• Salience of emotional displays of danger and contagion in faces is enhanced when progesterone levels are raised.

      Conway, C.A.; Jones, B.C.; DeBruine, L.M.; Welling, L.L.M.; Law Smith, M.J.; Perrett, D.I.; Sharp, Martin A.; Al-Dujaili, E.A.S. (Elsevier Science Direct, 2007)
      Findings from previous studies of hormone-mediated behavior in women suggest that raised progesterone level increases the probability of behaviors that will reduce the likelihood of disruption to fetal development during pregnancy (e.g. increased avoidance of sources of contagion). Here, we tested women's (N=52) sensitivity to potential cues to nearby sources of contagion (disgusted facial expressions with averted gaze) and nearby physical threat (fearful facial expressions with averted gaze) at two points in the menstrual cycle differing in progesterone level. Women demonstrated a greater tendency to perceive fearful and disgusted expressions with averted gaze as more intense than those with direct gaze when their progesterone level was relatively high. By contrast, change in progesterone level was not associated with any change in perceptions of happy expressions with direct and averted gaze, indicating that our findings for disgusted and fearful expressions were not due to a general response bias. Collectively, our findings suggest women are more sensitive to facial cues signalling nearby contagion and physical threat when raised progesterone level prepares the body for pregnancy.
    • Salivary biomarkers and training load during training and competition in paralympic swimmers

      Sinnott-O’Connor, Ciara; Comyns, Tom; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc, 2018-07-01)
      CONTEXT: Stress responses in athletes can be attributed to training and competition, where increased physiological and psychological stress may negatively affect performance and recovery. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between training load (TL) and salivary biomarkers immunoglobulin A (IgA), alpha-amylase (AA), and cortisol across a 16-wk preparation phase and 10-d competition phase in Paralympic swimmers. METHODS: Four Paralympic swimmers provided biweekly saliva samples during 3 training phases-(1) normal training, (2) intensified training, and (3) taper-as well as daily saliva samples in the 10-d Paralympic competition (2016 Paralympic Games). TL was measured using session rating of perceived exertion. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis identified a significant increase in salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA: 94.98 [27.69] μg·mL-1), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA: 45.78 [19.07] μg·mL-1), and salivary cortisol (7.92 [2.17] nM) during intensified training concurrent with a 38.3% increase in TL. During the taper phase, a 49.5% decrease in TL from the intensified training phase resulted in a decrease in sIgA, sAA, and salivary cortisol; however, all 3 remained higher than baseline levels. A further significant increase was observed during competition in sIgA (168.69 [24.19] μg·mL-1), sAA (35.86 [16.67] μg·mL-1), and salivary cortisol (10.49 [1.89] nM) despite a continued decrease (77.8%) in TL from the taper phase. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that performance in major competition such as Paralympic games, despite a noticeable reduction in TL, induces a stress response in athletes. Because of the elevated stress response observed, modifications to individual postrace recovery protocols may be required to enable athletes to maximize performance across all 10 d of competition.
    • Salivary IgA as a Predictor of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Relationship to Training Load in Elite Rugby Union Players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Lyons, Mark; Comyns, Tom; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles; Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2019-01-23)
      Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI) are among the most common illnesses reported in athletes. An URTI can result in missed training days, which in turn may lead to performance decrements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) as a predictor of URTI, while also exploring the relationship to weekly training load in elite rugby union players. Nineteen male elite rugby union players provided morning saliva swabs, biweekly (Monday and Friday), over a 10-week training period. Participants completed an illness log documenting symptoms of URTI. Session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) was collected to determine training load (sRPE × session duration). Weekly training load was also calculated. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between incidences of URTI with sIgA and training load. Multilevel regression was conducted to compare associations between sIgA and training load. The results found that the likelihood of suffering from an URTI increased when sIgA significantly decreased (p = 0.046). Where sIgA decreased by 65% or more, a player was at a greater risk of contracting an URTI within the following 2 weeks. No association was found between sIgA and training load. In conclusion, sIgA may be a useful predictor for determining the likelihood of players contracting an URTI. This will allow the coach to make informed decisions on training status, helping reduce the risk of players missing training, which may have performance decrements. Coaches will benefit from the fast, easy, and instant results available, to analyze a player's immune function.
    • Saying the ‘F word … in the nicest possible way’: augmentative communication and discourses of disability

      Brewster, Stephanie (Routledge, 2013-01)
      This paper examines a case study of a severely physically disabled man, Ralph, in terms of his interaction with his carers. He communicates using various systems of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC, such as symbol boards and high-tech devices), the vocabulary for which has mostly been selected for him by others. The starting point of the paper is the assumption that disabled people have traditionally held a disempowered position in society (relative to non-disabled people), and the question asked is to what extent is Ralph further disempowered by the limited vocabulary available to him in his AAC systems, and in the way others interact with him. The paper draws on the work of Bourdieu, according to whom ‘Language is not only an instrument of communication or even of knowledge, but also an instrument of power’ (1977, 648). I consider the tensions between the drive towards the empowerment of disabled individuals, as exemplified by the provision of AAC, and opposition to allowing access to certain types of vocabulary (especially expletives such as ‘the F word’), unless it is expressed in ‘the nicest possible way’.
    • Scaling children's waist circumference for differences in body size

      Nevill, Alan M; Duncan, Michael J.; Lahart, Ian; Davies, Paul; Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Sandercock, Gavin; Faculty of Education; Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton; Walsall Campus Walsall United Kingdom; Faculty of Health and Life Sciences; Coventry University; Coventry United Kingdom; Faculty of Education; Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton; Walsall Campus Walsall United Kingdom; Faculty of Education; Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton; Walsall Campus Walsall United Kingdom; et al. (Wiley, 2017-07-12)
      Objectives Both waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height. Methods Using two culturally different samples, 1 English (10–15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14–15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a.HTb. The model was linearized using log-transformation, and multiple regression/ANCOVA to estimate the height exponents for WC controlling for age, sex, and any other categorical/population differences. Results In both samples, the power-law height exponent varied systematically with age. In younger children (age 10–11 years), the exponent was approximately unity, suggesting that pre-pubertal children might be geometrically similar. In older children, the height exponent declined monotonically to 0.5 (ie, HT0.5) in 15+ year-olds, similar to the exponent observed in adults. UK children's height-adjusted WC revealed a “u” shaped curve with age that appeared to reach a minimum at peak-height velocity, different for boys and girls. Comparing the WC of two populations (UK versus Colombian 14–15-year-old children) identified that the gap in WC between the countries narrowed considerably after scaling for height. Conclusions Scaling children's WC for differences in height using allometric modeling reveals new insights into the growth and development of children's WC, findings that might well have been be overlooked if body size/height had been ignored.
    • Scaling concept II rowing ergometer performance for differences in body mass to better reflect rowing in water

      Nevill, Alan M.; Beech, C.; Holder, Roger L.; Wyon, Matthew A. (John Wiley & Sons, 2010)
      We investigated whether the concept II indoor rowing ergometer accurately reflects rowing on water. Forty-nine junior elite male rowers from a Great Britain training camp completed a 2000m concept II model C indoor rowing ergometer test and a water-based 2000msingle-scull rowing test. Rowing speed in water (3.66 m/s) was significantly slower than laboratory-based rowing performance (4.96m/s). The relationship between the two rowing performances was found to be R2528.9% (r50.538). We identified that body mass (m) made a positive contribution to concept II rowing ergometer performance (r50.68, Po0.001) but only a small, non-significant contribution to single-scull water rowing performance (r50.039, P50.79). The contribution that m made to single-scull rowing in addition to ergometer rowing speed (using allometric modeling) was found to be negative (Po0.001), confirming that m has a significant drag effect on water rowing speed. The optimal allometric model to predict single-scull rowing speed was the ratio (ergometer speed m 0.23)1.87 that increased R2 from 28.2% to 59.2%. Simply by dividing the concept II rowing ergometer speed by body mass (m0.23), the resulting ‘‘powerto- weight’’ ratio (ergometer speed m 0.23) improves the ability of the concept II rowing performance to reflect rowing on water.
    • Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict cycling time-trial performance in the field: a non-linear approach.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Jobson, Simon A.; Palmer, G.S.; Olds, Tim (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2005)
      The purpose of the present article is to identify the most appropriate method of scaling VO2max for differences in body mass when assessing the energy cost of time-trial cycling. The data from three time-trial cycling studies were analysed (N = 79) using a proportional power-function ANCOVA model. The maximum oxygen uptake-to-mass ratio found to predict cycling speed was VO2max(m)(-0.32) precisely the same as that derived by Swain for sub-maximal cycling speeds (10, 15 and 20 mph). The analysis was also able to confirm a proportional curvilinear association between cycling speed and energy cost, given by (VO2max(m)(-0.32))0.41. The model predicts, for example, that for a male cyclist (72 kg) to increase his average speed from 30 km h(-1) to 35 km h(-1), he would require an increase in VO2max from 2.36 l min(-1) to 3.44 l min(-1), an increase of 1.08 l min(-1). In contrast, for the cyclist to increase his mean speed from 40 km h(-1) to 45 km h(-1), he would require a greater increase in VO2max from 4.77 l min(-1) to 6.36 l min(-1), i.e. an increase of 1.59 l min(-1). The model is also able to accommodate other determinants of time-trial cycling, e.g. the benefit of cycling with a side wind (5% faster) compared with facing a predominately head/tail wind (P<0.05). Future research could explore whether the same scaling approach could be applied to, for example, alternative measures of recording power output to improve the prediction of time-trial cycling performance.
    • Scaling or normalising maximum oxygen uptake to predict 1-mile run time in boys.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Rowland, Thomas; Goff, Donna; Martel, Leslie; Ferrone, Lisa (Springer-Verlag, 2004)
      There is still considerable debate and some confusion as to the most appropriate method of scaling or normalizing maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) for differences in body mass (m) in both adults and children. Previous studies on adult populations have demonstrated that although the traditional ratio standard VO2max (ml kg(-1) min(-1)) fails to render VO2max independent of body mass, the ratio standard is still the best predictor of running performance. However, no such evidence exists in children. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the ratio standard is still the most appropriate method of normalising VO2max to predict 1-mile run speed in a group of 12-year-old children (n=36). Using a power function model and log-linear regression, the best predictor of 1-mile run speed was given by: speed (m s(-1))=55.1 VO2max(0.986) m(-0.96). With both the VO2max and body mass exponents being close to unity but with opposite signs, the model suggest the best predictor of 1-mile run speed is almost exactly the traditional ratio standard recorded in the units (ml kg(-1) min(-1)). Clearly, reporting the traditional ratio standard VO2max, recorded in the units (ml kg(-1) min(-1)), still has an important place in publishing the results of studies investigating cardiovascular fitness of both children and adults.
    • Scaling physiological measurements for individuals of different body size.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Ramsbottom, Roger; Williams, Clyde (Springer Verlag, 1992)
      This paper examines how selected physiological performance variables, such as maximal oxygen uptake, strength and power, might best be scaled for subject differences in body size. The apparent dilemma between using either ratio standards or a linear adjustment method to scale was investigated by considering how maximal oxygen uptake (l.min-1), peak and mean power output (W) might best be adjusted for differences in body mass (kg). A curvilinear power function model was shown to be theoretically, physiologically and empirically superior to the linear models. Based on the fitted power functions, the best method of scaling maximum oxygen uptake, peak and mean power output, required these variables to be divided by body mass, recorded in the units kg 2/3. Hence, the power function ratio standards (ml.kg-2/3.min-1) and (W.kg-2/3) were best able to describe a wide range of subjects in terms of their physiological capacity, i.e. their ability to utilise oxygen or record power maximally, independent of body size. The simple ratio standards (ml.kg-1.min-1) and (W.kg-1) were found to best describe the same subjects according to their performance capacities or ability to run which are highly dependent on body size. The appropriate model to explain the experimental design effects on such ratio standards was shown to be log-normal rather than normal. Simply by taking logarithms of the power function ratio standard, identical solutions for the design effects are obtained using either ANOVA or, by taking the unscaled physiological variable as the dependent variable and the body size variable as the covariate, ANCOVA methods.
    • Scaling waist girth for differences in body size reveals a new improved index associated with cardiometabolic risk.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Duncan, M J; Lahart, Ian; Sandercock, G R (Wiley, 2016-10-10)
      Our aim was to examine whether a new ratio, waist divided by height(0.5) (WHT.5R), is both independent of stature and a stronger predictor of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) than other anthropometric indices. Subjects (4117 men and 646 women), aged 20-69 years, were assessed for stature (cm), mass (kg), waist, and hip girths (cm) from which body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHTR), and two new indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and WHT.5R, were determined. We used the allometric power law, W = a.HT(b) , to obtain a simple body shape index for waist girth (W) to be independent of stature (HT). Physical activity was determined using self-report, and physical fitness was determined using the Bruce protocol. Glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and TC/HDL ratio were determined from fasting venous blood samples. A single CMR composite score was derived from log-transformed z-scores of Triglycerides + average blood pressure ((diastolic + systolic)/2) + glucose + HDL (*-1). Results confirmed WHT.5R to be independent of stature and the strongest predictor of CMR, compared with BMI, WC, WHR, ABSI, and WHTR. We also found that CMR scores decline significantly with increasing fitness and physical activity, confirming that being fit and active can compensate for the adverse effects of being fat as measured by all other anthropometric indices. In conclusion, WHT.5R was the best anthropometric index associated with CMR, and being both physically fit and active has a protective effect on CMR, irrespective of weight status.
    • Scaling, normalizing, and per ratio standards: an allometric modeling approach.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Holder, Roger L. (Bethesda, MD: The American Physiological Society, 1995)
      The practice of scaling or normalizing physiological variables (Y) by dividing the variable by an appropriate body size variable (X) to produce what is known as a "per ratio standard" (Y/ X), has come under strong criticism from various authors. These authors propose an alternative regression standard based on the linear regression of (Y) on (X) as the predictor variable. However, if linear regression is to be used to adjust such physiological measurements (Y), the residual errors should have a constant variance and, in order to carry out parametric tests of significance, be normally distributed. Unfortunately, since neither of these assumptions appear to be satisfied for many physiological variables, e.g., maximum oxygen uptake, peak and mean power, an alternative approach is proposed of using allometric modeling where the concept of a ratio is an integral part of the model form. These allometric models naturally help to overcome the heteroscedasticity and skewness observed with per ratio variables. Furthermore, if per ratio standards are to be incorporated in regression models to predict other dependent variables, the allometric or log-linear model form is shown to be more appropriate than linear models. By using multiple regression, simply by taking logarithms of the dependent variable and entering the logarithmic transformed per ratio variables as separate independent variables, the resulting estimated log-linear multiple-regression model will automatically provide the most appropriate per ratio standard to reflect the dependent variable, based on the proposed allometric model.
    • School meal time and social learning in England

      Lalli, Gurpinder (Taylor & Francis, 2019-07-02)
      This paper presents an ethnographic account of the culture of school meal time at Peartree Academy, with a specific focus on notions of social learning. This qualitative study is focused on a collection of interviews, observations, field notes and analyses what happens when the school organises its canteen as a restaurant. The focus moves away from the traditional realms of nutrition and explicitly introduces the notion of social learning in its informal sense through which a conceptual framework of a skills model by Dreyfus (2004) is applied. The paper argues how the school dining hall, known as the restaurant can foster opportunities for a form of social competence which is not necessarily seen, but can be experienced in the social reproduction of its actors. The findings highlight tensions of control within the environment, which are said to impinge upon these social learning opportunities from occurring.
    • School placement and conductive education: the experiences of education administrators

      Morgan, Angela; Hogan, Kevin (Wiley InterScience, 2005)
      A placement at the National Institute of Conductive Education (NICE) in Birmingham for children with motor disorders is strongly preferred over mainstream or special schools by some parents, but it has been noted that this is usually refused following the current statementing process. Although funding constraints have been articulated, Angela Morgan, a Research Fellow at the Wolverhampton University Policy Research Institute, and Kevin Hogan, also at the University of Wolverhampton, contend in this article that other explanations are possible, as variability remains in placement decisions. The experiences of education administrators working within the special educational needs departments of local education authorities who make the ultimate decision regarding school placement have hitherto been unexplored. This study offers findings from an exploratory qualitative study, which suggests that administrators are working from disparate understandings of conductive education within an arena fraught with conflict. Recommendations derived from the study include further in-service training for education administrators and prior training for individuals seeking a career in education administration to enhance collaborative working partnerships between administrators and parents.
    • School related gender based violence: an intersectional approach

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Herriot Watt University, 2019-12-31)
      Despite increasing attention to SRGBV, little consideration has been given to the multiple identities of teachers and students and their role in perceptions and performances of SRGBV. This paper explores the intersections of gender with constructs of ethnicity, culture, religion and sexuality norms and enactments of SRGBV in three secondary schools in England. It draws on qualitative interview data collected for the project ‘Developing Gender Equality Charter Marks in order to overcome gender stereotyping in education across Europe’. The intersectionality of gender with sexual norms emerged in essentialist views about female academic and professional competence and normative expectations of sexual conduct, sustaining a culture of gender disrespect and a gender regime in which SRGBV was the penalty of transgressions of gender and sexual norms and the means to reiterate male privilege in two schools. The intersectionality of gender with culture, ethnicity and religion emerged in one of the three schools in teachers’ discourses of ethnic deficit associated with perceived lack of ability, freedom, and choice in ethnic minority girls’ lives and inappropriate expressions of sexuality that diverted from white British norms. Further research is required to enhance knowledge about the performances of SRGBV alongside other axes of power and discrimination.
    • The school restaurant: ethnographic reflections in researching children’s food space

      Lalli, Gurpinder (Taylor & Francis, 2020-07-24)
      This paper presents a theoretically influenced discussion of methodological issues in carrying out ethnographic work at Peartree Academy. Food is central to our sense of identity. It draws on notions of the school restaurant and presents an account of the complexities surrounding the disorderliness of fieldwork in researching children’s food space. The aim of this paper is to explore how researcher identity needs to be considered within the relationship between discipline and social learning spaces for eating. Foucault’s concept of discipline is introduced in conceptualising the study. Key reflections place emphasis on the messiness of researching such spaces and offer recommendations for navigation.
    • School-wide mediated prosocial development: Applying a sociocultural understanding to inclusive practice and character education

      White, Robert; Shin, Tae Seob (Taylor & Francis, 2016-10-12)
      The issue of inclusive practice, particularly as it pertains to how school staff address antisocial behavior to improve learning and life outcomes for children has become a primary topic of discussion among educational stakeholders. Within an action research framework, this investigation used a mixed-method multiple case study approach to investigate what impact character education has on school climate and pupil behavior within five primary schools in England. Data were collected using interviews, observations, and archived records. All data-sets suggest that a multicomponent socioculturally inspired program can have positive effects on teacher talk, student on-task behavior, and decrease disruptive incidences during class and office referrals for antisocial behavior. Moreover, according to participant reports, the findings indicate that there is a positive effect on the school’s ability to meet the social, emotional, and cognitive needs of pupils within a multicultural setting following the implementation of a whole-school character education program.
    • Schools, food and social learning

      Lalli, Gurpinder Singh (Routledge, 2019-10-08)
      This book explores the potential of school dining halls as spaces of social learning through interactions between students and teachers. Schools, Food and Social Learning highlights the neglect of school dining halls in sociological research and the fact that so much can be gained from fostering interpersonal relations with other students and the school staff over meals. The book focuses primarily on social and life skills that students develop during lunch-hour meetings, modelling behaviors while eating and conversing in the school space known as the ‘restaurant’. With case studies based in the UK, the book takes a social constructivist approach to dealing with the tensions and challenges between the aims of the school – creating an eating space that promotes social values and encourages the development of social skills, and the activities of teachers and catering assistants of managing and providing food for many students daily. The book carries snippets of interviews with children, dining hall attendants, teachers, parents and the school leadership team, offering a new way of thinking about social learning for both scholars and students of Social Anthropology, Sociology, Social Policy, Food Policy, Education Studies and Childhood Studies.
    • Screaming silences: lessons from the application of a new research framework

      Janes, Gillian; Sque, Magi; Serrant, Laura (RCNi, 2018)
      This paper presents the lessons learned from the application of a new research framework, The Silences Framework (Serrant-Green, 2011) in the context of a qualitative study exploring the fragility hip fracture recovery experiences of people under 60. Originating from research exploring ethnicity, gender and sexual health decisionmaking, this new framework provides a useful research tool for researching underrepresented groups and topics. It is likely to be attractive to nurses as it is underpinned by core nursing values such as advocacy based action, places participant and public voices at the centre of the research and resembles the familiar nursing process. The structure and flexibility it offers also make it relevant for new and experienced researchers in a variety of contexts. Current conceptions of marginalisation in healthcare are explored with reference to nursing research and practical tips are provided for others interested in applying and further testing this new research framework.
    • Script proposals in undergraduate supervision

      West, Marion (Hacettepe University, 2018-04-25)
      This article explores a particular interactional practice surrounding advice in undergraduate supervision. Script proposals allow advice-givers to individualise their advice, minimise resistance and provide a model while not undermining the client’s agency (Emmison, Butler and Danby 2011). This device has been studied primarily in helpline interactions (Hepburn, Wilkinson and Butler 2014) but not yet in higher education. The audio-recorded data are from a meeting in which the tutor addresses student concerns regarding her writing process and referencing conventions. Several hallmarks of script proposals are present, including the student’s previously displayed stance, the use of idiom, three part-lists (Jefferson 1990) and contrastive pairs. Membership categories are exploited to both include and exclude the student. The enactment of supervisory roles and qualities such as empathy is analysed and then discussed through the conceptual lens of the psychological contract (Cureton and Cousin 2012) and the educational alliance (Telio, Ajjawi and Regehr 2015). While also fulfilling her tutor-mentor role, in that she supports the student in her own decisions, the tutor acts as director or project manager (Derounian 2011), taking the student through the steps in the process in a logical order (Rowley and Slack 2004). The implications for practical applications are briefly considered.
    • Seamlessly transcending the academic bump to support the novice lecturer in higher education

      Bywater, Amy; Mander, Sarah (Taylor and Francis, 2018-05-08)
      This self-reflective article considers the support mechanisms from which new lecturers from a teaching background may benefit upon their entry to academia. The concept of academic identity is explored and the suggestion of a continually evolving professional identity is discussed. Emergent themes of reciprocity and critical friendship, team teaching and personal skills and qualities are examined. The framework for this article is the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework and recommendations for higher education practice are made in support of this.