• Palestinian EFL students' perceptions of using Edmodo in developing their writing skills

      Itmeizeh, Mahmoud; Khalil, Zeiadee; Smith, Matt (Palestine Ahliya University, 2022-09-03)
      The present study explored Palestinian EFL students’ perceptions towards the use of Edmodo in developing their writing skills at Palestine Ahliya University, Bethlehem. Sixteen sophomore English major students taking the Oral Communication II course in the Spring Semester 2019 -2020 served as the participants of the study. The researchers adopted a mixed methodological approach. A questionnaire consisting of 27 items was adapted by the researchers for the purpose of eliciting students’ perceptions towards the use of Edmodo in developing their writing skills and the barriers they faced while using the platform. In addition, in-depth qualitative data was gathered from students' written responses to an end-of-course assignment posted on Edmodo. In general, the results of the study revealed that students had positive perceptions towards using Edmodo in terms of writing development and collaborative learning. However, it is worth noting that several participants reflected negative responses which resulted from the technological difficulties and their limited experiences with Edmodo.
    • Paradoxical paradigm proposals- Learning languages in mobile societies

      Traxler, John; Read, Timothy; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Barcena, Elena (Federación Argentina de Asociaciones de Profesores de Inglés, 2019-11-30)
      The concept of paradigms gives us the capacity to look analytically at historical scientific and intellectual episodes in a broader framework. It does however potentially also give us the capacity to look more analytically at contemporary scientific and intellectual activity and make conjectures and predictions. This paper looks at various contemporary pedagogic paradigms, including language learning and mobile learning, and suggests both their failings and then their replacement by an over-arching pedagogic paradigm more suited to societies permeated by personal digital technologies. This might be called the mobility, learning and language paradigm. The paper uses these examples as a way of exploiting paradigmatic thinking in order to catalyse intellectual progress.
    • Parathyroidectomy for adults with primary hyperparathyroidism

      Pappachan, JM; Sodi, R; Viswanath, AK; Lahart, Ian (Wiley, 2018-05-24)
      © 2018 The Cochrane Collaboration. This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of parathyroidectomy for adults with PHPT. We will also compare the effects of different types of parathyroidectomy on people with PHPT.
    • Parental asthma related anxiety and feeding practices in families of children living with controlled and inadequately controlled asthma

      Clarke, Rebecca; Farrow, Claire; Heath, Gemma; Nagakumar, Prasad; Pattinson, Helen (Elsevier, 2020-10-29)
    • Parental feeding, child eating and physical activity: differences in children living with and without asthma

      Heath, Gemma; Clarke, Rebecca; Nagakumar, Prasad; Pattison, Helen; Farrow, Claire (MDPI, 2021-03-26)
      This study aimed to establish the differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and activity, as well as child eating and activity levels, between families of children living with and without asthma. Parents of children and young people aged between 10 and 16 years living both with asthma (n = 310) and without asthma (n = 311) completed measures for parental feeding, parental attitudes toward child exercise, child eating, child activity level and asthma control. Children living with asthma had a significantly higher BMIz (BMI standardised for weight and age) score, were significantly more likely to emotionally overeat and desired to drink more than their peers without asthma. Parents of children with asthma reported greater use of food to regulate emotions, restriction of food for weight control, monitoring of child activity, pressure to exercise and control over child activity. When asthma symptoms were controlled, parental restriction of food for weight management predicted greater child BMIz scores, and higher child activity predicted lower child BMIz scores. These relationships were not found to be significant for children with inadequately controlled asthma. Differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and exercise, and child eating and exercise behaviors, between families may help to explain the increased obesity risk for children with asthma.
    • Participation or exclusion? Perspectives of pupils with autistic spectrum disorders on their participation in leisure activities

      Brewster, Stephanie; Coleyshaw, Liz (Wiley, 2011-12)
      The importance of active participation in leisure activities for everybody is identified by Carr (2004) but issues around leisure in the lives of children with disabilities have received little recognition. The experience of children/young people (henceforth referred to simply as children, for brevity) with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in accessing and engaging in leisure pursuits is particularly lacking in the literature. This article describes a small-scale investigation of the views of children and young people with ASD around their access to leisure activities. The distinctive range of impairments characteristic of ASD is discussed in terms of their impact on the child’s possibilities for accessing this area of life. Findings indicate the significant challenges these children face in achieving an active and varied life outside of school and home environments. The importance and also the challenge of consulting with children with disabilities are discussed
    • Particle Engineering for Improved Pulmonary Drug Delivery Through Dry Powder Inhalers

      Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali; Nokhodchi, Ali; Martin, Gary P. (Wiley, 2015-05-29)
      The performance of a pharmaceutical powder aerosol is mainly dependent on aerosol physicochemical properties (e.g., size, shape and surface texture), solid state, water content and surface energy. Any subtle change in any of these properties may induce a drastic change in the bioavailability of a drug formulated within such a powder. Therefore, it is critical to have a full understanding of physical properties of bulk powder drug, carriers, and their blends to increase drug effectiveness, consistency and uniformity of the delivery system. Such studies should be performed at molecular level (chemical structure), particulate level (analysis of small number of particles) and bulk level (large assembles of particles). Failure to study some of the physical properties of the materials may be one of the most important causes of the lack of understanding of particle dispersal processes, the prediction of product performance, batch to batch variations and particle interactions, in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. The role of particle engineering in designing smart particles is reviewed with a view to improving the aerosolization performance of drugs delivered from DPIs. Aerosolized engineered particles conferred a number of advantages such as better flowability, high homogeneity and high fine particle fraction when compared to untreated particles.
    • Passive heating and glycaemic control in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Maley, MJ; Hunt, AP; Stewart, IB; Faulkner, SH; Minett, GM; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2019-03-22)
      © 2019 Maley et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Objective Passive heating (PH) has begun to gain research attention as an alternative therapy for car-dio-metabolic diseases. Whether PH improves glycaemic control in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals is unknown. This study aims to review and conduct a meta-analysis of published literature relating to PH and glycaemic control. Methods Electronic data sources, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from inception to July 2018 were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) studying the effect of PH on glycaemic control in diabetic or non-diabetic individuals. To measure the treatment effect, standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Fourteen articles were included in the meta-analysis. Following a glucose load, glucose concentration was greater during PH in non-diabetic (SMD 0.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 0.48, P < 0.001) and diabetic individuals (SMD 0.27, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.02, P = 0.030). In non-diabetic individuals, glycaemic control did not differ between PH and control only (SMD 0.11, 95% CI 0.44 to -0.22, P > 0.050) and a glucose challenge given within 24 hours post-heating (SMD 0.30, 95% CI 0.62 to -0.02, P > 0.050). Conclusion PH preceded by a glucose load results in acute glucose intolerance in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. However, heating a non-diabetic individual without a glucose load appears not to affect glycaemic control. Likewise, a glucose challenge given within 24 hours of a single-bout of heating does not affect glucose tolerance in non-diabetic individuals. Despite the promise PH may hold, no short-term benefit to glucose tolerance is observed in non-diabetic individuals. More research is needed to elucidate whether this alternative therapy benefits diabetic individuals.
    • Passive smoking and risk of cognitive impairment in women who never smoke.

      Chen, Ruoling; Zhang, Dongmei; Chen, Yang; Hu, Zhi; Wilson, Ken (American Medical Association, 2012-02-13)
    • Passive smoking and the development of cardiovascular disease in children: a systematic review.

      Metsios, Giorgos S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis (SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research, 2010)
      Passive smoking may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children because of their partially developed physiological systems. The aim of the present systematic paper is to investigate whether passive smoking is associated with factors that influence the development of CVD in children. Data sources included Medline, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health (CINAHL) research database, Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), the 2006 Office of the Surgeon General's report, and the 2005 report from the California Environmental Protection Agency. We identified a total of 42 relevant articles (i.e., 30 reviews and 12 observational). Results revealed that passive smoking may be implicated in deteriorating cardiovascular status in children in terms of unfavorable high-density lipoprotein levels and deteriorated vascular function.
    • Passive smoking, asthma and allergy in children

      Metsios, Giorgos S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Bentham Science Publishers, 2009)
      Despite the recent campaigns to eliminate smoking and hinder the detrimental effects of passive smoking (PS), actual smoking rates still increase worldwide. Several physiological systems, with the respiratory being the primary, are disrupted by PS and progressively deteriorate through chronic exposures. This is of particular importance in children, given that respiratory complications during childhood can be transferred to adulthood and leading to significantly inferior health profiles. Hence, it is no surprise that children that are exposed to PS either in-utero or during their adulthood may increase prevalence of allergies and asthma. However, investigating the acute effects of PS in children is inherently limited by complexities pertaining mainly to ethical constrains. Knowledge of the acute effects could be very important as it is the dose-dependant acute effects of passive smoking that lead to the long-term adaptations linked with the development of allergy and asthma. Current available data show that the chemical and carcinogenic constituents of tobacco have profound effects on children’s health as they may disrupt normal biological development. PS appears to have pronounced effects on respiratory parameters that promote asthma development and persistent wheezing rather than other allergies. As such, PS exposure has to be eliminated and researchers have to develop interventions for supporting smoking cessation as well as minimised PS exposure either this is in-utero or during childhood.
    • Patchwork E-Dialogues in the professional development of new teachers

      Hughes, Julie; Hulme, Moira (Ideal Group Publishing, 2006)
      In this chapter the authors contend that the encouragement of reflective writing within professional learning programmes is not new. They suggest that electronic technologies, however, afford exciting opportunities to develop this practice to support participative and collaborative learning beyond barriers of time and place. This chapter explores the value of asynchronous dialogue in creating and sustaining communities of practice, with particular emphasis on the role of the e-mentor.
    • Pathoanatomy of Anterior Ankle Impingement in Dancers

      Russell, Jeffrey A.; Kruse, David W.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (J. Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2012)
      Articles from the anatomy, orthopaedic, and radiology literature since 1943 were reviewed, and possible sources of anterior ankle impingement were identified therein. There are both osseous and soft tissue causes of impingement symptoms. Anterior impingement in dancers may be induced by repetitive dorsiflexion during demi-plié where the anterior edge of the distal tibial articular surface contacts the dorsal neck of the talus. It also can be associated with the sequelae of lateral ankle sprain, including a hypertrophic tissue response, or simply by impingement of anatomically normal ligamentous structures. Dance medicine clinicians should be familiar with the pathoanatomy and etiologies of this clinical entity in order to effectively provide care for dancers who suffer from it.
    • Pathoanatomy of posterior ankle impingement in ballet dancers

      Russell, Jeffrey A.; Kruse, David W.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; McEwan, Islay M.; Wyon, Matthew A. (Wiley, 2010)
      Dance is a high performance athletic activity that leads to great numbers of injuries, particularly in the ankle region. One reason for this is the extreme range of ankle motion required of dancers, especially females in classical ballet where the en pointe and demi-pointe positions are common. These positions of maximal plantar flexion produce excessive force on the posterior ankle and may result in impingement, pain, and disability. Os trigonum and protruding lateral talar process are two common and well-documented morphological variations associated with posterior ankle impingement in ballet dancers. Other less well-known conditions, of both bony and soft tissue origins, can also elicit symptoms. This article reviews the anatomical causes of posterior ankle impingement that commonly affect ballet dancers with a view to equipping healthcare professionals for improved effectiveness in diagnosing and treating this pathology in a unique type of athlete. Clin. Anat. 23:613-621, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    • Pathways to mental healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria

      Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Oyebode, Femi; Muomah, Rosemary Chizobam; Igboaka, Anulika (Sage, 2016-07-26)
      In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used to select participants (N = 706) who completed questionnaires on help-seeking. Results showed a significant preference for biomedical (90.8%) compared to spiritual (57.8%) and traditional (33.2%) pathways. Higher education predicted preference for the biomedical model, while low education was associated with traditional and spiritual pathways. Protestants preferred the spiritual pathway more than did Catholics. The use of biomedical care is potentially undermined by poor mental health infrastructure, a lack of fit between the culture of biomedical care and the deep-seated cultural/religious worldviews of the people, stigma surrounding mental illness, and the likelihood of a social desirability bias in responses. A complementary model of care is proposed.
    • Patient Empowerment Through Social Media

      Bond, Carol; Merolli, Mark; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Gabarron, Elia; Lau, Annie (Academic Press, 2016)
    • Patient, carer and health service outcomes of nurse-led early discharge after breast cancer surgery: A randomised controlled trial

      Wells, M; Harrow, A; Donnan, P; Davey, P; Devereux, S; Little, G; McKenna, E; Wood, R; Chen, R; Thompson, A; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2004-08-16)
      Patients with breast cancer who require axillary clearance traditionally remain in hospital until their wound drains are removed. Early discharge has been shown to improve clinical outcomes, but there has been little assessment of the psychosocial and financial impact of early discharge on patients, carers and the health service. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-led model of early discharge from hospital. Main outcome measures were quality of life and carer burden. Secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction, arm morbidity, impact on community nurses, health service costs, surgical cancellations and in-patient nursing dependency. A total of 108 patients undergoing axillary clearance with mastectomy or wide local excision for breast cancer were randomised to nurse-led early discharge or conventional stay. Nurse-led early discharge had no adverse effects on quality of life or patient satisfaction, had little effect on carer burden, improved communication between primary and secondary care, reduced cancellations and was safely implemented in a mixed rural/urban setting. In total, 40% of eligible patients agreed to take part. Nonparticipants were significantly older, more likely to live alone and had lower emotional well being before surgery. This study provides further evidence of the benefits of early discharge from hospital following axillary clearance for breast cancer. However, if given the choice, most patients prefer to stay in hospital until their wound drains are removed. © 2004 Cancer Research UK.
    • Patients' experiences during the first 12 weeks after discharge in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty - a qualitative study.

      Specht, Kirsten; Agerskov, Hanne; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Jester, Rebecca; Pedersen, Birthe D (Elsevier, 2018-08-24)
      Due to the shortened length of stay in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty, patients must at a very early stage following surgery take responsibility for their postoperative care and treatment. It is important to establish if this treatment modality of fast-track is not only cost-effective, but meets patients' expectations and needs. To explore the lived experience of patients in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty during the first 12 weeks after discharge. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used inspired by Ricoeur's theory of narrative and interpretation. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 8 patients 2 and 12 weeks after discharge. Through the structural analysis 3 themes emerged: 1) Dealing with transition between hospital and home, 2) Pain and self-management of medication, 3) Challenges in rehabilitation.
    • PATTERN OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG COMMERCIAL BUS DRIVERS AND OKADA RIDERS IN IBADAN NIGERIA

      Taiwo, Abigail Olubola; Atibioke, Oluyemi; Chinyio, Ezekiel (INTED, 2016-03)
      Background: Traffic accidents contribute to injuries, deaths and disability globally, especially in developing countries. While most developed countries have data banks for effective road traffic planning, design and safety, there is a relative paucity of empirical studies in developing countries which especially concentrate on the personal factors and lifestyle of road users. As user-behaviour is an important element in road provision and sustenance, teaching and research ought to factor it in pedagogy. Objectives: WHO (2009) crash statistics comparisons showed Nigeria as the country with the highest rate of fatal road traffic crashes (33.7 deaths per 100,000 population per year) in the world, with young men between the ages of 15-44 constituting 62% of all deaths. Drunk-driving has been implicated as a major cause. An underlying study which examined the patterns of alcohol drinking and psychological wellbeing of commercial-drivers and motorbike-carriers in Ibadan metropolis in Nigeria was carried out to: demonstrate how adverse psychological states and drink-driving of road transport users can hamper efforts with road provision and safety; enhance a more holistic transportation policy; and, contribute to research informed-teaching. Design of the underlying study: The study was mainly descriptive and adopted a cross-sectional survey design. Method: 285 male volunteers were purposively sampled (consisting of 183 Commercial-drivers and 102 motorbike-carriers) and administered measures of socio-demographic factors, as well as the Eysenck Personality Inventory and Zung Self-rating Anxiety scale. Data was collected from the major (motor) parks across the city. The study followed all the necessary ethical procedures. Data were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The Chi square analysis showed a significant relationship between the two groups of road transport users and frequency of drinks: X2 (8, 285) = 49.2; p<.001). The trend showed that commercial-drivers consume unbranded alcohol more than the motorbike-carriers, but more motorbike-carriers tend to take mixtures of branded and unbranded alcohol than commercial drivers. There were significant inverse relationships between the participants’ onset-age of alcohol consumption and their scores on the neuroticism and anxiety scales. However, a significant positive relationship was observed between depression and current age. Impact of the findings on pedagogy: Indiscriminate consumption of various alcohol products is frequent among Nigerian commercial-road-transport-users and this affects their psychopathology. There is a need for the greater enforcement of drink limits and design of programmes that will target the psychological wellbeing of commercial road transport users in the Nigerian community. This, coupled with other road safety measures could enhance safety for other road users and commuters. A broader approach where the providers of infrastructures should understand the behavioural rationale of users and its impact on the facilities should extend to the classroom. This study therefore supports the researchers’ concept of Psycon (Psychology in Construction) as a pedagogic initiative. Psycon aims to answer the questions: how can the teaching of behavioural issues be enhanced in construction?; how can cross-disciplinary research by scholars from psychology and construction improve the provision and use of public facilities like roads?
    • Patterns of adverse childhood experiences and suicidal behaviors in adolescents: A four-province study in China

      Li, Shuqin; Wang, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xin; Jiang, Zhicheng; Xu, Huiqiong; Zhang, Shichen; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao; Chen, Ruoling; Wan, Yuhui; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-02-23)
      Background:: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased suicidal behaviors in adolescents and most research has been restricted to certain types of or cumulative exposure to ACEs. Few studies have examined the association between patterns of ACEs and suicidal behaviors. Objective:: To identify the contributions of type and pattern of exposure to ACEs to suicidal behaviors and their gender differences among middle school students in China. Methods:: A school-based health survey was conducted in four provinces in China between 2017 and 2018. 14 500 students aged 10–20 years completed standard questionnaires, to record details of ACEs, suicide ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. Results:: Latent class analysis indicated four distinct patterns of ACEs exposure: high ACEs (6.3%), high abuse and neglect (21.4%), high neglect (45.5%), and low ACEs (26.8%). Logistic analyses showed that, compared with low ACEs, the high ACEs were more likely to report suicidal behaviors. No gender differences were found in the independent effects of ACEs type or pattern on suicidal behaviors, except for the emotional neglect associated with suicidal behaviors in girls than boys. Limitations:: The study was cross-sectional and used self-reported questionnaires. Thus, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between patterns of ACEs and suicidal behaviors. Conclusion:: Our findings addressed the need for a comprehensive consideration of ACEs in preventive healthcare work to identify children exposed to the most problematic ACE patterns. The study provided the evidence of targeted intervention to preempt the emergence of suicide behavior in at-risk students in adolescents.