 m time-trial in a short-course pool. Swimmers were not prone to maintaining the thrust and speed along the trial where a significant variation was noted (p < 0.05). Using multilevel regression, the speed achieved by each upper-limb identified a set of variables, with the peak speed being the strongest predictor (dominant: estimate = 0.522, p < 0.001; non-dominant: estimate = 0.756, p < 0.001). Overall, swimmers exhibit significant differences between upper-limbs determinants. The upper-limb noting a higher dry-land strength also presented a higher thrust, and consequently higher speed. Coaches should be aware that sprint swimmers produce significant differences in the speed achieved by each one of their upper-limbs arm-pull.
    • The use of functional performance tests and simple anthropomorphic measures to screen for comorbidity in primary care

      Nevill, Alan; Duncan, Michael; Cheung, Daphne SK; Wong, Anthony SW; Kwan, Rick Yiu Cho; Lai, Claudia KY (Wiley, 2020-07-07)
      Background Many older adults are unaware that they have comorbid diseases. Increased adiposity and reduced muscle mass are identified as key contributors to many chronic diseases in older adults. Understanding the role they play in the development of comorbidities in older populations is of prime importance. Objectives To identify the optimal body shape associated with three common functional performance tests and to determine which anthropometric and functional performance test best explains comorbidity in a sample of older adults in Hong Kong. Methods A total of 432 older adults participated in this cross‐sectional study. Researchers assessed their body height, body mass index, waist circumference, waist‐to‐hip ratio, handgrip strength (kg), functional reach (cm) and results in the timed‐up‐and‐go (TUG) test (seconds). The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to assess comorbidity. Results Allometric modelling indicated that the optimal body shape associated with all functional performance tests would have required the participants to be taller and leaner. The only variable that predicted comorbidity was the TUG test. The inclusion of body size/shape variables did not improve the prediction model. Conclusion Performance in the TUG test alone was found to be capable of identifying participants at risk of developing comorbidities. The TUG test has potential as a screening tool for the early detection of chronic diseases in older adults. Implications for Practice Many older people are unaware of their own co‐existing illnesses when they consult physicians for a medical condition. TUG can be a quick and useful screening measure to alert nurses in primary care to the need to proceed with more detailed assessments. It is an especially useful screening measure in settings with high patient volumes and fiscal constraints. TUG is low cost and easy to learn and is therefore also relevant for nurses and health workers in low‐resource, low‐income countries.
    • The use of YouTube for the self-management of arthritis and joint pain: a patient and public involvement study

      Bond, Carol; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Peters, Sophie L; Lee, Hopin; Merolli, Mark; Lawson, Jem (Oxford University Press, 2019-04-12)
    • User experiences from L2 children using a speech learning application: implications for developing speech training applications for children

      Uther, Maria; Smolander, Anna-Riikka; Junttila, Katja; Kurimo, Mikko; Karhila, Reima; Enarvi, Seppo; Ylinen, Sari; Rzepka, Rafal (Hindawi, 2018-10-01)
      We investigated user experiences from 117 Finnish children aged between 8-12 years old in a trial of an English language learning programme that used automatic speech recognition (ASR). We used measures that encompassed both affective reactions as well as questions tapping into the childrens' sense of pedagogical utility. We also tested their perception of sound quality and compared reactions of game and non-game-based versions of the application. Results showed that children expressed higher affective ratings for the game compared to non-game version of the application. Children also expressed a preference to play with a friend compared to playing alone or playing within a group. They found assessment of their speech useful although didn’t necessarily enjoy hearing their own voices. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for user interface (UI) design in speech learning applications for children.