• La formation des enseignants en Ecosse et en Angleterre : contextes et avenirs

      Matheson, David; Matheson, Catherine (Actes de la Recherche, 2003-01)
      Historical, socio-cultural and socio-political contexts and a discussion about dominant mythologies of education in each of England and Scotland are discussed before current policies are outlined with the conclusion that the future of teacher training and teacher education in each country is likely to be increasingly dissimilar.
    • The labour of words in Higher Education is it time to reoccupy policy?

      Hayes, Sarah (Brill, 2019-01-24)
      As Higher Education has come to be valued for its direct contribution to the global economy, university policy discourse has reinforced this rationale. In The Labour of Words in Higher Education: Is it Time to Reoccupy Policy? two globes are depicted. One is a beautiful, but complete artefact, that markets a UK university. The second sits on a European city street and is continually inscribed with the markings of passers-by. A distinction is drawn between the rhetoric of university McPolicy, as a discourse that appears to no longer require input from humans, and a more authentic approach to writing policy, that acknowledges the academic labour of staff and students, in effecting change. Inspired by the work of George Ritzer on the McDonaldisation of Society, the term McPolicy is adopted by the author, to describe a rational method of writing policy, now widespread across UK universities. Recent strategies on ‘the student experience’, ‘technology enhanced learning’, ‘student engagement’ and ‘employability’ are explored through a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Findings are humourously compared to the marketing of consumer goods, where commodities like cars are invested with human qualities, such as ‘ambition’. Similarly, McPolicy credits non-human strategies, technologies and a range of socially constructed buzz phrases, with the human qualities and labour activities that would normally be enacted by staff and students. This book is written for anyone with an interest in the future of universities. It concludes with suggestions of ways we might all reoccupy McPolicy.
    • Lactic acid removal and heart rate frequencies during recovery after strenuous rowing exercise.

      Koutedakis, Yiannis; Sharp, N. C. Craig (BMJ Publishing Group, 1985)
      Three tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of three different intensities of exercise both in reducing blood lactic acid (LA) levels and in influencing subjects' heart rate (HR), following a 2000 m race in a rowing boat. In the first and second tests these variables were investigated during a 13 min recovery exercise at 60% and 40% of the preceding maximum rowing speed respectively. In the third test the subjects had a resting recovery. The results include a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in the rate of lactate removal following the 40% recovery compared with the 60% and resting recoveries. The HRs were significantly lower during the last minute of resting recovery compared with 40% and 60% recoveries (P less than 0.001). The same was true when 40% recovery was compared with 60% recovery (P less than 0.001). The present data suggest firstly that 40% of the maximum rowing speed is an appropriate pace for effective LA removal and secondly that, at least for trained rowers, 86% of their maximum HR can be taken as an indication of work of an intensity at or above anaerobic threshold.
    • Language in online dating texts: trait identification, homophily, and their effect on attraction

      Fox Hamilton, Nicola; Fullwood, Chris; Kirwan, Grainne (Interactive Media Institute, 2015-07-31)
      Research has indicated that online daters may pick up on language cues connected to personality traits in online dating profile texts, and act upon those cues. This research seeks to investigate the level of accuracy of detection of personality in dating profile texts, and the extent to which perceived or actual similarity of personality has an effect on attractiveness of the author. An online survey was conducted collecting the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) for each participant and text author, a peer-report TIPI score by participants for each text author, and an attractiveness rating on a Likert scale for each author. Participants correctly identified Extraversion, though the effect size was small. Contrary to the hypotheses, participants preferred texts when written by an author with a personality they perceived as dissimilar to their own, specifically in Openness and Conscientiousness, and no relationship was found between actual similarity of personality and attractiveness. Online daters may choose partners with complementary or desirable traits rather than similar traits, or other factors in attraction may be more salient in the initial stages of determining attraction.
    • Languages of Scotland: Culture and the classroom

      Matheson, Catherine; Matheson, David (Taylor & Francis, 2000-05)
      The indigenous languages of Scotland are in a precarious position faced with the massive presence of English. This essay examines the state and nature of the Scots and Gaelic languages. It places them in their historical context and traces how each has had its heyday in Scotland, in the case of Gaelic to be supplanted by Scots and in the case of Scots to be supplanted by English. Both have become marginalised in Scottish life and in the Scottish school. Both have been subject to various concerted campaigns aimed at their destruction. Gaelic, however, has at least had the consolation of being regarded as a language while Scots has not. The changing relationship between the school and these languages is examined in the context of the current revival of Scottish culture on a multiplicity of fronts.
    • Late development of metric part-relational processing in object recognition

      Jüttner, Martin; Petters, Dean David; Wakui, Elley; Davidoff, Jules (American Psychological Association, 2014-08-01)
      Four experiments with unfamiliar objects examined the remarkably late consolidation of part-relational relative to part-based object recognition (Jüttner, Wakui, Petters, Kaur, & Davidoff, 2013). Our results indicate a particularly protracted developmental trajectory for the processing of metric part relations. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years and adults were tested in 3-Alternative-Forced-Choice tasks to judge the correct appearance of upright and inverted newly learned multipart objects that had been manipulated in terms of individual parts or part relations. Experiment 1 showed that even the youngest tested children were close to adult levels of performance for recognizing categorical changes of individual parts and relative part position. By contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that performance for detecting metric changes of relative part position was distinctly reduced in young children compared with recognizing metric changes of individual parts, and did not approach the latter until 11 to 12 years. A similar developmental dissociation was observed in Experiment 3, which contrasted the detection of metric relative-size changes and metric part changes. Experiment 4 showed that manipulations of metric size that were perceived as part (rather than part-relational) changes eliminated this dissociation. Implications for theories of object recognition and similarities to the development of face perception are discussed.
    • Laughter and smiling in 16 positive emotions

      Hofmann, Jennifer; Platt, Tracey; Ruch, Willibald (IEEE Xplore Digital Library, 2017-08-09)
      This study investigated the elicitation of smiling and laughter and the role of facial display regulation markers (e.g., down-regulating of a smile or laugh) in positive emotions. In a structured group conversation setting, the frequency and intensity of Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles and laughs when telling memories of 16 positive emotions proposed by Ekman [1] were assessed. Facial responses were coded with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS [2]) and laughter vocalizations were assessed. The results show that smiles and laughs occurred in all 16 positive emotions. Laughter occurred most often in amusement and schadenfreude (laughter occurred in 72% and 71% of the recalled emotion memories respectively). Also, the intensity of the smiles and laughs was higher in amusement and schadenfreude than in the other 14 positive emotions. Furthermore, down-regulated displays (i.e., including facial markers counteracting the upward action of the zygomatic major muscle) resembled Duchenne Displays in their intensity. To summarize, more insight is gained into the facial expression of positive emotions, also highlighting the role of laughter. Also, the importance of assessing regulation markers in joy displays when people are in social settings is stressed.
    • Law and order conservatism and youth justice: Outcomes and effects in Canada and England and Wales

      Fox, D; Arnull, E (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2015-06-15)
      This paper explores how underlying law and order conservatism has shaped and defined youth justice policy in England and Wales and Canada. We argue that cultural and political influences affected implementation in ways which were initially unforeseen and therefore unconsidered. Our focus is twofold, on the intentions that drove the policy and practice changes and subsequently, on the negative consequences that emerged during implementation. We explore these with regard to the application of discretion and the paper considers the complexity of discretion and how neither, reducing or increasing it has led to simple or obviously predictable patterns. In addition, we apply Thompson's (2006) model of Anti- Oppressive Practice to consider how policies that were not intended to be oppressive and which were evidence based and informed by research and the policy community moved towards a law and order agenda.
    • LDL particle size in habitual exercisers, lean sedentary men and abdominally obese sedentary men.

      O'donovan, G; McEneny, J; Kearney, E M; Owen, A; Nevill, Alan M.; Woolf-May, K; Bird, S R (Thieme, 2007-08)
      Habitual exercisers enjoy considerable protection from coronary heart disease (CHD). Often, however, only modest differences in traditional CHD risk factors are apparent between habitual exercisers and their sedentary counterparts. For this reason, there is increasing interest in novel predictors of CHD, such as a preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate lipoprotein subfractions in 32 lean exercisers, 36 lean sedentary men and 21 obese sedentary men aged 30 - 45 years. Well-validated equations were used to determine LDL concentration and peak particle diameter. Waist girth was used to identify lean (< 100 cm) and obese (>or= 100 cm) individuals. LDL concentration was lower in lean exercisers than in lean sedentary men (2.64 +/- 0.44 vs. 3.76 +/- 0.79 mmol . l (-1), p < 0.001), suggesting that habitual exercise influences this risk factor. In contrast, there were no significant differences in LDL peak particle diameter between lean exercisers, lean sedentary men and obese sedentary men (27.92 +/- 0.67, 28.09 +/- 0.62 and 27.77 +/- 0.77 nm, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, triglyceride concentration was the only significant predictor of LDL PPD. These data suggest that habitual exercise influences LDL concentration but does not influence LDL particle size in men aged 30 - 45 years.
    • Leadership Behavior in Dance: Application of the Leadership Scale for Sports to Dance Technique Teaching

      Rafferty, Sonia.; Wyon, Matthew A. (J. Michael Ryan Publishing Inc, 2006)
      In response to the paucity of actual data on leadership behavior in dance technique teaching, this study, with reference to Chelladurai’s Multidimensional Model of Leadership, aimed to define factors that may influence the dance teacher-student relationship and promote an effective learning process in dance technique teaching. The Leadership Scale for Sport Questionnaire (LSS) was administered in three versions to 14 dance teachers and 53 of their undergraduate students to measure leader behaviors in five dimensions: Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior, Social Support and Positive Feedback. Discrepancy scores were calculated to compare differences in teachers’ and students’ perceptions as well as differences between students’ perceptions and preferences. Statistical analyses (five one-way and five two-way between group analyses of variance with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference post-hoc tests) were computed to provide data on, respectively, the relationships between teachers’ perceptions of their own behavior, students’ perceptions of teaching behavior and students’ preferences for teaching behavior as well as the effect of dance style and student gender on preferences for teacher behavior. Significant differences (p < .05) were found between the three groups in Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior and Positive Feedback, but not in Social Support (p > .05). There were no significant main effects for gender (p > .05) or dance style (p > .05) in any dimension, and interaction effects also did not reach significance (p > .05). The reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) in this study were not consistent with those reported in other sports studies using the LSS, and the suitability of the LSS as an instrument for observing teaching behavior in dance was questioned. Limitations of the study were identified and recommendations made for future research in leadership behavior in the context of dance training.
    • Leadership Talent Identification and development

      Rhodes, Christopher; Brundrett, Mark; Nevill, Alan M. (Sage, 2008)
      This article reports on outcomes from a study funded by the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) designed to explore leadership talent identification, development, succession and retention in contextually different primary and secondary schools in England. Focus groups and a questionnaire were used to secure perceptions of heads, middle leaders and classroom teachers about leadership talent identification and development. Twenty characteristics indicative of leadership talent were identified. Agreement and disjuncture were recorded concerning the importance of characteristics among respondent groups. The implications of these findings for leadership development and succession, in the face of a potential leadership crisis in the UK and internationally, are discussed. The longer-term career planning of staff, the place of needs analysis, self-disclosure and senior leadership decision-making are examined with respect to leadership talent identification and development. The article offers a basis upon which schools can reflect on their role in providing a good training ground for future leaders. School-based changes are recommended so that individual school’s longer-term leadership requirements may be better addressed.
    • Learning as development: Rethinking international development in a changing world

      Tuckett, Alan (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-08-07)
    • Learning cities and learning communities: analyzing contextual factors and their impacts on adult and lifelong learning in urban settings

      Németh, Balázs; Issa, Ola; Diba, Farah; Tuckett, Alan (Institute for Pedagogy and Andragogy, University of Belgrade, 2020-06-30)
      This paper will elaborate upon the contextual aspects of community development in the scope of Learning City and Learning Community related practices of knowledge transfer and sharing in urban environments. Engaged colleagues will provide their critical approaches, reflections and proposals upon how we can understand and recognize adult and lifelong learning through communities trying to reach for peace, understanding, social inclusion and sensitive intercultural and intergenerational aspirations in times of difficulties and challenges affecting our vulnerable relationships. This paper will try to point out matters of equity, human discoveries of collection, sharing and saving values, tradition and dignities through Learning Communities in four different cultural environments from the British Isles, India, Palestine and Hungary. Their urban frames might not be necessarily called or considered as Learning Cities, but labels and notions are not the first priority. It is as simple as it sounds: No One Left Behind.
    • Learning informally to use teaching games for understanding: The experiences of a recently qualified teacher

      O'Leary, Nick (Sage, 2014-05-16)
      This article reports on a study of one recently qualified teacher’s employment of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model in a UK secondary school. The study sought to examine how the teacher, not formally educated in its use, delivered TGfU and to identify those factors that led to this interpretation of the model. Occupational socialization was used to explore how childhood experiences of physical education (PE) and sport, higher education and the workplace influenced the experience of learning informally to use the model. Qualitative data are reported from interviews, lesson observations and teacher documentary evidence. Findings illustrated that informal learning during organizational socialization had developed the teacher’s use of TGfU. However, a partial understanding of the tactical problem-solving nature of games and issues around the use of social constructivist learning strategies impeded effective use of the model. It is recommended that teachers attempting to learn informally how to use TGfU effectively receive sustained external expertise and continuing support from colleagues.
    • Learning informally to use the 'full version' of teaching games for understanding

      OLeary, N. (SAGE Journals, 2015-05-20)
      This paper examines an experienced teacher’s employment of the teaching games for understanding (TGfU) model in a UK secondary school. The study sought to investigate how the teacher delivered TGfU and those factors that influenced his informal learning of this instructional model. Occupational socialisation was utilised to determine the factors that influenced his use of TGfU. Qualitative data were collected from interviews, lesson observations and documentary evidence. Inductive data analysis indicated the teacher delivered the ‘full version’ of the model largely congruent with the creators’ intentions. The traditional approach to games teaching seen in his childhood and partially learned in higher education were ‘washed out’ by the influence of teaching colleagues and the development of a student-centred approach to teaching games. This study indicates it is possible to overcome traditional approaches to games teaching and informally learn to use TGfU successfully given conducive circumstances and sufficient time.
    • Learning through networks: trust, partnerships and the power of action research

      Hadfield, Mark; Day, Christopher (Routledge, 2004)
      In England school teachers and head teachers are faced with a myriad of challenges in coping with the pressures of managing the dynamic and diverse institution which is their school within an imposed, centralized, standards-driven change agenda. It could be argued that many of the national policies and initiatives over the last 15 years have directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously undermined the traditional autonomy of teachers. As a consequence, many feel little ownership of a curriculum that is regularly policed through national pupil assessment at ages 7, 11, 14, 16, 17 and 18, school inspections and competency frameworks related to role specification, and are consequently insecure in making decisions about pedagogy. As part of governments' drive to ensure the effective and efficient implementation, they have been inundated also with demands to attend professional development courses dealing with imposed initiatives, but have little time or energy for reflection on their practice and reflection on the impact that imposed change is making on pupils, motivation, learning and achievement. It was in this context that the Primary Schools Learning Network was formed through negotiated partnerships between a group of self-selecting schools, the local education authority (district), and the Centre for Research on Teacher and School Development at the University of Nottingham. Its aim was to give ownership for development back to teachers through collaborative action research with a view to improving schools and raising pupil attainment.
    • Learning with Mobiles in Developing Countries: Technology, Language, and Literacy

      Traxler, John; Institute of Education, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK (IGI Global, 2017-04)
      In the countries of the global South, the challenges of fixed infrastructure and environment, the apparent universality of mobile hardware, software and network technologies and the rhetoric of the global knowledge economy have slowed or impoverished the development of appropriate theoretical discourses to underpin learning with mobiles. This paper addresses one specific and fundamental component of such discourses, namely the role of language and literacy as they interact with mobile technology. The paper makes three points, that mobile technology is culturally and linguistically specific, not universal or culturally-neutral; that mobile technology does not merely store and transmit language(s) and literacy within communities, it disturbs and transforms them, and that the digital literacy agenda that might underpin learning with mobiles has not yet been developed in relation to mobile technology or in relation to the global South. These are the foundations of understanding learning with mobiles in the global South.
    • Learning with Mobiles in the Digital Age

      Traxler, John (Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press, 2018-12-31)
      Personal mobile devices are central to the current digital age, and will soon be pervasive and ubiquitous, and unremarkable in most of the world’s societies and cultures. They are central to the educational futures for the digital age, to both in theory and practice. They are, however, not straightforward. Whilst the relationships of these technologies to formal education and its professions and institutions, conceptualised as ‘mobile learning’, seemed straightforward, it has also become increasingly marginal and irrelevant whilst the relationship between mobile devices and society outside formal education is increasingly problematising the nature, role and purpose of both education and learning. This article explores this tension; it characterises and conceptualises it in terms of competing paradigms.