• Galectin-2 (LGALS2) 3279C/T polymorphism may be independently associated with diastolic blood pressure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

      Panoulas, Vasileios F.; Douglas, Karen M. J.; Smith, Jacqueline P.; Metsios, Giorgos S.; Elisaf, Moses S.; Nightingale, Peter; Kitas, George D. (Informaworld (Taylor & Francis), 2009)
      The galectin-2 (LGALS2) 3279 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has recently been associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Although hypertension, a very prevalent entity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is one of the greatest risk factors for MI, the possible association of LGALS2 3279 C/T and hypertension has not been investigated. We genotyped 386 RA patients, 272 hypertensives and 114 normotensives. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly lower in TT compared to CC homozygotes (-4.11 mmHg, p = 0.044) even when adjusted for multiple confounders (-4.28 mmHg, p = 033). Further studies are required to replicate the potential association of LGALS2 3279 C/T with DBP, and examine whether this SNP could be used as a marker of increased risk for future cardiovascular events in RA populations.
    • Gambling and gaming in the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 lockdown

      Close, James; Spicer, Stuart Gordon; Nicklin, Laura Louise; Lloyd, Joanne; Whalley, Ben; Lloyd, Helen (MDPI, 2022-01-18)
      During the first UK national COVID-19 lockdown, there were fears that increased online gaming and gambling could negatively impact wellbeing. Using a cross-sectional retrospective change survey of 631 UK adult gamers and/or gamblers during the week the UK lockdown was partially lifted (June 2020), we investigated participation in gaming/gambling and relationships with problem gaming, problem gambling and wellbeing (using the following previously validated scales: the Internet Gaming Disorder Short Form; a short-form version of the Problem Gambling Severity Index; a short-form of the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale). Results indicated a near-doubling in gaming activity during lockdown and significant increases in problem gaming scores, but not in numbers of disordered gamers. Aggregate changes to gambling participation and problem gambling were negligible: decreases in offline and sports gambling were balanced by increases in online gambling. Wellbeing scores decreased during lockdown across the sample, particularly amongst women, and path analysis revealed moderate correlations between increases in problem gaming and gambling scores and reductions in wellbeing. We conclude that for some, maladaptive gaming/gambling coping strategies during the lockdown may have exacerbated its negative effects.
    • Gambling problems in bipolar disorder in the UK: Prevalence and distribution

      Jones, Lisa; Metcalf, Alice; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Forty, Liz; Perry, Amy; Lloyd, Joanne; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Jones, Ian; Craddock, Nick; et al. (2015-10-31)
      Background North American studies show bipolar disorder is associated with elevated rates of problem gambling; however, little is known about rates in the different presentations of bipolar illness. Aims To determine the prevalence and distribution of problem gambling in people with bipolar disorder in the UK. Method The Problem Gambling Severity Index was used to measure gambling problems in 635 participants with bipolar disorder. Results Moderate to severe gambling problems were four times higher in people with bipolar disorder than in the general population, and were associated with type 2 disorder (OR = 1.74, P = 0.036), history of suicidal ideation or attempt (OR = 3.44, P = 0.02) and rapid cycling (OR = 2.63, P = 0.008). Conclusions Approximately 1 in 10 patients with bipolar disorder may be at moderate to severe risk of problem gambling, possibly associated with suicidal behaviour and a rapid cycling course. Elevated rates of gambling problems in type 2 disorder highlight the probable significance of modest but unstable mood disturbance in the development and maintenance of such problems.
    • Game mechanics for digital learning

      Traxler, John (Routledge, 2021-06-23)
      Communities of professionals work in a world saturated with information and subject to constant change. They need reliable training, updating and education. This may be based on established, stable and authoritative sources, or they may have to develop it themselves as situations and circumstances evolve. They may learn with conventional educational and training technologies, but most people are familiar with a range of popular social media. This chapter explains how the familiarity with games, their rules and formats, can be incorporated and aligned with other innovative and emerging informal digital learning techniques and implemented on free and familiar systems in order to enable sustainable, flexible, responsive and collaborative digital learning communities.
    • Game-based Learning: A Different Perspective.

      Royle, Karl (Nova Southeastern University, Fischler School of Education and Human Services, 2008)
      Because the goals of games and the object of school-based learning are fundamentally mismatched, efforts to integrate games into the curriculum have largely fallen flat despite the best intentions of teachers and the gaming industry. Arguing that educational game designers should be investigating ways to get education into games rather than getting games into education, Karl Royle describes how this might be accomplished. The discussion is contextualized by a brief outline of the shortcomings of video game usage within education. Royle demonstrates a link between the kind of learning that typically occurs in game playing and project-based learning and illustrates how curriculum-related learning material can be integrated into commercial-quality video games.
    • Games as subject-matter for learning in primary physical education

      Ward, Gavin; Griggs, Gerald; Randall, Vicky (Routledge, 2022-02-08)
      Games has been one of the cornerstones of Physical Education teaching since its earliest inclusion in the school timetable. However, it is an area that is inherently complex and such has often been delivered poorly or without real clarity of purpose. These issues are tackled head on in this chapter. To support the practitioner in creating intelligible competitive games that match players’ skilfulness and maturity, the chapter deconstructs sporting forms of games into games as subject-matter for learning. Subject-matter for learning focuses attention on the learning experiences that can be developed through playing games. This includes examining the tactical problems competitive games pose, solutions to these tactical problems and the associated skilfulness needed to enact these solutions. These game constructs are employed to utilise this understanding to permit more explicit understanding of ways to develop technical competence and decision-making within game play.
    • Gaming enhances learning-induced plastic changes in the brain

      Junttila, Katja; Smolander, Anna-Riikka; Karhila, Reima; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Kurimo, Mikko; Ylinen, Sari (Elsevier, 2022-04-26)
      Digital games may benefit children’s learning, yet the factors that induce gaming benefits to cognition are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of digital game-based learning in children by comparing the learning of foreign speech sounds and words in a digital game or a non-game digital application. To evaluate gaming-induced plastic changes in the brain, we used the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response that reflects the access to long-term memory representations. We recorded auditory brain responses from 37 school-aged Finnish-speaking children before and after playing a computer-based language-learning game. The MMN amplitude increased between the pre- and post-measurement for the game condition but not for the non-game condition, suggesting that the gaming intervention enhanced learning more than the non-game intervention. The results indicate that digital games can be beneficial for children’s speech-sound learning and that gaming elements per se, not just practice time, support learning.
    • Gathering and analysis of social work workforce intelligence

      Morgan, Angela; Holt, Judith; Williams, Jill (Henry Stewart Publications, 2007)
      By drawing together existing data on local authority social worker recruitment and retention with data on students qualifying from social work diploma (DipSW) and degree programmes, this paper presents findings from a case study designed to evaluate social work workforce intelligence within a sub-region of the West Midlands. Qualitative and quantitative methods included key informant interviews, a DipSW graduate questionnaire survey (followed by semi-structured interviews), social work degree student profiles and existing data and document analysis. Key findings show that practice placements influence employment choices, a good learning culture supports recruitment and retention, and workforce and practice learning opportunity data could be drawn together. The paper concludes with clear implications and recommendations for policy and practice for recruitment and retention of social workers. A model planning tool to match recruitment needs (demand) with numbers of students on qualifying social work programmes (supply) is proposed.
    • Gelotophobia and the challenges of implementing laughter into virtual agents interactions

      Ruch, Willibald F.; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer; Niewiadomski, Radosław; Urbain, Jérôme; Mancini, Maurizio; Dupont, Stéphane (PMC, 2014-11-18)
      This study investigated which features of AVATAR laughter are perceived threatening for individuals with a fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia), and individuals with no gelotophobia. Laughter samples were systematically varied (e.g., intensity, laughter pitch, and energy for the voice, intensity of facial actions of the face) in three modalities: animated facial expressions, synthesized auditory laughter vocalizations, and motion capture generated puppets displaying laughter body movements. In the online study 123 adults completed, the GELOPH <15 > (Ruch and Proyer, 2008a,b) and rated randomly presented videos of the three modalities for how malicious, how friendly, how real the laughter was (0 not at all to 8 extremely). Additionally, an open question asked which markers led to the perception of friendliness/maliciousness. The current study identified features in all modalities of laughter stimuli that were perceived as malicious in general, and some that were gelotophobia specific. For facial expressions of AVATARS, medium intensity laughs triggered highest maliciousness in the gelotophobes. In the auditory stimuli, the fundamental frequency modulations and the variation in intensity were indicative of maliciousness. In the body, backwards and forward movements and rocking vs. jerking movements distinguished the most malicious from the least malicious laugh. From the open answers, the shape and appearance of the lips curling induced feelings that the expression was malicious for non-gelotophobes and that the movement round the eyes, elicited the face to appear as friendly. This was opposite for gelotophobes. Gelotophobia savvy AVATARS should be of high intensity, containing lip and eye movements and be fast, non-repetitive voiced vocalization, variable and of short duration. It should not contain any features that indicate a down-regulation in the voice or body, or indicate voluntary/cognitive modulation.
    • Gender Differences in Management Behaviour and Leadership Style: Implications for Organisational Performance

      Spurgeon, Peter; Cross, Vinette (The University Press Journals, 2006)
      Lack of knowledge about women managers’ capability to lead superior performing work groups is a source of gender bias in opportunities to lead high performance teams or business units.
    • Gender differences in the relationship between sleep problems and suicide attempt in adolescents

      Wan, Y; Xu, H; Wang, S; Boyda, D; McFeeters, D; Sun, Y; Zhang, S; Chen, R; Tao, F; Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-02-28)
      © Copyright © 2020 Wan, Xu, Wang, Boyda, Mcfeeters, Sun, Zhang, Chen and Tao. There are few studies examining which types of sleep problems are independently associated with suicide attempt (SA) and gender difference in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine whether specific sleep problems were uniquely associated with suicide attempt in adolescents and explore gender differences in the association. A school-based health survey was conducted in four provinces within China from November 2014 to January 2015. A total of 15,132 students aged 10–21 years completed standard questionnaires assessing past 12 month suicide attempt in addition to measures of sleep quality, quantity and sleep beliefs. 5.4% of participants reported a suicide attempt within the last 12 months. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables and psychological symptoms, almost all sleep problems remained significantly associated with a greater endorsement of suicide attempt. Further adjustment for co-occurring sleep problems revealed that weekday sleep duration (<6, 8–10, and ≥10 h), insomnia (often), and nightmares (sometimes and often) remained independently associated with suicide attempt in boys (p < 0.05). However in girls, weekday sleep duration (<6 and ≥10 h), weekend sleep duration (<6 h), midday nap (0 or 1–2 d/week), insomnia (sometimes and often), nightmare (often) and sleep beliefs (high) were independently associated with suicide attempt (p < 0.05). Multiple sleep problems are associated with suicide attempt in adolescents, however the relationship varies by gender.
    • Gender differences in videoed accounts of victim blaming for revenge porn for self-taken and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos

      Attrill-Smith, Alison; Wesson, Caroline J; Chater, Michelle L; Weekes, Lucy (Masaryk University, 2021-11-18)
      Using video recounts from revenge porn victims, this study explores whether levels of victim blaming differs for the sharing of self- and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos. Building on previous work which has demonstrated victim blame for both self- and stealth generated images in occurrences of revenge porn (Zvi &amp; Schechory-Bitton, 2020), the reported study presents an original and ecologically valid methodological approach whereby 342 (76 male, 266 female) participants (Mage = 39.27, SD = 11.70) from the UK watched videoed accounts of real experiences of falling victim to revenge porn, rather than using text based, often fictional, vignettes to attribute blame which dominate studies in this area. All data was collected in 2019. The results demonstrated that significantly more blame was assigned to victims when participants were indirectly rather than directly asked who was to blame for the occurrence of revenge porn, supporting the notion of an unconscious processing bias in attributing blame. More blame was also assigned to those victims who themselves generated the material compared to when it had been acquired without their awareness by a perpetrator, suggesting the cognitive bias to be in line with a just world hypothesis. Male participants were more likely to blame a victim than were female participants, although sex of victim and mode of shared sexually-explicit material (video or image) did not appear to affect levels of victim-blame. Findings are considered in terms of extant research and the need for future work in the area of victim blame and revenge pornography.
    • Gender differences in weight loss; evidence from a NHS weight management service

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Langford, Robert (Elsevier, 2014-09-04)
      Highlights • Provides evidence that men lose more weight than women when enrolled on a weight loss intervention. • Men lose more weight than women from their initial assessment up to 12-months. • Men maintain their weight and continue to lose more weight postintervention compared to women.
    • Gendered and classed performances of motherhood and good academic in Greece

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Sage, 2018-09-24)
      The enduring significance of gender and how it intersects with class in the organisation of parenting, domestic, and professional work has been obscured in contemporary neo-liberal contexts. This paper examines how Greek academic women conceptualize and enact motherhood and the classed and gendered strategies they adopt to reconcile ‘good’ motherhood with notions of the ‘good’ academic professional. It draws on semi-structured interviews about the career narratives of 15 women in Greek Medical Schools at the aftermath of the Greek recession. The analysis presented in this paper is informed by a feminist post-structuralist paradigm and an emic approach to intersectionality. Motherhood emerged in the data as a dynamic concept, and a network of practices both constrained and enabled by gendered and classed family and work cultures. Drawing on neo-liberal ‘DIY’ and ‘having it all’ discourse Greek mothers claimed that they could achieve almost anything professionally, if they organised their private lives sensibly. They drew on idealised discourses of motherhood, but they also contradicted these notions by doing non- traditional forms of motherhood, such as remote or transnational motherhood, afforded by their privileged social positioning and academic careers. Further research is required to investigate configurations of classed motherhood in less prestigious professions.
    • Gendered and classed performances of ‘good’ mother and academic in Greece

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Sage, 2018-09-24)
      The enduring significance of gender and how it intersects with class in the organization of parenting, domestic and professional work has been obscured in contemporary neoliberal contexts. This article examines how Greek academic women conceptualize and enact motherhood and the classed and gendered strategies they adopt to reconcile ‘good’ motherhood with notions of the ‘good’ academic professional. It draws on semi-structured interviews about the career narratives of 15 women in Greek medical schools in the aftermath of the Greek recession. The analysis presented in this article is informed by a feminist post-structuralist paradigm and an emic approach to intersectionality. Motherhood emerged in the data as a dynamic concept, and a network of practices both constrained and enabled by gendered and classed family and work cultures. Drawing on a neoliberal ‘DIY’ and ‘having it all’ discourse, Greek mothers claimed that they could achieve almost anything professionally, if they organized their private lives sensibly. They drew on idealized discourses of motherhood, but they also contradicted these notions by doing non-traditional forms of motherhood, such as remote or transnational motherhood, afforded by their privileged social positioning and academic careers. Further research is required to investigate configurations of classed motherhood in less prestigious professions.
    • Gendered pedagogic identities and academic professionalism in Greek medical schools

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Taylor & Francis, 2016-12-07)
      Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilized in Greek Medical Schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women’s position women in Academic Medicine. I employ thematic analysis to illustrate that formations of pedagogy and academic professionalism are bound up with emotions and embodied practices of relating, connecting, creating learning communities, and promoting virtuous academic citizenship. Women’s gendered accounts of pedagogy and their boundary practices of identification demonstrate agency, intentionality, and operate as highly political actions of legitimacy and resistance within the patriarchal realm of Greek higher education. I argue that gendered discourses of pedagogy in Greek medical schools become resources for resisting neo-liberal notions of academic work, individualism, and women’s exclusion in the highly prestigious discipline of academic medicine in Greece.
    • Gendered performances and identity construction among UK female soccer players and netballers: a comparative study

      Devonport, Tracey J.; Russell, Kate; Leflay, Kath; Conway, Jennifer (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-04)
      This paper examines the gendered performances and identity construction of UK female University soccer players and netballers (n = 31). Focus group interviews explored their sporting experiences with reference to body perceptions, and perceptions of their sporting bodies outside sporting contexts. Three themes resulted from data analysis, these being; (1) UK culture, body performances and femininity, (2) sporting culture, body performances and femininity and (3) transiency of body satisfaction across sport and nonsport contexts. Findings suggest that sport may not always provide an opportunity to challenge and resist dominant discourses. In both netball and soccer, a range of surveillance and management practices were used that served to perpetuate the value of a ‘feminine’ and assumed heterosexual body, and legitimize their sport participation through an emphasis on a hyper-femininity. The influence of sport subcultures on gendered performances and identity construction, along with implications for marketing sports participation to women are discussed.
    • Genetic variation in Wnt/β-catenin and ER signalling pathways in female and male elite dancers and its associations with low bone mineral density: a cross-section and longitudinal study.

      Amorim, T; Durães, C; Machado, J C; Metsios, George S.; Wyon, M; Maia, J; Flouris, A D; Marques, F; Nogueira, L; Adubeiro, Nuno; et al. (Springer Verlag, 2018-07-05)
      The association of genetic polymorphisms with low bone mineral density in elite athletes have not been considered previously. The present study found that bone mass phenotypes in elite and pre-elite dancers are related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways. Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, dancers, swimmers) are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) which, if untreated, can lead to osteoporosis. To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways with low BMD in elite and pre-elite dancers (impact sport athletes). The study included three phases: (1) 151 elite and pre-elite dancers were screened for the presence of low BMD and traditional osteoporosis risk factors (low body weight, menstrual disturbances, low energy availability); (2) a genetic association study was conducted in 151 elite and pre-elite dancers and age- and sex- controls; (3) serum sclerostin was measured in 101 pre-elite dancers and age- and sex-matched controls within a 3-year period. Eighty dancers revealed low BMD: 56.3% had at least one traditional osteoporosis risk factor, whereas 28.6% did not display any risk factor (37.2% revealed traditional osteoporosis risk factors, but had normal BMD). Body weight, menstrual disturbances and energy availability did not fully predict bone mass acquisition. Instead, genetic polymorphisms in the ER and Wnt/β-catenin pathways were found to be risk factors for low BMD in elite dancers. Sclerostin was significantly increased in dancers compared to controls during the 3-year follow-up (p < 0.05).
    • Getting involved in the community—What stops us? Findings from an inclusive research project

      Mooney, F; Rafique, N; Tilly, L (Wiley, 2019-07-08)
      © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Feeling alone and not connected to other people where you live affects many people and especially people with a learning disability. The government and the newspapers are talking a lot about this, they want to understand who is affected and what can be done. Our group did a research project to find out some of the things that stop us getting involved in local places with local people where we can make and keep friends. The people in the research project mainly lived independently and did not use learning disability services, so needed to use local community organisations. Pictorial cards, made by one of the group members, using photographs were used to sort out all the things we talked about into groups. These included transport, fear and anxiety, limits on our choice and control, risks and personal safety. We then talked about what could be done, this included more easy read information, so people know what is available locally, more support to go to places and advocacy to get involved. There also needs to be better community safety including more Safe Places in the community. Abstract: Background Social isolation is an issue that affects many people and especially people with a learning disability. There is an association between social exclusion and feeling lonely, an issue currently highlighted as a growing concern which needs to be addressed both in the media and by the government. Methods The Building Bridges Research Group do inclusive research projects about the issues that are important to them. Over the summer of 2018, the research group undertook an inclusive research project to identify some of the specific barriers that prevent community inclusion and the opportunity to develop friends. The people involved mainly lived independently and did not use learning disability services, with the exception of evening clubs, so needed to use universal services. Results Pictorial cards, made by one of the group, using photographs were used to organise the data into themes. These included transport, fear and anxiety, limits on choice and control, risks and personal safety. Conclusion The inclusive research design enabled people with a learning disability to contribute to all stages of the research project, from identifying the issue, gathering data, the analysis and writing up. They also made suggestions of ways to increase social networks, friendships and well-being and so decrease loneliness. These include more access to easy read information, more support and advocacy and measures to address community safety including a wider roll-out of the Safe Places scheme. There also needs to be further research undertaken with other people with a learning disability in different areas to widen the understanding of the impact of these barriers on people's lives.
    • Girls In the juvenile Justice system in England and Wales, 2002-17

      Arnull, Elaine; Park, Jihye; Heimer, Karen (Taylor & Francis, 2021-09-02)
      This paper addresses a gap in the literature on youth justice in England and Wales by examining disaggregated patterns of juvenile court processing (i.e., proven offences) and custody. It provides new evidence to show that gendered effects are best observed over time. Looking at juvenile justice data over time allows us to see the effects of policy that are obscured in the short-term. This is especially important when considering small and specific populations, such as girls. It is often assumed that policy impacts smaller groups in the justice system (in this case, girls) in the same way as the larger group (in this case, boys), with boys’ experiences representing the norm (Estrada et al. 2016). In this paper, we call into question that assumption by considering female and male proven offences and juvenile custody over time in England and Wales and show why gendered impacts should be given proper consideration (Sherman & Black 2015). We also examine changes in the gender gap in proven offences and juvenile custody over time.