• “I can help them become better teachers, but I can’t help them with educative teacher performance assessment”: Cooperating teachers’ knowledge and experience of the educative teacher performance assessment in physical and health education

      Parkes, Craig; Holden, Shelley L; O'Leary, Nick; Brunsdon, Jamie (SAGE, 2022-05-05)
      Utilizing a thematic analysis approach, this case study investigated cooperating teachers’ (CTs) knowledge and experience of the educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) in physical and health education. Participants were 14 certified physical education (PE) and/or health education CTs from a single school district in Alabama. Data were collected through one-on-one interviews; Nvivo software was employed to store, organize, and code the data, and data analysis utilized analytic induction and constant comparison techniques. Five themes emerged regarding edTPA preparation of these participants: (a) a lack of teacher training and resources, (b) receipt of informal information from teacher candidates (TCs), (c) perceptions of providing inadequate support, (d) CT experience with obtaining parental waivers and class recordings, and (e) a perceived edTPA tradeoff of increased stress for teacher development. There was a clear need in this district to: (a) better promote edTPA training opportunities, (b) consider compulsory edTPA training for CTs who supervised TCs, (c) share edTPA training handouts and resources with CTs, and (d) ensure that university faculty clearly communicate edTPA requirements to CTs.
    • I Dig Therefore We Are: Community Archaeology, Place-based Social Identity, and Intergroup Relations Within Local Communities

      Coen, Sharon; Meredith, Joanne; Condie, Jenna (Wiley, 2017-05-04)
      Community involvement in archaeological digs aims to reconnect people with the history and heritage of where they live. This paper applies social psychological theories to understand how community archaeological projects create opportunities for place‐based social identity and positive intergroup relations. Focus groups were conducted across five areas of Greater Manchester (UK) with 24 participants who volunteered for Dig Greater Manchester, a community archaeology initiative. The focus groups aimed to understand how experiences of participating in digs and exploring local heritage modified, strengthened or initiated identification with place and community, thus moving from individual levels to social levels of identity. The findings offer insight as to the ways in which people make sense of their own—and others'—place‐based social identities as a result of participating in community archaeological digs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • I doubt very seriously whether anyone will hire me; factors predicting employability perceptions in higher education

      Forsythe, Alexandra (Informa UK Limited, 2017-09-27)
      Understanding what makes people feel employable is enhanced by studying both the structural and individual dimensions of human behaviour. This paper examines the relative impact of three variables on perceptions of the employability of students in Higher Education (18–25); the way in which students think about themselves (mindset), their ability to overcome adversity (resilience) and the relationships and values that govern their interactions (social capital). It is reported that perceptions of employability are predicted largely by two subscales of the CD-RISC scale; “support” (p < .01, ηp2 = .07) and, “goal orientation” (p < .01 ηp2 = .29) and social capital “bridging” (P < .01, ηp2 = .05). Whilst mindset had no direct effect on perceived employability, both the fixed and growth mindsets have significant roles to play in personal resilience. We argue that contrary to previous findings, having a fixed mindset possibly supports the building of self-trust, self-respect and an acceptance of why you may be different from others. Results suggest that developing goal-oriented attitudes in students will support stronger beliefs about the extent to which they are employable.
    • “I never saw him play but we were the best of friends for years”; exploring pseudosocial relationships of football manager bloggers

      Medcalf, Richard; Griggs, Gerald (Sage, 2014-07-08)
      Football management games have long been a successful computer game genre combining the worlds of passionate and opinionated football fans and gamers obsessed with overachievements in quasi-reality environments. These types of games propel the consumer into a newfound intertextual ‘‘reality.’’ It is here that feelings of identification are played out and where pseudosocial relationships begin to develop. This article charts such relationships, as they are explicated online in the form of online blogs. Through analysing the content of Championship Manager/Football Manager blogs, data show how game players speak frequently of pseudosocial relationships, characterised in this case study by emotions of loyalty and friendship. Many have nostalgic tales from past achievements and bonds with individual players that bridge the many iterations of the game over the past 15 years. This study highlights experiences, as cited by bloggers, which transcends physical and virtual realities.
    • “I try to catch them right on the tip of his nose, because I try to punch the bone into the brain”: Ethical issues working in professional boxing.

      Lane, Andrew M. (Athletic Insight, Inc., 2008)
      Boxing can be a brutal sport. At face value, the intention is to win contests by injuring your opponent. The intent of boxers coupled with the serious medical effects of participation suggest it contravenes a number of ethical guidelines for an applied psychologist, including social responsibility, respect of the welfare of people’s right and dignity and avoiding harm (American Psychological Association, 2002, see http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html#3_04). With this in mind, applied practitioners mish wish to avoid opportunities to work in professional boxing based on it being ethically unsound. This article explores some of these issues, drawing on experiences as a consultant working with professional boxers. Case study data is presented on the psychological preparation of boxers.
    • ICT and literacy.

      Waller, Tim (London: Sage Publications Ltd., 2008)
      This book: What are the ways in which young children learn to communicate? Collating their extensive experience of language and literacy in the early years, the contributors explore key aspects of this topic, linking practical ideas for early years settings and classrooms to relevant theory and research. This second edition is updated to take into account important developments in research, policy and practice, and now covers the 0-8 age range. It also addresses developments in new media and the impact this has upon literacy in young children, and offers chapters on new areas which have emerged in recent years, such as multimodality, media literacy, creative arts and literacy. Explored in the book are: - the relationship between play and literacy; - the role environmental print has in early literacy development; - the language and literacy development of young bilinguals; - ideas, suggestions and justifications for the use of poetry; - a two-year research project, funded by Creative Partnerships; - key issues relating to family literacy.
    • Identifying factors that influence the eating behaviours of university students: A systematic review

      Johnson, Sally; Nicholls, Wendy; Galbraith, Niall; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola (Unpublished, 2022-06-29)
    • Identifying some determinants of "jet lag" and its symptoms: a study of athletes and other travellers.

      Waterhouse, J.; Edwards, B.; Nevill, Alan M.; Carvalho, S.; Atkinson, Greg; Buckley, P.; Reilly, Thomas; Godfrey, R.J.; Ramsay, R. (Elsevier, 2002)
      BACKGROUND: Travelling across multiple time zones disrupts normal circadian rhythms and induces "jet lag". Possible effects of this on training and performance in athletes were concerns before the Sydney Olympic Games. OBJECTIVE: To identify some determinants of jet lag and its symptoms. METHODS: A mixture of athletes, their coaches, and academics attending a conference (n = 85) was studied during their flights from the United Kingdom to Australia (two flights with a one hour stopover in Singapore), and for the first six days in Australia. Subjects differed in age, sex, chronotype, flexibility of sleeping habits, feelings of languor, fitness, time of arrival in Australia, and whether or not they had previous experience of travel to Australia. These variables and whether the body clock adjusted to new local time by phase advance or delay were tested as predictors for jet lag and some of its symptoms by stepwise multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: The amount of sleep in the first flight was significantly greater in those who had left the United Kingdom in the evening than the morning (medians of 5.5 hours and 1.5 hours respectively; p = 0.0002, Mann-Whitney), whereas there was no significant difference on the second flight (2.5 hours v 2.8 hours; p = 0.72). Only the severity of jet lag and assessments of sleep and fatigue were commonly predicted significantly (p<0.05) by regression analysis, and then by only some of the variables. Thus increasing age and a later time of arrival in Australia were associated with less jet lag and fatigue, and previous experience of travel to Australia was associated with an earlier time of getting to sleep. Subjects who had adjusted by phase advance suffered worse jet lag during the 5th and 6th days in Australia. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the importance of an appropriate choice of itinerary and lifestyle for reducing the negative effects of jet lag in athletes and others who wish to perform optimally in the new time zone.
    • Identifying the best body-weight-status index associated with metabolic risk in youth

      Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Nevill, Alan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pereira, Sara; Dos Santos, Marcos Moura; Buranarugsa, Rojapon; Dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Souza, Michele; Chaves, Raquel; Maia, José (Wiley, 2018-06-23)
      This study investigated the association of six different anthropometric markers with metabolic syndrome to find the most suited to predict children at risk. Sample comprises 1324 Portuguese youth (701 girls, 623 boys), aged 10‐17 years. Six anthropometric markers were included: body mass index (BMI), BMI z‐score, tri‐ponderal index (TPI), waist circumference (WC), WC/height ratio (WC/H), and WC/H adjusted ratio (WC/Hadj). A standardized metabolic risk score (zMR) was computed by summing of standardized values for fasting glucose, triglycerides, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and mean arterial blood pressure. The associations between zMR and anthropometric markers were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the optimal values that best predict metabolic risk of each anthropometric marker. Among the studied predictors, BMI z‐score, followed by BMI and WC, was most highly associated with zMR, while WC/Hadj was the weakest predictor. ROC analyses showed significant AUCs for all markers, yet the discrimination was poor (AUCs from 0.60 to 0.68), with sensitivity ranging from 45.5% to 67.5% and specificity from 72.6% to 81.9%. The optimal cut‐off values to predict metabolic risk were 1.62, 23.1 kg/m2, 71.0 cm, 18.0 kg/m3, 0.47, and 0.50, for BMI z‐score, BMI, WC, TPI, WC/H, and WC/Hadj, respectively. BMI z‐score, followed by BMI and WC, were the most relevant anthropometric markers to predict metabolic risk in youth, while WC/Hadj was the worst predictor. Results suggest that anthropometric markers should continue to be used as clinical tools to identify youth at risk.
    • Identifying the optimal body shape and composition associated with strength outcomes in children and adolescent according to place of residence: an allometric approach

      Lovecchio, Nicola; Giuriato, Matteo; Zago, Matteo; Nevill, Alan M. (Routledge, 2019-01-29)
      The purpose of the study was to identify the optimal body shape and composition associated with physical fitness levels of children living in urban and rural areas of Italy. A total of 7102 children (11–14 years) were assessed for weight, height, percentage body fat (FM%), sit-and-reach flexibility (SAR), standing broad jump (SBJ) and sit-ups (SUP). A multiplicative allometric model, Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 ·ε, was used to predict the physical outcome variables Y = SBJ and SUP. The model was expanded to incorporate FM% and SAR as follows Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 · FM%k3 · exp(b· FM% + c· SAR) ·ε. Note that FM% was incorporated as a “gamma function” that allows an initial growth, and subsequent decline in Y as FM% increases in size. Although having an ectomorph body shape appears advantageous, being too thin appears detrimental to the strength outcomes. Being flexible would also benefit physical fitness levels. Finally, our results indicate that ursban children aged 11–14 have superior strength outcomes compared with rural children, having controlled for differences in body shape and composition, a finding that may be associated with rural environments having fewer exercise facilities compared with urban conurbations.
    • If the mask fits: Psychological correlates with online self-presentation experimentation in adults

      Fullwood, Christopher; Wesson, Caroline; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Keep, Melanie; Asbury, Titus; Wilsdon, Luke (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2020-08-11)
      Online self-presentation refers to the ways in which individuals share aspects of the self to portray a particular image. Being online presents opportunities for individuals to experiment with different versions of the self as part of identity development but also to manage how others perceive them. Research has shown that personality can influence online self-presentation behaviors, but these studies have mainly focused on internal characteristics, and more research is needed exploring the relational facets of personality. This study aims to investigate the extent to which an individual's self-concept clarity, self-monitoring tendency, self-esteem, and social anxiety predict different presentations of the online self. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted with 405 adult participants from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results show that individuals with higher self-concept clarity and self-monitoring are more likely to present a single consistent online and offline self. Younger adults and those with greater social anxiety are more likely to present idealized self-images online, and participants with higher social anxiety and lower self-esteem are more likely to prefer online, rather than offline, communication. Findings are broadly consistent with the literature, and suggest the need for more systematic investigation into a variety of personality variables that take into account the relational nature of identity formation and impression management. This research emphasizes the multifaceted nature of online self-presentation behaviors, and the ways in which they are differentially influenced by personality variables.
    • Imagined steps: mental simulation of coordinated rhythmic movements effects on pro-sociality

      Cross, Liam; Atherton, Gray; Wilson, Andrew; Golonka, Sabrina (Frontiers Media, 2017-10-13)
      Rhythmically coordinating with a partner can increase pro-sociality, but pro-sociality does not appear to change in proportion to coordination success, or particular classes of coordination. Pro-social benefits may have more to do with simply coordinating in a social context than the details of the actual coordination (Cross et al., 2016). This begs the question, how stripped down can a coordination task be and still affect prosociality? Would it be sufficient simply to imagine coordinating with others? Imagining a social interaction can lead to many of the same effects as actual interaction (Crisp and Turner, 2009). We report the first experiments to explore whether imagined coordination affects pro-sociality similarly to actual coordination. Across two experiments and over 450 participants, mentally simulated coordination is shown to promote some, but not all, of the pro-social consequences of actual coordination. Imagined coordination significantly increased group cohesion and de-individuation, but did not consistently affect cooperation.
    • Immediate and short-term consequences of secondhand smoke exposure on the respiratory system.

      Flouris, Andreas D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011)
      Purpose of review This review critically evaluates the existing biological evidence regarding the immediate and short-term respiratory consequences of secondhand smoke (SHS). Recent findings A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels generates a marked inflammatory reaction and significant decrements on lung function. These deleterious effects of SHS are exacerbated when physical activity follows the SHS exposure, particularly in less fit individuals. The main respiratory effect mechanisms of SHS include a direct induction of growth factors resulting in airway remodelling and alterations in nitric oxide regulation. Pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance may be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure. Moreover, treatment with statins has shown beneficial effects towards preventing the SHS-induced pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodelling, and endothelial dysfunction. Summary Based on recently discovered evidence, even brief and short-term exposures to SHS generate significant adverse effects on the human respiratory system. Future research directions in this area include the concentrations of tobacco smoke constituents in the alveolar milieu following SHS exposure, individual susceptibility to SHS, as well as pharmacological treatments for reversing the SHS-induced airway remodelling.
    • Impact attenuation and deformation characteristics of dance floors on jump kinematics

      Wyon, Matthew; Horsburgh, Robyn; Brown, Derrick D (Thieme, 2022-02-08)
      Specialist dance floors have been promoted to reduce impact forces and reduce lower limb injury for dancers. 18 trained female dancers carried out 70 continuous ballet jumps on 4 different surfaces wearing an XSENS suit. Three specialist dance floors, Floor A (64% force reduction), Floor B (67% force reduction), Floor C (no data) were compared to Floor D (vinyl-covered concrete - control). Dependent variables for each analysed jump (2,3,4, and 67,68,69) were ankle, knee, hip range of movement (ROM); lower and upper leg angular velocities and pelvis vertical acceleration. No main effects were reported for dance floor, first and last jump series. Comparison of the floors against Floor D reported a main effect for the dance floors (p=0.001), first and last jump series (p=0.001). Between-subject effects noted that ankle ROM was significantly greater for trials on floor A (p=0.007) compared to floor D. ROM data significantly decreased between the first and last jump series whilst vertical pelvis accelerations increased except for floor A. Within the current study, a foam backed vinyl floor (C) provided better shock absorption than floors with higher deformation characteristics (A and B) and none of the specialist dance floors performed better than vinyl covered concrete (D).
    • Impact of air pollution exposure on the risk of Alzheimer's disease in China: A community-based cohort study

      He, F; Tang, J; Zhang, T; Lin, J; Li, F; Gu, X; Chen, A; Nevill, Alan M.; Chen, Ruoling; Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. (Elsevier, 2021-11-03)
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Impact of air pollution (AP) on the risk of AD is unclear. It is unknown which air pollutants are independently associated with AD and whether fish consumption mitigated the association. We carried out a community-based cohort of 6115 participants aged ≥60 years in China to examine the association of PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, SO2 and O3 exposure with AD, and differences in the association between people with low and high consumption of fish. The participants were randomly recruited from six counties in Zhejiang province for health survey to document socio-demographic and disease risk factors in 2014, and were followed up to diagnose AD in 2019. A total of 986 cohort members were diagnosed with AD. Based on the daily mean air pollutants monitored in 2013–2015 in the counties, participants were divided into low, middle and high AP exposure groups for subsequent analysis. The multiple adjusted odds ratio (OR) of AD in participants living with the middle and high levels of PM2.5 exposure versus the low exposure were 1.50 (95% CI 0.90–2.50) and 3.92 (2.09–7.37). The increased ORs were also with PM10 (1.74, 0.65–4.64; 3.00, 1.22–7.41) and CO (2.86, 1.32–6.20; 1.19, 0.45–3.18), but not with NO2 (0.63, 0.17–2.27; 0.95, 0.28–3.19), SO2 (0.44, 0.19–1.001; 1.21, 0.56–2.62), and O3 (0.38, 0.20–0.74; 0.50, 0.21–1.21). There were no significant interaction effects of AP with fish consumption on AD. However, participants with low consumption of fish appeared to have higher ORs in PM2.5 exposure (1.80, 1.39–2.33; 5.18, 3.93–6.82) than those high consumption (1.38, 0.78–2.47; 2.89, 1.50–5.59). Our findings of PM2.5, PM10 and CO exposure significantly increased the risk of AD and the potential mitigating effect of fish consumption on the association provide evidence for developing effective strategies for AD reduction and air pollution control.
    • Impact of air pollution on cognitive impairment in older people: A cohort study in rural and suburban China

      He, F; Tang, JJ; Zhang, T; Lin, J; Li, F; Gu, X; Chen, Ruoling; Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. (IOS Press, 2020-10-13)
      Background: The impact of air pollution on cognitive impairment in older people has not been fully understood. It is unclear which air pollutants are the culprit. Objective: We assessed the associations of six air pollutants and air quality index (AQI) with cognitive impairment. Methods: We examined 7,311 participants aged ≥60 years from the ZJMPHS cohort in China. They were interviewed for baseline socio-demographic and disease risk factors in 2014, and re-interviewed in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The presence of cognitive impairment was determined by the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Daily area-level data monitored for air pollution during 2013-2015 was then examined for associations with cognitive impairment in logistic regression models. Results: Over the two years follow-up, 1,652 participants developed cognitive impairment, of which 917 were severe cases. Continuous air pollution data showed the risk of cognitive impairment increased with exposure to PM2.5 (fully adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08), PM10 (1.03, 1.001-1.06), and SO2 (1.04, 1.01-1.08), but not with NO2, CO, O3, and AQI. Categorized data analysis for low, middle, and high level exposure demonstrated that the aOR increased with PM2.5 and AQI, somehow with PM10 and CO, but not significantly with SO2 and NO2, and decreased with O3. The patterns for these associations with severe cognitive impairment were stronger. Conclusion: Lowering PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO level could reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in older Chinese. Strategies to target most important air pollutants should be an integral component of cognitive interventions.
    • Impact of air pollution on cognitive impairment in older people: A cohort study in rural and suburban China

      He, F; Tang, JJ; Zhang, T; Lin, J; Li, F; Gu, X; Chen, Ruoling (IOS Press, 2021-04-16)
      Background: The impact of air pollution on cognitive impairment in older people has not been fully understood. It is unclear which air pollutants are the culprit. Objective: We assessed the associations of six air pollutants and air quality index (AQI) with cognitive impairment. Methods: We examined 7,311 participants aged ≥60 years from the ZJMPHS cohort in China. They were interviewed for baseline socio-demographic and disease risk factors in 2014, and re-interviewed in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The presence of cognitive impairment was determined by the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Daily area-level data monitored for air pollution during 2013-2015 was then examined for associations with cognitive impairment in logistic regression models. Results: Over the two years follow-up, 1,652 participants developed cognitive impairment, of which 917 were severe cases. Continuous air pollution data showed the risk of cognitive impairment increased with exposure to PM 2.5 (fully adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.01-1.08), PM 10 (1.03, 1.001-1.06), and SO 2 (1.04, 1.01-1.08), but not with NO 2, CO, O 3, and AQI. Categorized data analysis for low, middle, and high level exposure demonstrated that the aOR increased with PM 2.5 and AQI, somehow with PM 10 and CO, but not significantly with SO 2 and NO 2, and decreased with O 3. The patterns for these associations with severe cognitive impairment were stronger. Conclusion: Lowering PM 2.5, PM 10, SO 2, and CO level could reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in older Chinese. Strategies to target most important air pollutants should be an integral component of cognitive interventions.
    • Impact of individual-level social capital on quality of life among AIDS patients in China.

      Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Li, Niannian; Chen, Ren; Hu, Zhi (Public Library of Science, 2012-11-06)
      With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL) among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS) score of 50.13 ± 9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS) score of 41.64 ± 11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] =2.02) or PHS score (OR=6.90). Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR=2.30, OR=4.17, respectively). This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration.
    • The impact of maternal pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose on preterm birth and large for gestational age: a large population-based cohort study

      Tang, James Jie; Zhu, Xinhong; Li, Mingzhen; Huang, Dongming; Zhao, Qingguo (Elsevier, 2019-09-28)
      Background The impact of maternal pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose on preterm birth and large for gestational age has been poorly understood. Objectives We aimed to estimate the impact of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose defined by the WHO cut-point on the risk of preterm birth and large for gestational age, and to investigate whether the WHO cut-point of impaired fasting glucose was appropriate for identifying women at the risk of preterm birth and large for gestational age among the Chinese population. Study Design This was a retrospective cohort study of women from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project with singleton birth from 121 counties/districts in 21 cities of Guangdong Province, China, from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2017. Women were included if pre-pregnancy fasting glucose was less than 7.0mmol/L. The primary outcomes were preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks), early preterm birth (gestational age <34 weeks), large for gestational age (birth weight by gestational age >90th percentile based on the international standards in the INTERGROWTH-21st) and severe large for gestational age (birth weight by gestational age >97th percentile). We calculated the adjusted risk ratio for impaired fasting glucose, and a 1 standard deviation increase in fasting glucose. Results We included 640469 women. Of these, 31006 (4.84%) met the WHO cut-point for impaired fasting glucose, 32640 (5.10%) had preterm birth and 7201 (1.12%) had early preterm birth, 45532 (7.11%) had large for gestational age birth and 16231 (2.53%) had severe large for gestational age birth. Compared with women with normoglycaemia, women with pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose had a 7.0% higher risk of preterm birth (adjusted risk ratio 1.07, 95%CI 1.02-1.12), 10.0% higher risk of large for gestational age (1.10, 1.06-1.14) and 17.0% higher risk of severe large for gestational age (1.17, 1.10-1.26). No significant association of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose with early preterm birth was found. The association of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose with preterm birth and large for gestational age were similar in subgroups of women with various baseline characteristics. Adjusted risk ratio for preterm birth per standard deviation fasting glucose (0.7mmol/L) was 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00), for early preterm birth 0.99 (0.97-1.02), for large for gestational age 1.04 (1.03-1.05) and for severe large for gestational age 1.03 (1.01-1.04). Conclusions Our data suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose increases the risk of preterm birth, large for gestational age and severe large for gestational age. Data also suggest that the WHO cut-point of impaired fasting glucose is too restrictive and lesser levels of fasting glucose also increase the risk of large gestational age and severe for severe gestational age in the Chinese population. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether and how counselling and interventions for women with pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose could reduce the risk of preterm birth and large for gestational age.
    • The Impact of Mentoring on Stress in Higher Education

      Cureton, Debra; Jones, Jenni; Foster, William (The International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching, 2011-06-01)
      The aim of this research is to understand the association between stress and involvement in a mentoring relationship within a higher education context. Three studies were carried out, within the same large UK University targeting both mentees and mentors involvement in one particular mentoring scheme, for their views and perceptions about mentoring and stress. The keys findings within this case study are that mentoring does allow both mentors and mentees to feel supported, particularly in times of pressure and stress. Mentoring helps to raise self-awareness, confidence levels and helps further develop professional relationships for both parties. Through engaging in ongoing reflection together, mentors and mentees feel that mentoring has had a positive impact on their work-related stress and has provided them with coping strategies. Ultimately, the suggestion is that involvement in mentoring provides strategies for coping with situations, the opportunity to reflect and leads to feeling valued.