• Kevin and Peter: responses to two ‘preventable deaths’

      Simpson, Graeme; Nowacki, Katja (Routledge, 2017-05-16)
      European welfare states have substantial provision to ensure that children are brought up in conditions, which meet the articles of the United Nations’ Convention of the Rights of the Child. In our analysis of two preventable deaths in Germany and England, we focus primarily on Article 18, which directs states to ensure that there is adequate provision to support parents in their responsibilities, and Article 19, which ensures children’s safety and protection. We outline the legal framework, which existed at the time of two child deaths: ‘Kevin from Bremen’ and Peter in London, both young children who were subject to formal state supervision and oversight. The events – including the press response, their aftermath and the subsequent changes to social work practice through legislation and guidance will be examined. Our subsequent analysis will evaluate the extent to which events altered the balance between Articles 18 and 19 in the two countries, and the extent to which a Children’s Rights approach in this area offers new insights. The analysis will suggest that a rights-based approach offers some benefits for a comparative framework and understanding child and family social work, but also that it is not without some difficulties.
    • Key anthropometric variables associated with front-crawl swimming performance in youth swimmers: an allometric approach

      Sammoud, Senda; Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Bouguezzi, Raja; Attia, Ahmed; Granacher, Urs; Younes, Hachana; Nevill, Alan M; Research Unit (UR17JS01), Sport Performance, Health & Society, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Saîd, University of "La Manouba," Tunisia. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2020-02-07)
      Sammoud, S, Negra, Y, Chaabene, H, Bouguezzi, R, Attia, A, Granacher, U, Younes, H, and Nevill, AM. Key anthropometric variables associated with front-crawl swimming performance in youth swimmers: an allometric approach. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study aimed to establish key anthropometric characteristics (e.g., optimal body height, limb-segment length, and girth/breadth ratios) related to 100-m front-crawl performance in young swimmers. In total, 74 swimmers (boys [n = 41; age: 18.1 ± 3.5 years]; girls [n = 33; age: 15.9 ± 3.1 years]) participated in this study. We adopted a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model to identify key anthropometric characteristics associated with 100-m front-crawl swimming performance. The main outcomes indicated that length ratio = ([height/leg length]), foot length and ankle girth, biacromial breadth, and % of body fat were associated with 100-m front-crawl mean swimming speed performance. These findings highlight the importance of assessing anthropometric characteristics in young front-crawl swimmers for talent identification and development.
    • Key somatic variables associated with, and differences between the 4 swimming strokes

      Nevill, Alan M; Negra, Yassine; Myers, Tony D; Sammoud, Senda; Chaabene, Helmi; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-03-04)
      This study identified key somatic and demographic characteristics that benefit all swimmers and, at the same time, identified further characteristics that benefit only specific swimming strokes. Three hundred sixty-three competitive-level swimmers (male [n = 202]; female [n = 161]) participated in the study. We adopted a multiplicative, allometric regression model to identify the key characteristics associated with 100 m swimming speeds (controlling for age). The model was refined using backward elimination. Characteristics that benefited some but not all strokes were identified by introducing stroke-by-predictor variable interactions. The regression analysis revealed 7 "common" characteristics that benefited all swimmers suggesting that all swimmers benefit from having less body fat, broad shoulders and hips, a greater arm span (but shorter lower arms) and greater forearm girths with smaller relaxed arm girths. The 4 stroke-specific characteristics reveal that backstroke swimmers benefit from longer backs, a finding that can be likened to boats with longer hulls also travel faster through the water. Other stroke-by-predictor variable interactions (taken together) identified that butterfly swimmers are characterized by greater muscularity in the lower legs. These results highlight the importance of considering somatic and demographic characteristics of young swimmers for talent identification purposes (i.e., to ensure that swimmers realize their most appropriate strokes).
    • Key somatic variables in young backstroke swimmers

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Helmi, Chaabene; Hachana, Younes (Routledge, 2018-11-15)
      The purpose of this study was to estimate the optimal body size, limb-segment length, girth or breadth ratios for 100-m backstroke mean speed performance in young swimmers. Sixty-three young swimmers (boys [n = 30; age: 13.98 ± 0.58 years]; girls [n = 33; age: 13.02 ± 1.20 years]) participated in this study. To identify the optimal body size and body composition components associated with 100-m backstroke speed performance, we adopted a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. The multiplicative allometric model exploring the association between 100-m backstroke mean speed performance and the different somatic measurements estimated that biological age, sitting height, leg length for the lower-limbs, and two girths (forearm and arm relaxed girth) are the key predictors. Stature and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. In fact, it is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the abovementioned ratios could have been derived. These findings highlighted the importance of considering somatic characteristics of young backstroke swimmers and can help swimming coaches to classify their swimmers and enable them to suggest what might be the swimmers’ most appropriate stroke (talent identification).
    • Keynote: A History of Word Cup Posters 1930-2014’ Future Football: a design for life

      Williams, Jean (Football Collective, 2016-11)
      The game has never been more popular than it is today. The opinion of the fans within a stadium has moved from a post-match analysis on the radio, listening from home or in the car, into different modes of communication. Football is consumed and prosumed in both offline and online life. The places now range from discussions debated in pubs across tables, to within watsapp groups, on Facebook and through the multitude of football blogs – at the tips of our fingers. In fact fan groups are now merging the acts of consumption and production and generating businesses based around football. Furthermore, we have not mentioned the saturation of media productions available. Web 2:0 technology and global media have made football accessible again (albeit not the same as when you could bump into Peter Osgood at the height of his fame in a local pub in Windsor). Footballers have a range of social media platforms to engage with fans, referee’s have Twitter accounts and the Premier League now aim to deliver football and physical education is every English Primary School. Football is part of everyday participation. Yet behind the looking glass there are huge issues that will dictate its future. European economic downturns, policy driven austerity, the destabilising of the traditional European powerbase to the Global South, corruption throughout the game from the highest level to grassroots. These are the times that will dictate the path of its future. The purpose of “Future Football: a design for life”, is to discuss these issue, challenges and opportunities and as a group collectively debate this agenda and add an academic rigor to, perhaps only slightly, enrich the game and ensure it takes the moral inclusive path. The conference does not set out to be a mainstream academic conference. But it is about discussing academic research that (i) is being proposed as a potential option for the collective group to understand an existing context or tackle an existing issue (ii) is being planned you intend to undertake, for feedback on proposed methodological questions, (iii) has been undertaken, to share findings and gain insight and feedback on data analysis, representation, potential journal outputs or (iv) has been published, to share findings and discuss future research needs. Importantly, the conference aims to help generate a collective critical mass to support the academic study of football. The conference should be about moving forward and creating collective action and collaboration, whether on referees, players and agents, policy, funding, pitches, stadia, finance, management, governance or playing styles and more. Essentially the conference should be grow organically in terms of agenda and discussion. The conference is designed to offer opportunities for all to present research, research ideas, potential projects, innovative methods of data collection or public engagement. The agenda is very much set by the group.
    • Kinetic changes during a six-week minimal footwear and gait-retraining intervention in runners.

      Warne, Joe P; Smyth, Barry P; Fagan, John O'C; Hone, Michelle E; Richter, Chris; Nevill, Alan M.; Moran, Kieran A; Warrington, Giles D (Taylor & Francis, 2016-08-29)
      An evaluation of a six-week Combined minimal footwear transition and gait-retraining combination vs. gait retraining only on impact characteristics and leg stiffness. Twenty-four trained male runners were randomly assigned to either (1) Minimalist footwear transition Combined with gait-retraining over a six-week period ("Combined" group; n = 12) examined in both footwear, or (2) a gait-retraining group only with no minimalist footwear exposure ("Control"; n = 12). Participants were assessed for loading rate, impact peak, vertical, knee and ankle stiffness, and foot-strike using 3D and kinetic analysis. Loading rate was significantly higher in the Combined group in minimal shoes in pre-tests compared to a Control (P ≤ 0.001), reduced significantly in the Combined group over time (P ≤ 0.001), and was not different to the Control group in post-tests (P = 0.16). The impact peak (P = 0.056) and ankle stiffness reduced in both groups (P = 0.006). Loading rate and vertical stiffness was higher in minimalist footwear than conventional running shoes both pre (P ≤ 0.001) and post (P = 0.046) the intervention. There has a higher tendency to non-rearfoot strike in both interventions, but more acute changes in the minimalist footwear. A Combined intervention can potentially reduce impact variables. However, higher loading rate initially in minimalist footwear may increase the risk of injury in this condition.
    • Knowing in primary physical education in the UK: negotiating movement culture

      Ward, Gavin; Quennerstedt, Mikael (2015-01-21)
      This paper aims to understand how pupils and teachers actions-in-context constitute being-a-pupil and being-a-teacher within a primary school physical education (PE) movement culture. Dewey and Bentley's theory of transaction, which views organism-in-environment-as-a-whole, enables the researcher to explore how actions-in-ongoing activities constitute and negotiate PE movement culture. Video footage from seven primary school PE lessons from a school in the West Midlands in the UK was analysed by focusing upon the ends-in-view of actions as they appeared through the educational content (what) and pedagogy (how) of the recorded PE experiences. Findings indicated that the movement culture within the school was a monoculture of looks-like-sport characterised by the privileging of the functional coordination of cooperative action. Three themes of pupils' and teachers' negotiation of the movement culture emerged U-turning, Knowing the game and Moving into and out of games. This movement culture required teachers to ensure pupils looked busy and reproduced cooperative looks-like-sport actions. In fulfilling this role, they struggled to negotiate between their knowledge of sport-for-real and directing pupils towards educational ends-in-view within games activities. Simply being good at sports was not a prerequisite for pupils' success in this movement culture. In order to re-actualise their knowledge of sport, pupils were required to negotiate the teacher's ‘how’ and ‘what’ by exploring what constituted cooperative actions within the spatial and social dimensions of the activities they were set. These findings suggest that if PE is to be more than just the reproduction of codified sport, careful adjustment and consideration of ends-in-view is of great importance. Without regard for the latter there is potential to create significant complexity for both teachers and pupils beyond that required by learning and performing sport.
    • Knowing me knowing you: building valuable relationships outside the classroom

      Cramp, Andy (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2008)
      This small-scale case study begins with some background to outdoor education and residential trips. The article then moves on to look at some of the research around the importance of the child as person and the nature of pupil-teacher relationships in the working environment of the classroom. It then investigates the development of pupil-teacher relationships on a residential trip by discussing the range of interactions which took place. How these interactions may enhance learning back at school is considered as are the benefits of these interactions to newly qualified teachers and to more experienced teachers. The conclusion suggests that outdoor learning should have a stronger place in primary and middle school activity to challenge labeling and create a more effective 'working consensus'.
    • La formation des enseignants en Ecosse et en Angleterre : contextes et avenirs

      Matheson, David; Matheson, Catherine (Actes de la Recherche, 2003-01)
      Historical, socio-cultural and socio-political contexts and a discussion about dominant mythologies of education in each of England and Scotland are discussed before current policies are outlined with the conclusion that the future of teacher training and teacher education in each country is likely to be increasingly dissimilar.
    • The labour of words in Higher Education is it time to reoccupy policy?

      Hayes, Sarah (Brill, 2019-01-24)
      As Higher Education has come to be valued for its direct contribution to the global economy, university policy discourse has reinforced this rationale. In The Labour of Words in Higher Education: Is it Time to Reoccupy Policy? two globes are depicted. One is a beautiful, but complete artefact, that markets a UK university. The second sits on a European city street and is continually inscribed with the markings of passers-by. A distinction is drawn between the rhetoric of university McPolicy, as a discourse that appears to no longer require input from humans, and a more authentic approach to writing policy, that acknowledges the academic labour of staff and students, in effecting change. Inspired by the work of George Ritzer on the McDonaldisation of Society, the term McPolicy is adopted by the author, to describe a rational method of writing policy, now widespread across UK universities. Recent strategies on ‘the student experience’, ‘technology enhanced learning’, ‘student engagement’ and ‘employability’ are explored through a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Findings are humourously compared to the marketing of consumer goods, where commodities like cars are invested with human qualities, such as ‘ambition’. Similarly, McPolicy credits non-human strategies, technologies and a range of socially constructed buzz phrases, with the human qualities and labour activities that would normally be enacted by staff and students. This book is written for anyone with an interest in the future of universities. It concludes with suggestions of ways we might all reoccupy McPolicy.
    • Lactic acid removal and heart rate frequencies during recovery after strenuous rowing exercise.

      Koutedakis, Yiannis; Sharp, N. C. Craig (BMJ Publishing Group, 1985)
      Three tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of three different intensities of exercise both in reducing blood lactic acid (LA) levels and in influencing subjects' heart rate (HR), following a 2000 m race in a rowing boat. In the first and second tests these variables were investigated during a 13 min recovery exercise at 60% and 40% of the preceding maximum rowing speed respectively. In the third test the subjects had a resting recovery. The results include a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in the rate of lactate removal following the 40% recovery compared with the 60% and resting recoveries. The HRs were significantly lower during the last minute of resting recovery compared with 40% and 60% recoveries (P less than 0.001). The same was true when 40% recovery was compared with 60% recovery (P less than 0.001). The present data suggest firstly that 40% of the maximum rowing speed is an appropriate pace for effective LA removal and secondly that, at least for trained rowers, 86% of their maximum HR can be taken as an indication of work of an intensity at or above anaerobic threshold.
    • Language in online dating texts: trait identification, homophily, and their effect on attraction

      Fox Hamilton, Nicola; Fullwood, Chris; Kirwan, Grainne (Interactive Media Institute, 2015-07-31)
      Research has indicated that online daters may pick up on language cues connected to personality traits in online dating profile texts, and act upon those cues. This research seeks to investigate the level of accuracy of detection of personality in dating profile texts, and the extent to which perceived or actual similarity of personality has an effect on attractiveness of the author. An online survey was conducted collecting the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) for each participant and text author, a peer-report TIPI score by participants for each text author, and an attractiveness rating on a Likert scale for each author. Participants correctly identified Extraversion, though the effect size was small. Contrary to the hypotheses, participants preferred texts when written by an author with a personality they perceived as dissimilar to their own, specifically in Openness and Conscientiousness, and no relationship was found between actual similarity of personality and attractiveness. Online daters may choose partners with complementary or desirable traits rather than similar traits, or other factors in attraction may be more salient in the initial stages of determining attraction.
    • Languages of Scotland: Culture and the classroom

      Matheson, Catherine; Matheson, David (Taylor & Francis, 2000-05)
      The indigenous languages of Scotland are in a precarious position faced with the massive presence of English. This essay examines the state and nature of the Scots and Gaelic languages. It places them in their historical context and traces how each has had its heyday in Scotland, in the case of Gaelic to be supplanted by Scots and in the case of Scots to be supplanted by English. Both have become marginalised in Scottish life and in the Scottish school. Both have been subject to various concerted campaigns aimed at their destruction. Gaelic, however, has at least had the consolation of being regarded as a language while Scots has not. The changing relationship between the school and these languages is examined in the context of the current revival of Scottish culture on a multiplicity of fronts.
    • Late development of metric part-relational processing in object recognition

      Jüttner, Martin; Petters, Dean David; Wakui, Elley; Davidoff, Jules (American Psychological Association, 2014-08-01)
      Four experiments with unfamiliar objects examined the remarkably late consolidation of part-relational relative to part-based object recognition (Jüttner, Wakui, Petters, Kaur, & Davidoff, 2013). Our results indicate a particularly protracted developmental trajectory for the processing of metric part relations. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years and adults were tested in 3-Alternative-Forced-Choice tasks to judge the correct appearance of upright and inverted newly learned multipart objects that had been manipulated in terms of individual parts or part relations. Experiment 1 showed that even the youngest tested children were close to adult levels of performance for recognizing categorical changes of individual parts and relative part position. By contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that performance for detecting metric changes of relative part position was distinctly reduced in young children compared with recognizing metric changes of individual parts, and did not approach the latter until 11 to 12 years. A similar developmental dissociation was observed in Experiment 3, which contrasted the detection of metric relative-size changes and metric part changes. Experiment 4 showed that manipulations of metric size that were perceived as part (rather than part-relational) changes eliminated this dissociation. Implications for theories of object recognition and similarities to the development of face perception are discussed.
    • Laughter and smiling in 16 positive emotions

      Hofmann, Jennifer; Platt, Tracey; Ruch, Willibald (IEEE Xplore Digital Library, 2017-08-09)
      This study investigated the elicitation of smiling and laughter and the role of facial display regulation markers (e.g., down-regulating of a smile or laugh) in positive emotions. In a structured group conversation setting, the frequency and intensity of Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles and laughs when telling memories of 16 positive emotions proposed by Ekman [1] were assessed. Facial responses were coded with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS [2]) and laughter vocalizations were assessed. The results show that smiles and laughs occurred in all 16 positive emotions. Laughter occurred most often in amusement and schadenfreude (laughter occurred in 72% and 71% of the recalled emotion memories respectively). Also, the intensity of the smiles and laughs was higher in amusement and schadenfreude than in the other 14 positive emotions. Furthermore, down-regulated displays (i.e., including facial markers counteracting the upward action of the zygomatic major muscle) resembled Duchenne Displays in their intensity. To summarize, more insight is gained into the facial expression of positive emotions, also highlighting the role of laughter. Also, the importance of assessing regulation markers in joy displays when people are in social settings is stressed.
    • Law and order conservatism and youth justice: Outcomes and effects in Canada and England and Wales

      Fox, D; Arnull, E (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2015-06-15)
      This paper explores how underlying law and order conservatism has shaped and defined youth justice policy in England and Wales and Canada. We argue that cultural and political influences affected implementation in ways which were initially unforeseen and therefore unconsidered. Our focus is twofold, on the intentions that drove the policy and practice changes and subsequently, on the negative consequences that emerged during implementation. We explore these with regard to the application of discretion and the paper considers the complexity of discretion and how neither, reducing or increasing it has led to simple or obviously predictable patterns. In addition, we apply Thompson's (2006) model of Anti- Oppressive Practice to consider how policies that were not intended to be oppressive and which were evidence based and informed by research and the policy community moved towards a law and order agenda.
    • LDL particle size in habitual exercisers, lean sedentary men and abdominally obese sedentary men.

      O'donovan, G; McEneny, J; Kearney, E M; Owen, A; Nevill, Alan M.; Woolf-May, K; Bird, S R (Thieme, 2007-08)
      Habitual exercisers enjoy considerable protection from coronary heart disease (CHD). Often, however, only modest differences in traditional CHD risk factors are apparent between habitual exercisers and their sedentary counterparts. For this reason, there is increasing interest in novel predictors of CHD, such as a preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate lipoprotein subfractions in 32 lean exercisers, 36 lean sedentary men and 21 obese sedentary men aged 30 - 45 years. Well-validated equations were used to determine LDL concentration and peak particle diameter. Waist girth was used to identify lean (< 100 cm) and obese (>or= 100 cm) individuals. LDL concentration was lower in lean exercisers than in lean sedentary men (2.64 +/- 0.44 vs. 3.76 +/- 0.79 mmol . l (-1), p < 0.001), suggesting that habitual exercise influences this risk factor. In contrast, there were no significant differences in LDL peak particle diameter between lean exercisers, lean sedentary men and obese sedentary men (27.92 +/- 0.67, 28.09 +/- 0.62 and 27.77 +/- 0.77 nm, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, triglyceride concentration was the only significant predictor of LDL PPD. These data suggest that habitual exercise influences LDL concentration but does not influence LDL particle size in men aged 30 - 45 years.
    • Leadership Behavior in Dance: Application of the Leadership Scale for Sports to Dance Technique Teaching

      Rafferty, Sonia.; Wyon, Matthew A. (J. Michael Ryan Publishing Inc, 2006)
      In response to the paucity of actual data on leadership behavior in dance technique teaching, this study, with reference to Chelladurai’s Multidimensional Model of Leadership, aimed to define factors that may influence the dance teacher-student relationship and promote an effective learning process in dance technique teaching. The Leadership Scale for Sport Questionnaire (LSS) was administered in three versions to 14 dance teachers and 53 of their undergraduate students to measure leader behaviors in five dimensions: Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior, Social Support and Positive Feedback. Discrepancy scores were calculated to compare differences in teachers’ and students’ perceptions as well as differences between students’ perceptions and preferences. Statistical analyses (five one-way and five two-way between group analyses of variance with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference post-hoc tests) were computed to provide data on, respectively, the relationships between teachers’ perceptions of their own behavior, students’ perceptions of teaching behavior and students’ preferences for teaching behavior as well as the effect of dance style and student gender on preferences for teacher behavior. Significant differences (p < .05) were found between the three groups in Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior and Positive Feedback, but not in Social Support (p > .05). There were no significant main effects for gender (p > .05) or dance style (p > .05) in any dimension, and interaction effects also did not reach significance (p > .05). The reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) in this study were not consistent with those reported in other sports studies using the LSS, and the suitability of the LSS as an instrument for observing teaching behavior in dance was questioned. Limitations of the study were identified and recommendations made for future research in leadership behavior in the context of dance training.
    • Leadership Talent Identification and development

      Rhodes, Christopher; Brundrett, Mark; Nevill, Alan M. (Sage, 2008)
      This article reports on outcomes from a study funded by the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) designed to explore leadership talent identification, development, succession and retention in contextually different primary and secondary schools in England. Focus groups and a questionnaire were used to secure perceptions of heads, middle leaders and classroom teachers about leadership talent identification and development. Twenty characteristics indicative of leadership talent were identified. Agreement and disjuncture were recorded concerning the importance of characteristics among respondent groups. The implications of these findings for leadership development and succession, in the face of a potential leadership crisis in the UK and internationally, are discussed. The longer-term career planning of staff, the place of needs analysis, self-disclosure and senior leadership decision-making are examined with respect to leadership talent identification and development. The article offers a basis upon which schools can reflect on their role in providing a good training ground for future leaders. School-based changes are recommended so that individual school’s longer-term leadership requirements may be better addressed.