• Magnetic resonance imaging of the ankle in female ballet dancers en pointe

      Wyon, Matthew A; Shave, Ruth M; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kruse, David W; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Russell, Jeffrey A (Sage, 2010-07)
      Ballet dancers require extreme range of motion of the ankle, especially weight-bearing maximum plantar flexion (en pointe). In spite of a high prevalence of foot and ankle injuries in ballet dancers, the anatomy and pathoanatomy of this position have not been sufficiently studied in weight-bearing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a beneficial method for such study.
    • Magnitude and sources of proactive interference in visual memory

      Mercer, Tom; Fisher, Luke (Taylor & Francis, 2022-02-09)
      Proactive interference – the disruptive effect of old memories on new learning – is a long-established forgetting mechanism, yet there are doubts about its impact on visual working memory and uncertainty about the kinds of information that cause proactive interference. The present study aimed to assess these issues in three experiments using a modified recent probes task. Participants encoded four target images on each trial and determined whether a probe matched one of those targets. In Experiment 1, probes matching targets from trial N-1 or N-3 damaged responding in relation to a novel probe. Proactive interference was also produced by probes differing in state to a previously experienced target. This was further assessed in Experiments 2 and 3. Here, probes differing in colour to a previous target, or matching the general target category only, produced little proactive interference. Conversely, probes directly matching a prior target, or differing in state information, hindered task performance. This study found robust proactive interference in visual working memory that could endure over multiple trials, but it was also produced by stimuli closely resembling an old target. This challenges the notion that proactive interference is produced by an exact representation of a previously encoded image.
    • Maintained weight loss; facilitators & barriers

      Sque, Magi; Cullen, Carol; Nicholls, Wendy (Division of Counselling Psychology Annual Conference - Inspiration, Innovation and Impact, 2014)
    • Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event and patients' quality of life after endoscopic vein harvesting as compared with open vein harvest (MAQEH): a pilot study.

      Luckraz, Heyman; Cartwright, Carly; Nagarajan, Kumaresan; Kaur, Prabhjeet; Nevill, Alan M. (BMJ, 2018)
      This is a prospective, comparative, pilot and follow-up (2-year postoperatively) study in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery where the long saphenous vein was harvested either by the endoscopic vein harvest (EVH) technique or open vein harvest (OVH) technique. Quality of life (QOL) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were assessed.
    • ‘Make not your prisons your prisons’: Participant-percieved potential outcomes of a Shakespeare focussed alternative to juvenile incarceration in the USA

      Nicklin, Laura L. (Informa UK Limited, 2017-02-13)
      For over two decades, there has been a progressive emergence of Shakespeare-focussed, performance-based programmes intended for use as criminal rehabilitation in the USA. Prison based criminal retribution, though historically prevalent, remains controversial. Although it is still used as a common method for rehabilitation, evidence demonstrates that alternative sentences have a consistently more positive impact on reducing rates of recidivism. Some criminal justice organisations and institutions in the United States of America have invested in enabling Shakespeare courses to become supplements or, in some juvenile cases, alternatives to incarceration. In particular, some state judiciary courts have introduced a series of Shakespeare courses to serve as alternative sentences for juvenile crime. The Shakespeare focussed alternative programme considered in this research is celebrating its seventeenth anniversary in 2017. This article considers the specific programme practices and reported outcomes of one now well established, yet widely underreported, Shakespeare-based alternative programme for juveniles in the USA, exploring the juvenile perspectives of the outcomes of activities that are designed for them by adults working in performing arts and/or juvenile criminal services. Key outcomes from participants related specifically to programme content, the selection and use of Shakespeare, skills acquisition and personal development culminating in overall behavioural change.
    • Making my mark: 'You could have been a doctor'

      Serrant-Green, Laura (RCN Publishing Co., 2007)
      Laura Serrant-Green talks about why she decided to be a nurse, her work in research, what she has learned during her career, as well as the women who have helped her along the way as she prepares to embark on her third year as editor of Nurse Researcher.
    • Making sense of learning gain in higher education

      Evans, C; Kandiko Howson, C; Forsythe, A (Informa UK Limited, 2018-09-03)
      Internationally, the political appetite for educational measurement capable of capturing a metric of value for money and effectiveness has momentum. While most would agree with the need to assess costs relevant to quality to help support better governmental policy decisions about public spending, poorly understood measurement comes with unintended consequences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the development of measures of learning gain in higher education, exploring political contexts, methodological challenges, and the multiple purposes and potential of learning gain metrics for quality assurance, accountability and enhancement, and most importantly, we argue, the enhancement of learning and teaching. Learning gain approaches should be integral to curriculum design and delivery and not extraneous to it. Enhancing shared understandings of concepts, measures, and instruments, transparency in reporting and investment in developing pedagogical research literacy, including effective use of data are essential in the pursuit of meaningful approaches to measuring learning gain within higher education.
    • Making the case for lifelong learning: PIAAC and policy change

      Tuckett, Alan (2018-11-28)
      My paper looks first at why learning through the adult lifespan is important and valuable for individuals, communities, companies and for governments. Secondly, it looks at the relationship between the range of challenges facing countries in the light of economic, technological and demographic change, and the available evidence of adults’ competence to address those challenges. For this it draws heavily on the very rich evidence in the OECD Programme of International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) (OECD 2013). The paper notes PIAAC’s primary focus on skills related to the labour market and productivity, and its useful survey of aspects of social capital. It complements this by considering other forms of quantifiable data, and qualitative studies relevant to policy making that affect a wider range of lifelong and life-wide learning. These include looking at evidence from longitudinal studies, more targeted surveys, and the rich range of narratives drawn on in advocacy work.
    • Management in education: Reflective piece draft guidelines

      Mowat, J; Jopling, M (SAGE, 2019-10-09)
      As part of our strategy to develop the journal for practitioner and academic audiences, we take pleasure in introducing our new reflective piece section and the guidelines for submission.
    • Managing disclosures of violence on university campus: developing a safe environment to report abuse and gendered aggression

      Morgan, Angela; Lyle, Chris; Stonard, Karlie (Macquarie University, 2018-06-16)
      The context: Gendered violence on Campus: Changing the Culture (UUK, 2015) Our response: research survey of staff and students Our recommendation: Bystander Initiative awareness training
    • Manipulating mentors' assessment decisions: Do underperforming student nurses use coercive strategies to influence mentors' practical assessment decisions?

      Gutteridge, Robin; Hunt, Louise A; McGee, Paula; Hughes, Malcolm (Elsevier, 2016-08-28)
      There is growing evidence of a culture of expectation among nursing students in Universities which leads to narcissistic behaviour. Evidence is growing that some student nurses are disrespectful and rude towards their university lecturers. There has been little investigation into whether they exhibit similar behaviour towards their mentors during practical placements, particularly when they, the students, are not meeting the required standards for practice. This paper focuses on adding to the evidence around a unique finding – that student nurses can use coercive and manipulative behaviour to elicit a successful outcome to their practice learning assessment (as noted in Hunt et al. (2016, p 82)). Four types of coercive student behaviour were identified and classified as: ingratiators, diverters, disparagers and aggressors, each of which engendered varying degrees of fear and guilt in mentors. The effects of each type of behaviour are discussed and considered in the light of psychological contracts. Mechanisms to maintain effective working relationships between student nurses and mentors and bolster the robustness of the practical assessment process under such circumstances are discussed.
    • Manual or electronic? The role of coding in qualitative data analysis

      Basit, Tehmina N. (Routledge, 2003)
      Data analysis is the most difficult and most crucial aspect of qualitative research. Coding is one of the significant steps taken during analysis to organize and make sense of textual data. This paper examines the use of manual and electronic methods to code data in two rather different projects in which the data were collected mainly by in-depth interviewing. The author looks at both the methods in the light of her own experience and concludes that the choice will be dependent on the size of the project, the funds and time available, and the inclination and expertise of the researcher.
    • Marxism and Educational Theory: Origins and Issues.

      Cole, Mike (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis)., 2006)
      We live in a world where thousands make massive profits out of the labours of others, while those others exist as wage slaves, millions of whom die of starvation and poverty-related illness every year. The fundamental aim of Marxism is the overthrow of the anarchic, exploitative and eco-destructive system of world capitalism and its replacement by world socialism and equality. To build a socialist world is a task of gargantuan proportions, but one that Marxists believe is eminently achievable. This book addresses some of these challenges from within educational theory. The key theoretical issues addressed are: • utopian socialism • poststructuralism and postmodernism • transmodernism • globalisation, neo-liberalism and environmental destruction • the new imperialism • critical race theory. Marxism and Educational Theory compellingly and informatively propels the debate forward in the pursuit of that socialist future. In that quest, suggestions are made to connect theoretical issues with the more practical concerns of the school and the classroom.
    • Mate value discrepancy and attachment anxiety predict the perpetration of digital dating abuse

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Howman, Jessica M. (Springer, 2018-09-13)
      Research suggests that individual differences in attachment style predict the perpetration of digital dating abuse. In addition to attachment style, no research, to our knowledge, has explored the role of mate value in the perpetration of digital dating abuse. In this paper, we argue that digital dating abuse is a contemporary cost-inflicting mate retention behaviour, where larger mate value discrepancies between partners are associated with higher levels of digital dating abuse (n = 167). As expected, high mate value discrepancy and attachment anxiety were associated with high levels of digital dating abuse. We provide novel support for the relationship between mate value discrepancy and digital dating abuse. Our findings provide support for additional, unexplored factors which lead to the perpetration of digital dating abuse
    • Maternal psychosocial consequences of twins and multiple births following assisted and natural conception: a meta-analysis

      van den Akker, Olga; Postavaru, Gianina-Ioana; Purewal, Satvinder (Cambridge, UK : Reproductive Healthcare Ltd, 2016-04-26)
      The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide new evidence on the effects on maternal health of multiple births due to assisted reproductive technology (ART). A bibliographic search was undertaken using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Science Direct. Data extraction was completed using Cochrane Review recommendations, and the review was performed following PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Meta-analytic data were analysed using random effects models. Eight papers (2993 mothers) were included. Mothers of ART multiple births were significantly more likely to experience depression (standardized mean difference [SMD] d = 0.198, 95% CI 0.050 − 0.345, z = 2.623, P = 0.009; heterogeneity I2 = 36.47%), and stress (SMD d = 0.177, 95% CI 0.049 − 0.305, P = 0.007; heterogeneity I2 = 0.01%) than mothers of ART singletons. No difference in psychosocial distress (combined stress and depression) (SMD d = 0.371, 95% CI −0.153 − 0.895; I2 = 86.962%, P = 0.001) or depression (d = 0.152, 95% CI −0.179 − 0.483: z = 0.901; I2 = 36.918%) were found between mothers of ART and naturally conceived multiple births. In conclusion, mothers of ART multiple births were significantly more likely to have depression and stress than mothers of ART singletons, but were no different from mothers of naturally conceived multiples.
    • Maternal-foetal attachment: searching for a new definition.

      Sandbrook, Sandra; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N. (Society of Integrated Sciences, 2004)
      Maternal-fetal attachment is the purest source of the powerful attachment relationship, the gradual internalisation of the life within unspoilt by the realities and complexities of early parenting. This qualitative study searches for a definition of attachment utilising a phenomenological framework. An opportunity sample of 10 women in the final trimester of pregnancy was interviewed. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Glaser & Strauss's (1967) constant comparative methodology. Thirteen key themes were identified, of these 4 were specific to parenting experience. A novel finding contrary to earlier studies was that women reported their overwhelming emotion was not love but an innate desire to protect. Protection, the developmental nature of attachment and importance of the emotional and physical support of a partner or parent form the kernel of an evolving paradigm.
    • The maximal metabolic steady state: redefining the ‘gold standard’

      Jones, Andrew M; Burnley, Mark; Black, Matthew I; Poole, David C; Vanhatalo, Anni (Wiley, 2019-05-23)
      The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and the critical power (CP) are two widely used indices of the highest oxidative metabolic rate that can be sustained during continuous exercise and are often considered to be synonymous. However, while perhaps having similarities in principle, methodological differences in the assessment of these parameters typically result in MLSS occurring at a somewhat lower power output or running speed and exercise at CP being sustainable for no more than approximately 20–30 min. This has led to the view that CP overestimates the ‘actual’ maximal metabolic steady state and that MLSS should be considered the ‘gold standard’ metric for the evaluation of endurance exercise capacity. In this article we will present evidence consistent with the contrary conclusion: i.e., that (1) as presently defined, MLSS naturally underestimates the actual maximal metabolic steady state; and (2) CP alone represents the boundary between discrete exercise intensity domains within which the dynamic cardiorespiratory and muscle metabolic responses to exercise differ profoundly. While both MLSS and CP may have relevance for athletic training and performance, we urge that the distinction between the two concepts/metrics be better appreciated and that comparisons between MLSS and CP, undertaken in the mistaken belief that they are theoretically synonymous, is discontinued. CP represents the genuine boundary separating exercise in which physiological homeostasis can be maintained from exercise in which it cannot, and should be considered the gold standard when the goal is to determine the maximal metabolic steady state.
    • Maximal physiological responses to deep and shallow water running.

      Dowzer, Clare N.; Reilly, Thomas; Cable, Nigel T.; Nevill, Alan M. (Taylor & Francis, 1999)
      The maximal physiological responses to treadmill running (TMR), shallow water running (SWR) and deep water running (DWR) while wearing a buoyancy vest were compared in 15 trained male runners. Measurements included oxygen consumption (VO2 max), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR). Treadmill running elicited VO2 max and HRmax, which were higher than the peaks attained in both water tests (p < 0.01). VO2 peak averaged 83.7 and 75.3% of VO2 max for SWR and DWR respectively. Peak HR for SWR and DWR were 94.1 and 87.2% of the HRmax reached in the TMR. RER responses were similar between the three modalities. The observations suggest that the training stimulus provided by water is still adequate for supplementary training. While SWR is potentially an efficient method of maintaining cardiovascular fitness, it needs to be investigated further to establish if it is a viable technique for the injured athlete to employ.
    • Maximal voluntary quadriceps strength patterns in Olympic overtrained athletes.

      Koutedakis, Yiannis; Frischknecht, R.; Vrbová, G.; Sharp, N. C. Craig; Budgett, Richard; School of Health Sciences, Wolverhampton University, Wolverhampton, England. (American College of Sports Medicine, 1995)
      Peak torques were studied in 10 elite male overtrained athletes and 10 controls matched for sex, age, sport, and performance level. Isokinetic concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of quadriceps muscle were assessed at the angular velocities of 60 degrees, 120 degrees, and 180 degrees.s-1. Sustained isometric MVCs were also measured at knee angles of 10 degrees, 45 degrees, and 80 degrees of flexion. Six seconds after the beginning of each isometric MVC, a 40-Hz electrical stimulation was superimposed on the MVC for a further 6 s. The overtrained subjects developed significantly smaller CON peak torques at 180 degrees.s-1 (P < 0.001), although ECC torques were similar at all three velocities. ECC/CON ratios were higher in the overtrained subjects at 120 degrees.s-1 (P < 0.01) and 180 degrees.s-1 (P < 0.001) compared with the controls. Isometric MVCs at 10 degrees and 45 degrees knee flexion were lower in the overtrained at P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively. Also in the overtrained subjects, at knee angle of 10 degrees, the addition of the electrical stimulation to the isometric MVC produced an increase (P < 0.05) in torque levels. It is suggested that impaired central drive may account for the present findings.
    • Maximising the potential of people in sport and life. Lessons from the Benson community project

      Leflay, Kath; Smith, Russel (2020-12-04)
      This paper explores how one particular community sport project in the West Midlands uses a coaching for development approach to maximise the potential of people in sport and in life. It has frequently been suggested that it shouldn’t be a taken for granted assumption that positive development will simply occur, rather, key decisions need to be made about the best way to shape sports projects to maximise the chance that they will result in successful outcomes . This paper examines how one club ‘coaches for development’, and in doing so, supports individual development-one of the outcomes identified by Sport England in their 2016 strategy- Towards an Active Nation. An independent evaluation of Benson Community Project was carried out by the University of Wolverhampton in 2019. Observations of sessions were carried out over a 5 week period. Observations were followed up by semi structured interviews with 6 volunteer coaching staff to capture in depth accounts about the project. Four emergent themes were identified from the observations and interviews. These were safe space, freestyling, relationship strategy and alternative pathways