• Hard Times today: popular culture and the austerity myth

      Bennett, Pete; MacDougall, Julian (openDemocracy, 2016-07-21)
      “Where are the red-eyed dreamers and clenched fist fighters? Didn’t they swear when these walls fell a citadel would rise? They’ve turned to schemers, all, and underwriters Leaning on the parapets to tell the same old lies.” (Nick Burbridge, After the Deluge) In his seminal collection of cultural readings, Mythologies, Roland Barthes turned his attention to a quintessential twentieth century myth embodied in ‘The Brain of Einstein’. This appropriation of the brain of the great genius as “a mythical object” is, for Barthes, paradoxical since “the greatest intelligence of all provides an image of the most up-to-date machine, the man who is too powerful is removed from psychology, and introduced into a world of robots”. As Barthes points out, Einstein “is commonly signified by his brain, which is like an object for anthologies, a true museum exhibit”.
    • HeadStart local evaluation: qualitative perspectives from schools: Second Report

      Smith, Matt; Bramwell, Lisa; Littley, Deborah (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-08-13)
      HEADLINES  There is some discontent within schools as to the levels of support from HeadStart, and a clear confusion about responsibility for the programme/s offered. Some school staff seem to want or expect HeadStart staff to run the programme/s, and there has been little take-up of staff responsibility for these. This lack of consistency from, and communication with, the HeadStart team has affected schools’ involvement and satisfaction.  Where HeadStart initiatives and programmes have had time and resources allocated to them by the schools they are reported as being effective for raising the resilience, self-esteem and selfconfidence of children, but schools are clear on the need for high quality training for all members of staff, which needs to be maintained as staff move key stages or new staff join the school.  There is a clear perception that schools have been hampered by the turnover of HeadStart staff and what they see as a lack of consistency in the support offered. The intermittent participation of schools and discontinuous support from HeadStart has resulted in limited impacts on children.  Although the profile of MHWB has been raised for staff and children, the Standards still dominate the school outlook and the input from HeadStart has not by itself been enough to meet the growing need identified by our research participants.  The development of a shared language through the use of the SUMO highlighted as a clear positive in round 1 of the research was much less obvious in this focus group exercise, with respondents stating that this was not being used by staff or students in schools.
    • HeadStart schools qualitative research

      Smith, Matt (BESA, 2019-06-27)
      In order to understand the perspectives of schools participating in the HeadStart programme better, the Education Observatory undertook qualitative research with the member of senior management with overall responsibility for PSHE, SUMO and/or the integration of HeadStart in a focused sample group of four primary schools. Using a common semi-structured interview schedule based on our created theoretical framework, four researchers each went in to one primary school to interview the lead teacher. Their responses were then analysed by the research team and collated to identify key themes. Schools stated programmes which were embedded in school practice had greater impact. In these cases HeadStart activities are seen as complementary rather than an add-on; that children were involved in learning essential skills for life, coupled with developing greater self-esteem and resilience; and that teachers have also become more conscious of their own mental health and wellbeing as a result of their engagement with HeadStart. The development of a shared language through SUMO was highlighted as positive, but schools were clear about the need for high quality training for all members of staff, which needs to be maintained as staff move key stages or new staff join the school.
    • HeadStart Wolverhampton local evaluation: qualitative perspectives from schools

      Smith, Matt; Littley, Deborah; Adeghe, Ada; Bramwell, Lisa (Education Observatory, 2019-02-01)
      KEY FINDINGS • Schools stated programmes which were embedded in school practice had greater impact. In these cases HeadStart activities are seen as complementary rather than an add-on. • Schools reported that children were involved in learning essential skills for life, coupled with developing greater self-esteem and resilience. • The development of a shared language through SUMO was highlighted as positive, but schools were clear about the need for high quality training for all members of staff, which needs to be maintained as staff move key stages or new staff join the school. • Teachers have also become more conscious of their own mental health and wellbeing as a result of their engagement with HeadStart.
    • Health professionals’ views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families: A systematic review of qualitative research

      Heath, Gemma; Abdin, Shanara; Welch, Richard (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-02-10)
      Background: Healthcare professionals are ideally placed to discuss weight management with children and families to treat and prevent childhood obesity. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesise primary research evidence relating to health professional’s views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE (OVID), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID) and Healthcare Management Information Consortium (HMIC). Twenty-six full text qualitative studies published in English Language journals since inception to October 2019 were included. Papers were quality assessed and synthesised using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results: Data analysis generated five themes: Sensitivity of the issue; Family-professional relationships; Whole systems approach, Professional competency, Socio- cultural context. Conclusion: Supporting behaviour change through discussion of healthy weight with children and families is an important part of the health professional’s role. Tailored information for professionals including resources and training which facilitates them to confidently talk to children and families about weight should be prioritised within interventions. Success of such interventions requires commitment from a range of professionals to ensure healthy weight is tackled through a whole system approach.
    • Health representations, perceived valence, and concept associations for symbols as food cues: A mixed-methods approach

      Thomas, Erica L; Puig Ribera, Anna; Senye-Mir, Anna; Eves, Frank F (2016-04-07)
      Researchers have experimented with a range of point-of-purchase (PoP) interventions in supermarkets, restaurants, and cafeterias. In general, these interventions have employed written materials. This research tested symbols to visually summarize information about the (un)healthiness of food. Study one explored health representations and valence associated with the image of a heart, a bathroom scale, and a running shoe using qualitative field interviews (N = 1200). Study two explored accessibility of a priori concept associations for two of those images, stratified by valence, in a computerized response latency task (N = 40). Study one indicted that the heart was best linked to its intended theme "heart health." Concerning valence, the heart was seen as both positive and negative whereas the scale was less likely to be viewed as positive relative to the running shoe. In study two, the heart was linked to five of the six a priori concepts and there was evidence that three of these were more accessible. Overall, the heart was better linked to positive poles than negative ones. A heart symbol may be useful to prompt heart healthy choices at the PoP. There was evidence that a scale may bias choice away from undesirable foods.
    • Health-care providers' perceptions, attitudes towards and recommendation practice of cervical cancer screening

      Hweissa, N.Ab.; Lim, Jennifer N. W.; Su, T.T.; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine; Faculty of Medicine; University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur Malaysia; Department of Allied and Public Health; Faculty of Medical Science; Anglia Ruskin University; Cambridge UK; Centre for Population Health (CePH); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine; Faculty of Medicine; University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur Malaysia (Wiley, 2016-06-28)
      In Libya, cervical cancer is ranked third as the most frequent cancer among women with early diagnosis being shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. Health-care providers can influence women's screening behaviours, and their lack of recommendations for screening can be one of the barriers that affect women's participation in screening programmes. This study aims to assess the health-care provider's perception around cervical cancer screening. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 health-care providers, from both public and private sectors in Az-Zawiya city, Libya, between February and July of 2014. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, then analysed using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that health-care providers did not provide sufficient information regarding cervical cancer screening for women who attend health-care facilities. The results highlight the role played by health-care professionals in motivating women to attend cervical cancer screening programs, and the need for health education of health-care providers to offer a precious advice regarding the screening. On the other hand, health-care providers highlighted that implementation of reminding system of cervical cancer screening will support them to improve screening attendance. In addition, health-care providers stressed the necessity for educational and awareness campaigns of cervical cancer screening among Libyan women.
    • Health-related quality of life and associated factors: regional differences among oldest-old in Brazil

      Lacerda Gomes da Silva Freitas, Javanna; Silva, Jaíza M. M.; Nóbrega, Júlia Cristina Leite; Simões, Raisa Fernandes Mariz; Medeiros, Juliana Barbosa; Alves, Ricardo O.; Santos, Jair L. F.; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida O.; Zatz, Mayana; Matheson, David; et al. (SAGE, 2022-03-26)
      Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which socioeconomic and regional differences in Brazil may influence the quality of life. To this end, we examined factors associated with health-related quality of life in two populations of oldest-old people, aged 80 and over: one from the Northeast of Brazil and the other from the Southeast. Methods: 417 participants aged 80 and over were interviewed face-to-face, 179 from Brejo dos Santos, one of the poorest regions in the Northeast; and 238 from São Paulo, one of the largest urban metropolises in Southeast Brazil. Data, which included socioeconomic and demographic factors, health status, and health-related quality of life, were collected using a structured questionnaire. The dependent variable was determined by the completion rate of the 12-item Short Form Survey and analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple logistic regression. Results: Although the population of São Paulo had four times as many long-lived women than men, had better literacy levels, used more medications, and presented a greater prevalence of symptoms suggestive of depression in comparison to the Northeast’s population, no difference was observed in the proportion of good physical components among the two populations, 54.3% in Brejo dos Santos’ oldest-old and 50.4% in São Paulo’s (p=0.6272). Quality and quantity of sleep were factors that most affected the quality of life among the oldest-old of Northeast. Conclusion: Factors associated with health-related quality of life were different among the oldest-old people of the two locations, thereby corroborating the heterogeneous nature of the oldest-old population.
    • Healthcare reforms: implications for the education and training of acute and critical care nurses

      Glen, Sally (BMJ Publishing Group, 2004)
      This paper offers a wide ranging analysis of the drivers that resulted in scrutiny of medical, nursing, and healthcare professional roles. It suggests that what is needed is a coherent vision of the future shape of the health workforce. This requires moving beyond the presumption that reforming working practices primarily involves "delegating doctors" responsibilities to nurses. The paper argues that it is self evident that the implications of changes in healthcare roles and the ability of existing professionals to function effectively in the future will require education, training, and human resource investment supportive of the changes. It suggests a clear definition of competence and a national standard to practice is essential for nurses working in acute and acute critical settings. There should therefore be a correlation between levels of practice, levels of education, and remuneration. Furthermore, education programmes for senior nurses should sit coherently alongside the education programmes required by Modernising Medical Careers. Finally, the realisation of the government’s service and modernisation agenda will require a culture change within higher education institutions, postgraduate deaneries, professional organisations, workforce development confederations, and NHS trusts.
    • Healthcare utopia or dystopia: empowering improved self-management may be a better role for technology

      Bond, Carol (British Computer Society, 2017-04)
      The Autumn edition of BCS’s magazine for the IT professional, ITNOW, included a health anecdote as part of its Making IT Good for Society theme. The story was about Dave and his health.
    • Healthy meals, better learners? Debating the focus of school food policy in England

      Lalli, Gurpinder; Earl, Lexi (Taylor & Francis, 2020-03-08)
      Policy makers in the UK are trying to improve school meals, by focusing on eating well. This article explores the way policies are framed by academic performance and health as a reason for providing school lunches. Using Nussbaum’s capability approach we argue that the purpose of schooling should be to provide young people with the ability to lead a life of choice. We argue that school meals are an important social good, which allow young people to develop critical skills around food which they can then use throughout their lives. We draw on evidence from two ethnographic research projects on food in schools, conducted in England. We question whether the collocation between healthy eating and learning should be the focus of school food reform and contemplate the role of society and government to provide children with healthy meals, irrespective of learning outcomes. School meals are more than good exam results.
    • Heterogeneity of viral IL-6 expression in HHV-8-associated diseases.

      Cannon, Jennifer S.; Nicholas, John; Orenstein, Jan M.; Mann, Risa B.; Murray, Paul G.; Browning, Philip J.; DiGiuseppe, Joseph A.; Cesarman, Ethel; Hayward, Gary S.; Ambinder, Richard F. (University of Chicago Press, 1999)
      In order to characterize the expression of the viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) homologue in various human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-associated diseases, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were applied to formalin-fixed specimens. These assays showed consistent expression of vIL-6 in primary effusion lymphomas and in a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lymphadenopathy with a Castleman's disease-like appearance. In contrast, Kaposi's sarcoma specimens showed marked differences among specimens. In a consecutive series of specimens from the Johns Hopkins archives, vIL-6 expression was demonstrated in one of 13 cases. However, among 7 specimens selected from the AIDS Malignancy Bank because of their high levels of the T1.1 lytic transcript and virion production, vIL-6 expression was consistently demonstrated in infiltrating mononuclear cells and occasional spindle-shaped cells. Thus vIL-6 expression in clinical specimens correlates with other measures of the lytic viral cycle. Both assays generally give congruent results and are consistent with the possibility that vIL-6 expression plays a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of HHV-8-associated diseases.
    • High diversity of non-human leukocyte antigens in transplant-associated coronary artery disease.

      Bates, Ruth L.; Frampton, Geoffrey; Rose, Marlene L.; Murphy, John J. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003)
      BACKGROUND: Antibodies to endothelial derived non-human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been associated with transplant (Tx)-associated coronary artery disease (CAD) after cardiac transplantation; however, few have been identified. The aim of this study was to screen a human coronary artery endothelial cell cDNA library with patient sera to establish the diversity and nature of the target antigens. METHODS: A human coronary artery endothelial cell cDNA library was screened with sera from seven long-term cardiac transplant patients with angiographically diagnosed TxCAD and sera from five healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Of the seven patients' sera, five showed reactivity, as did sera from two of the five normal subjects. Eighteen positive cDNA clones were isolated by TxCAD sera; DNA sequence analysis and DNA database searching identified all but one clone; 16 were nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins and 1 of them was the cell surface protein neuropilin 2. Five clones were targeted by normal sera. A different spectrum of reactive clones was identified by the sera of each patient where reactive clones were evident. CONCLUSIONS: A high diversity of non-HLA antigens, probably autoantigens, are involved in the pathogenesis of TxCAD.
    • Highland dance: heart-rate and blood lactate differences between competition and class.

      Baillie, Yvonne; Wyon, Matthew A.; Head, Andrew (Human Kinetics, 2007-12)
      This study looked at the physiological effects of performance in Highland-dance competition to consider whether the traditional methods used during class and rehearsal provide an appropriate training stimulus toward this performance.
    • Hip-Hop party dance: Cardiorespiratory profile and responses to a predefined sequence

      Prates, Claudia Machado; Tsiouti, Nefeli; Fagundes, Alex de Oliveira; Reichert, Thaís; Wyon, Matthew; Haas, Aline Nogueira (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Hip-hop is a popular dance genre practised worldwide that has gained popularity since the 1970’s. Despite which, studies related to the area and its physiological demands are still scarce. The purpose of this study was to report the cardiorespiratory profile of a group of male and female hip-hop dancers and determine the zones of intensity of a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Eight Brazilian professional hip-hop dancers, 4 women and 4 men, mean age 22 ± 2.3 years participated in the study. Using a portable gas analyser (Cosmed K5) their cardiorespiratory variables were measured at two different times: first, during a maximal treadmill test; and later during a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) were used for calculated the dependent variables: oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and the intensity zones for the predefined hip-hop sequence. Data normality was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to check any sex-related difference (p<0.01). No statistical difference between male and female dancers was found in the cardiorespiratory profile and responses to the predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. On the treadmill, the participants’ VO2peak was 57.3 ± 12.7 ml·kg-1·min-1, and HRmax was 190.0 ± 9.1 b·min-1. The predefined hip-hop party dance sequence was mainly performed (61% of the sequence) in the moderate aerobic zone. However, when the dancers jumped, the intensity of the sequence increased. This information could be used to develop a specific supplementary training protocols for hip-hop dancers, thus helping to improve their physiological fitness parameters and reduce the incidence of injury.
    • Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

      Balmer, Nigel J.; Nevill, Alan M.; Williams, A. Mark (Taylor & Francis, 2001)
      We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.
    • Hormonal factors in the development of differences in strength between boys and girls during adolescence: a longitudinal study.

      Round, J. M.; Jones, David A.; Honour, J. W.; Nevill, Alan M. (Taylor & Francis for the Society for the Study of Human Biology, 1999)
      The development of elbow flexor (biceps) and knee extensor (quadriceps) strength has been followed in a mixed longitudinal study of 50 boys and 50 girls from the age of 8 to 17 years. Sex differences in strength emerged at the time of peak height velocity and were especially marked for the biceps. Data for individual children were aligned to the time of peak height velocity and associations between strength, height, weight and circulating testosterone were investigated using multi-level modelling. The results show that, for girls, quadriceps strength is proportional to height and weight while for boys there is an additional factor which can be fully attributed to increasing levels of testosterone. Testosterone is important in explaining differences in biceps strength between the sexes but an additional factor is also required. It is suggested that, in addition to a direct effect on muscle, testosterone could have a second indirect action on biceps strength by promoting growth in length of the humerus as part of the general development of the male upper limb girdle.
    • Hospital discharge and the citizenship rights of older people: will the UK become a test-bed for Europe?

      Ford, Dierdre; Stepney, Paul M. (Carfax (Taylor & Francis), 2003)
      The authors are both experienced social workers and teachers in the field of community care. They draw on their UK and European experiences as well as the growing body of research on hospital discharges of older people to illustrate how citizenship rights and social justice cannot be upheld without ethical good practice in this field. Community Care in the UK now contains in-built tensions and potential conflicts between health and social services staff over continuing care. Entitlements and ethical considerations can be obscured by the economic interests of the agencies involved. These developments which are already evident in other European welfare states provide a warning to Eastern Europe about the dangers of importing managerial and market principles into the field of care for older people. Research evidence supported by case studies is used to illustrate how rights to health care and even human rights can be overridden when policies of cost containment combined with efficiency targets begin to shape decisions about care. Further, the recent proposal to fine UK social services departments 100 (140 Euros) per day for delayed discharge will only exacerbate the problem. The authors argue that research can provide guidance on the essential elements for good practice in inter-professional work, especially concepts of well-being that include justice, fairness, participation and autonomy to counteract the jeopardised citizenship of older people.
    • Hosting teacher development at historical sites: the benefits for classroom teaching

      Burns, Adam (The Historical Association, London, 2017-12)
      Visiting historical sites is a staple of secondary history education, with trips to castles, stately homes, working museums and industrial landscapes among the more popular day trips in the UK. Over the years, Teaching History has featured an array of articles outlining the benefits of local visits and how to build upon them: from learning about a local villain in Hackney at Sutton House, to a variety of thematic trips at Key Stage 3, including castles, museums and city street tours. Another range of articles have focused on overseas destinations, such as trips to the First World War battlefields or to sites commemorating the Holocaust. Although trips are often lauded by both students and teachers for providing a memorable and tangible experience of history, they are often optional, and subject to time, curriculum and financial restraints.
    • How and what do you teach in jogging lessons?

      O'Leary, Nick; Griggs, Gerald (Association for Physical Education, 2009-02)