• Factorial invariance for combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised scores in a sample of clients with alcohol dependency.

      Bowden, Stephen C.; Ritter, Alison J.; Carstairs, Jane R.; Shores, E. Arthur; Pead, J.; Greeley, Janet D.; Whelan, Gregory; Long, Caroline M.; Clifford, Christine C. (Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis), 2001)
      This study examined the joint factor structure of the WAIS-R and WMS-R in a sample of 289 participants (mostly males) with alcohol dependency. In a confirmatory phase we contrasted a range of factor models derived from previous analyses of the Wechsler scales. The best fitting model incorporated five factors representing Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Attention-Concentration, Verbal Memory, and Visual Memory, with reassignment of factor loadings for two subtests. The invariance of the measurement model was then examined comparing data from a large sample of healthy participants (J. R. Carstairs & E. A. Shores, 1999). The results indicated that the number of factors was invariant across samples, and four of the factors satisfied the criterion of partial measurement invariance.
    • Factors affecting access to daily oral and dental care among adults with intellectual disabilities

      Chadwick, Darren; Chapman, Melanie; Davies, Gill (Wiley, 2017-10-17)
      Purpose: Accessing oral health care can be more difficult for adults with intellectual disabilities with reports of poorer levels of oral health. This investigation identifies factors influencing engagement in day-to-day oral and dental healthcare for adults with intellectual disabilities. Method: A survey, containing questions about facilitators and barriers to maintaining oral health and hygiene, was completed with adults with intellectual disabilities and their caregivers (N=372). Results: Data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Two global themes were identified; ‘Personal and lifestyle influences’, mentioned more often as barriers to oral care, included physical, sensory, cognitive, behavioural and affective factors and ‘Social and environmental factors’, mentioned more as facilitators, included caregiver support, equipment and adaptations used and oral hygiene routine. Conclusions: Numerous individual, social and environmental factors influence oral care. A coordinated organisational response is advocated involving collaboration between dental and ID services and training for caregivers and people with intellectual disabilities.
    • Factors associated with fatigue among men aged 45 and older: A cross-sectional study

      Lin, Wei-Quan; Jing, Meng-Juan; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Yuan, Le-Xin; Wang, Pei-Xi (MDPI AG, 2015-09-02)
      Background and Purpose: Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms reported in several studies; but few studies have concentrated on the male population, especially for the middle-aged and older men who are exposed to greater fatigue risk. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of fatigue and identify the risk factors of fatigue among men aged 45 and older in China. Methods: This study was part of a cross-sectional study on community health in Shunde (Guangdong Province, China). A total sample of 1158 men aged 45 and older were included. Sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle factors and the Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were measured by structured questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine the risk factors of fatigue. Results: Approximately 30% of participants experienced fatigue. Older age (≥75 years: adjusted OR 3.88, 95% CI 2.09–7.18), single marital status (1.94, 1.04–3.62), unemployed status (1.68, 1.16–2.43), number of self-reported chronic diseases (≥2 chronic diseases: 2.83, 1.86–4.31), number of individuals’ children (≥4 children: 2.35, 1.33–4.15), hospitalization in the last year (1.61, 1.03–2.52) were all significantly associated with increased risk of fatigue, while regular exercise (0.46, 0.32–0.65) was a protective factor against fatigue. Conclusions: Fatigue was usual in males and several factors were associated with the fatigue. These findings may have implication in risk assessment of fatigue and help in developing and implementing targeted interventions in middle-aged and elderly males.
    • Factors associated with home advantage in English and Scottish soccer matches

      Nevill, Alan M.; Newell, Sue M.; Gale, Sally (E. & F.N. Spon, 1996)
      Using the results from the end-of-season (1992-93) league tables, overall home advantage was confirmed in the eight major divisions of the English and Scottish football leagues. The degree of home advantage was found to vary significantly across the divisions. Furthermore, these divisional differences in home advantage were found to be significantly associated with the mean attendance of each division. In an attempt to understand these findings, every occurrence of two influential events (either a sending-off or penalty scored) reported in a national Sunday newspaper was recorded. The overall frequency of both sendings-off and penalties scored favoured the home side, but again this was not constant across the divisions. In divisions with large crowds, the percentage of home sendings-off was relatively small (30%), compared with no difference (50%) in divisions with smaller crowds. Similarly, the percentage of penalties scored by home sides in divisions with the largest crowds was large (> 70%), in contrast to little or no advantage in divisions with smaller crowds. Two possible explanations for these findings were proposed. Either larger crowds were able to provoke the away player into more reckless behaviour (real fouls), or influence the referee into believing that the away player had committed more fouls (perceived fouls).
    • Factors associated with parasympathetic activation following exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

      Osailan, Ahmad; Metsios, George S.; Rouse, Peter C.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L.; Kitas, George D.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J. C. S. (2016-05-10)
      Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with poor parasympathetic function being implicated as an underlying factor. Factors related to parasympathetic function, commonly assessed by heart rate recovery (HRR) following maximal exercise, are currently not known in RA. We aimed to explore the association between HRR with CVD risk factors, inflammatory markers, and wellbeing in patients with RA. Methods Ninety-six RA patients (54.4 ± 12.6 years, 68 % women) completed a treadmill exercise test, during which heart rate (HR) was monitored. HRR1 and HRR2 were defined as the absolute change from HR peak to HRR 1 min post HR peak and 2 min post HR peak, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD risk factors, and serological markers of inflammation were measured in all patients. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was used as an assessment of global risk for CVD events, and wellbeing was assessed by questionnaires. Results Mean HRR1 and HRR2 were 29.1 ± 13.2 bpm and 46.4 ± 15.3 bpm, respectively. CVD risk factors as well as most inflammatory markers and measures of wellbeing were inversely correlated with HRR1 and HRR2. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that 27.9 % of the variance in HRR1 and 37.9 % of the variance in HRR2 was explained collectively by CVD risk factors, measures of inflammation, and wellbeing (p = 0.009, p = 0.001 respectively), however no individual measure was independently associated with HRR1 or HRR2. Conclusion Parasympathetic activation was associated with overall CVD risk, arthritis-related burden and wellbeing in patients with RA.
    • Factors influencing a physical education teacher’s pedagogical games practices with pupils experiencing social, emotional and mental health issues

      O’Leary, Nick; Longmore, Carl; Medcalf, Richard (SAGE Publications, 2019-06-16)
      Recognizing the limited research examining physical education teachers’ pedagogical practices for pupils experiencing social, emotional and behavioural issues, this case study sought to examine how a male teacher with a high performing sports background taught games to such pupils and identify those factors that led to such practices. Occupational socialization was used to explore how childhood experiences of physical education and high performance sport, higher education and the workplace influenced his teaching and learning approaches in a special school setting. Data were collected by conducting three semi-structured interviews, eight videoed lesson observations and a self-reflective journal. Inductive data analysis identified that the twin aims of developing life skills and transferability of such skills beyond physical education were said to be achieved by developing pupils’ emotional resilience and encouraging appropriate social behaviour. The influence of the teacher’s family, his high performing sporting background, the needs of the pupils and the school’s policies impacted on developing such resilience and social behaviour. Two suggestions are offered as a result of these findings. Firstly, prior examination of childhood values should be undertaken for those wishing to teach physical education to pupils experiencing social, emotional and mental health issues. Secondly, given this study contradicts research findings that teachers with high performing sport backgrounds emphasize the development of pupils’ practical performance, research examining the impact of such sportspersons on physical education pedagogy in different educational settings appears warranted.
    • Factors influencing a primary school teacher’s delivery of athletics

      Powers, Daniel; O’Leary, Nick; Parkes, Craig (Routledge/ASPE, 2021-04-08)
      Addressing the future recommendations of the first United Kingdom primary school-based Physical Education occupational socialisation study, this case study examined how a female primary school teacher delivered athletics and those factors influencing such pedagogical practices. Data were collected from interviews and lesson observations, analysed using a thematic inductive approach and constant comparison. An ‘educative’ sporting perspective focusing on improving practical performance with a limited attempt to improve non-practical learning was evident alongside an emphasis on ensuring appropriate pupil behaviour. Factors influencing these practices were an influential work colleague, challenging class behaviour and enforcement of school behaviour policy. Recognising the powerful influence of the workplace on the participant’s practice, school policies could encourage primary school teachers to consider attending external courses, read relevant resources, attend behavioural management courses and informally learn amongst colleagues. Future research could explore primary teachers’ delivery of other activities like dance and gymnastics.
    • Factors influencing a secondary school physical education teacher’s role as a pastoral head of year

      Burrows, Adam; O’Leary, Nick (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-11)
      Utilising the occupational socialisation theoretical framework, this United Kingdom based case study explored how a secondary school physical education teacher fulfilled the head of year role and what childhood, university and on-the-job experiences influenced execution of this role. Data were collected from interviews, lesson observations and a self-reflective journal. Inductive data analysis and constant comparison identified that the participant attempted to be an ‘administrative finisher’ and ‘empower’ staff, parents and pupils. These aims were influenced by the de-prioritisation of physical education, a desire to retain control of administrative situations, and the influence of past and present teachers. To overcome the issues that the dual roles of head of year and subject teacher present, it is recommended that a ‘timetabled’ period at the beginning and/or end of the day be utilised for important head of year tasks, and greater formal responsibility is given to the assistant head of year. The findings of this study suggest further research possibilities. Firstly, there is a need to examine the influence of teaching other subjects whilst undertaking the head of year role. Secondly, investigating the impact of childhood and university socialisation upon teachers’ fulfilment of other pastoral and/or leadership roles such as head of department, deputy head or head teacher appears warranted.
    • Factors influencing Nigerian men’s decision to undergo prostate specific antigen testing

      Khutan, Ranjit; Enaworu, Oghenetejiri Ubrurhe (Makerere University, Medical School, 2016-06)
      Background: Prostate cancer is a major cause of cancer death in Nigerian men. Attempts to reduce mortality from prostate cancer have focused mainly on early detection of the disease by the use of PSA testing. As a result of the increased incidence of prostate cancer in Nigeria despite the widespread availability of testing facilities, it became pertinent to understand the salient factors that prompt Nigerian men to go for prostate cancer testing. Objective: This study explores the factors that influence a group of Nigerian men’s decision to go for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing. Methods: Following ethical approval, semi structured interviews were conducted with a group of 10 men who had PSA test following consultation with their doctor with signs and symptoms at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from July to August, 2010. Interview transcripts were analysed by employing steps proposed by Collaizi (1978). Results: Five themes were identified: the symptoms experienced, the influence of friends and relatives, older age associated with increased awareness, accessibility to testing services and the knowledge of the PSA test. Conclusion: The study revealed that there continues to be a considerable lack of awareness and knowledge about prostate cancer and screening.
    • The factors influencing two primary teachers’ interpretation of games

      Jayantilal, Kumar; O'Leary, Nick (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-19)
      Research studies investigating the occupational socialization of primary teachers delivering physical education has been conspicuous by its absence (O’Leary, N. 2019. “Teacher socialization in physical education: new perspectives.” Sport, Education and Society 24 (6): 668–671). Using Lawson’s, H. (1986. “Occupational socialization and the design of teacher education programs.” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 5 (2): 107–116) theoretical framework, this study examined two primary teachers’ interpretation of games and the socialising factors influencing their pedagogical games practices. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed inductively. Three themes appeared around both teachers’ games perspectives: an emphasis on technical learning, a differing use in teaching styles and a contrasting focus on strategical and tactical understanding. A variety of factors influenced these beliefs: negative childhood experiences of physical education, an innovative higher education degree, a continuous professional development course, a physical education planning scheme and the needs of the pupils. It was recommended that practitioners could engage in continuous professional development that develops their strategical and tactical subject knowledge. Furthermore, to complement such courses, teachers could pursue informal learning and utilise communities of practices. Finally, teachers could undertake action research.
    • Factors of success for formal mentoring in Higher Education: Exploration through autoethnography

      Cureton, Debra (EMCC, 2010-07-31)
      An auto-ethnographical methodology was used to collect field notes and reflective data over a three year period, which focused on the implementation of a formal staff mentoring scheme within a Higher Education setting. Through the analysis of collected data, observations about the implementation, process and outcomes have been made. Suggestions about the interactional nature of time invested into a mentoring relationship, the nature of the mentoring relationship, personal and organisational investment and the benefits of mentoring have also been proposed.
    • Failing securely: The processes and support which underpin English nurse mentors' assessment decisions regarding under-performing students

      Hunt, Louise A.; McGee, Paula; Gutteridge, Robin; Hughes, Malcolm (Elsevier, 2016-01-28)
      Background: This study was undertaken in response to concerns that mentors who assessed practical competence were reluctant to fail student nurses which generated doubts about the fitness to practise of some registered nurses. Limited evidence was available about the experiences of mentors who had failed underperforming students and what had helped them to do this. Aim: To investigate what enabled some mentors to fail underperforming students when it was recognised that many were hesitant to do so. Method: An ethically approved, grounded theory approach was used to explore thirty-one nurses' experiences of failing student nurses in practical assessments in England. Participants were recruited using theoretical sampling techniques. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Analysis was undertaken using iterative, constant comparative techniques and reflexive processes. The theoretical framework which emerged had strong resonance with professionals. Findings: Five categories emerged from the findings: (1) Braving the assessment vortex; (2) Identifying the ‘gist’ of underperformance; (3) Tempering Reproach; (4) Standing up to scrutiny; and (5) Drawing on an interpersonal network. These categories together revealed that mentors needed to feel secure to fail a student nurse in a practical assessment and that they used a three stage decision making process to ascertain if this was the case. Many of the components which helped mentors to feel secure were informal in nature and functioned on goodwill and local arrangements rather than on timely, formal, organisational systems. The mentor's partner/spouse and practice education facilitator or link lecturer were identified as the key people who provided essential emotional support during this challenging experience. Conclusion: This study contributes to understanding of the combined supportive elements required for robust practical assessment. It presents a new explanatory framework about how mentors formulate the decision to fail a student nurse and the supportive structures which are necessary for this to occur.
    • Failure-Free Survival and Radiotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

      James, Nicholas D.; Spears, Melissa R.; Clarke, Noel W.; Dearnaley, David P.; Mason, Malcolm D.; Parker, Christopher C.; Ritchie, Alastair W. S.; Russell, J. Martin; Schiavone, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt; et al. (American Medical Association, 2016-11-25)
    • A fall from grace: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of unemployment in UK university graduates with common mental health issues

      Cockshott, Christopher J.; Kiemle, Gundi; Byrne, Paula; Gabbay, Mark B. (Scientific Research Publishing, 2021-01-25)
      An exploratory investigation into the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues (i.e., depression and anxiety) was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 graduates in their twenties, all of whom had been unemployed between five and 24 months with common mental health issues, generated themes relating to ‘Loss of Expectation and Disorientation’, ‘Waste, Failure and Blame’, and ‘Stigma and Shame’. Participants had experienced a ‘Fall from Grace’ – a descent from a vaunted position of high-esteem and importance as university graduates, with seemingly bright prospects for a privileged future, into a lowly state of unemployment with mental health issues, leaving them feeling tarnished. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on graduate unemployment, crisis and stigma, raising some practical issues for universities, including counselling services, and how they can better manage the transition to employment for their graduates.
    • Family bereavement: A case study of controlled organ donation after circulatory death

      Walker, Wendy; Sque, Magi (Wiley, 2019-05-29)
      Deceased organ donation represents a major source of organs for human transplantation practice. In the United Kingdom as well as other parts of the world, donation after circulatory death accounts for a proportion of all deceased organ donors. Organ and tissue donation emotively takes place in the context of dying, death and bereavement, yet little is known about the family experience of donation after circulatory death. This paper presents a case study of the phenomenon of controlled donation after circulatory death in intensive care. We present a critical analysis of care processes through the lens of a British donor family who participated in a national study of organ and tissue donation. Anonymised family quotes are applied to illustrate specific case issues, and with reference to relevant national guidance and international research. The case portrayed intimate detail of the moment in time when the family experienced the potential for controlled donation after circulatory death, factors that appeared to influence family consent, and the perceived expectations and outcomes arising from the donation decision. Case analysis revealed local compliance with best practice guidance and compassionate end-of-life care whilst supporting organ retrieval. Caring for the grieving family of potential organ donors requires sensitivity and skill. Of importance is a sound professional knowledge and understanding of the clinical care pathway, together with effective teamwork, optimal communication, family and staff support. Further research is required to determine the impact of controlled donation after circulatory death on family grief and bereavement.
    • Family engagement and compassion fatigue in alternative provision

      Page, Damien (Taylor & Francis, 2021-06-09)
      In a sector largely ignored in policy and the public imagination, Alternative Provision works to care for and educate children for whom mainstream schooling does not work. Central to their mission is the engagement of families, often seen as both the cause of their child’s difficulties and the solution to their successful educational re-engagement. Practitioners within Alternative Provision work within sophisticated strategies of family engagement, from regular communication to the more intensive interventions of home visits, supporting families with everything from filling in forms to cleaning, from managing outbursts to sourcing furniture. With the majority of families living within contexts of deprivation, many have life histories containing trauma, trauma that Alternative Provision Practitioners listen to, confront and, often, internalise, risking ‘compassion fatigue’. This article focuses on the potential for compassion fatigue within family engagement in Alternative Provision, beginning with the impact on practitioners. It then discusses the role of leadership in building an assemblage of organisation interventions to both mitigate compassion fatigue and maximise ‘compassion satisfaction’, the fulfilment that comes from empathic work. Finally, it examines how compassion satisfaction could mitigate the deleterious impact of vicarious trauma.
    • Family engagement in alternative provision

      Page, Damien (Wiley, 2020-11-06)
      This article presents findings from research focusing on family engagement within alternative provision. With the existing literature on alternative provision scant, this article analyses the extensive assemblage of family engagement within settings as practitioners navigate complex family environments often characterised by poverty, crime and substance abuse. While settings create formalised structures of family engagement that prioritise a collaborative approach to children’s development—such as family learning days and daily positive phone calls—equally they work to attenuate the isolation and loneliness of families who feel as excluded as their child. Yet as important as structured engagement is, practitioners within alternative provision also engage in the improvised pragmatism of micro-work—the work that other agencies won’t or can’t do, such as escorting parents to medical appointments, sourcing furniture to fill empty houses or talking a child out from under their bed. The article argues that family engagement in alternative provision is cyclical, with families informing staff of behavioural incidents or learning opportunities, information that rapidly personalises communicative and pedagogical strategies within schools. In return, teachers update parents at the end of the day, offering ideas for home learning or approaches to managing challenging behaviours. The article concludes by identifying six domains of family engagement—behavioural, emotional, safeguarding, functional, pedagogic and capacity building—that can be used within alternative provision settings to ensure a holistic approach that provides deep support to families to maximise the successful re-engagement of children.
    • Family presence during resuscitation: a narrative review of the practices and views of critical care nurses

      Walker, Wendy; Gavin, Catherine (Elsevier BV, 2019-04-30)
      Background The option of family presence during resuscitation was first presented in the late 1980s. Discussion and debate about the pros and cons of this practice has led to an abundant body of international research. Aim To determine critical care nurses’ experiences of, and support for family presence during adult and paediatric resuscitation and their views on the positive and negative effects of this practice. Methods A narrative literature review of primary research published 2005 onwards. The search strategy comprised an electronic search of three bibliographic databases, supplemented by exploration of a web-based search engine and hand-searching. Results Twelve studies formed the review. Research primarily originated from Europe. The findings were obtained from a moderately small number of nurses, and their views were mostly based on conjecture. Among the factors influencing family presence during resuscitation were dominant concerns about harmful effects. There was a noticeable absence of compliance with recommended guidelines for practice, and the provision of a unit protocol or policy to assist decision-making. Conclusion A commitment to family-centred care, educational intervention and the uptake of professional guidance are recommended evidence-informed strategies to enhance nurses’ support for this practice in critical care.
    • Family work, creativity and wellbeing

      Gillam, Tony (The Meriden Family Programme, 2018-02-01)
      This article discusses the connections between family work, creativity and wellbeing. It explores, firstly, how family life is central to the wellbeing of service users and carers and how working with families enhances the wellbeing of mental health practitioners. Secondly, it highlights what can be learnt about creative practice from family therapy research, how this can help us identify the characteristics of creative mental health care in practice and how more creative mental health practice – including family interventions – might benefit services users and carers.