• E-mentoring in the School of Education

      Sutherland, Shane (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
    • Early Help Mechanisms – A Mere Fad Or A Ground Breaking Reformation To Child Protection Systems?

      Mander, S; Sturge, S (University of Wolverhampton, 2016-10)
      Early intervention and preventative work with children, young people and families is not a new phenomenon. It is authenticated, for example, through the introduction of Sure Start Local Area programmes which were initially established between 1999 and 2002 to support families with children aged 0-4 who resided in areas of disadvantage. Initially, 524 dedicated built children centres were established with a further 3,500 developed from 2007 onwards. Their core purpose (DE, 2012) provides outreach facilities, integrated early education, parenting programmes, child care and health care and family support services through early intervention, thus formally enshrining the professional relationships between the disciplines of health and education (Williams and Churchill, 2006).
    • Early prediction and psycho-immunologic mediation of minor illness in adulthood

      Bellingham-Young, Denise; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N. (National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, 2002)
      The Barker Hypothesis suggests that an unfavourable uterine environment can have the effect of programming the body for disease later in life. Research indicates a bidirectional relationship between thought and biochemical reactions, that may be influenced by early programming. Reports suggest that 25% of variance in birthweight is a result of foetal environment and that the health and cognitive deficits do not just affect those with an officially low birthweight. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the influence of birthweight on cognition and minor illness in adults. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross sectional design with an opportunity sample of 75 adults. Participants whose birthweight ranged from 2.5 kg to 4.88 kg, completed a symptom check list and general self-efficacy scale, reporting on the previous month. RESULTS: Analysis of variance indicates that those with higher birthweight have fewer minor illness symptom days and higher general self-efficacy. Regression analysis indicates that birthweight is significantly predictive of levels of minor illness and general self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: From the findings of this and previous studies, it is possible to infer vertical coactions between foetal environment and immuno competence. It is suggested that birthweight is an early predictor of levels of a cognitive mediator and minor illness. Data were applied to an equilibrium model to represent the relationship in terms of Gottlieb's concept of horizontal and vertical coactions.
    • The Early Years Pupil Premium: practitioners’ perspectives on if the funding supports ‘closing the gap’ for looked after children?

      Williams-Brown, Z (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-02-18)
      © 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. The paper investigates practitioners’ perspectives on the Early Years Pupil Premium (EYPP) and its use for looked after children (LAC) in England. The paper considers what practitioners in one Local Authority (LA) think now that the funding has passed its infancy. Specifically, does EYPP funding help ‘close the gap’ for LAC? Q-methodology was used to investigate 19 practitioners’ perspectives; all were owners or managers in 19 different settings. This approach was complemented with a questionnaire survey and focus groups held with 14 practitioners in 13 different settings in the same LA. The findings revealed that practitioners consistently focused on whether all LAC should be eligible for this funding and/or whether the funding is able to ‘close the gap’ between them and their peers. It concludes that EYPP funding can support ‘closing the gap’ for LAC with developmental delay, but its purpose needs to be clarified.
    • Earthquakes, cancer and cultures of fear: qualifying as a Skills for Life teacher in an uncertain economic climate

      O'Leary, Matt; Smith, Rob (Taylor & Francis, 2012)
      The Skills for Life (SfL) initiative followed the Moser Report (1999) and incarnated a Third Way agenda that sought to address England's perceived adult skills deficit. SfL marked a large investment in adult education but also a distinct shift to a more focused, instrumentalist role for Further Education (FE) in England. A new structure of teacher standards and qualifications underpinned this development with its own, newly devised and matriculated knowledge base. Teachers emerged from these new programmes with subject specialisms in Literacy, Numeracy and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). The landscape that these ‘new professionals' have entered is one that suggests the autonomy of colleges within a competitive market, but this disguises a funding methodology that facilitates ongoing centralised policy intervention. In the last two years policy makers have used this funding methodology to shift monies decisively towards 14-19 provision and away from adult education. This article draws on qualitative data from a study into the experiences of pre and in-service SfL teachers in the final stages of qualification. The data explore the impact of these latest movements in the FE market on these student teachers who are qualifying in some of the newest subjects in FE.
    • Eccentric exercise affects the upper limbs more than the lower limbs in position sense and reaction angle

      Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Theodorou, Anastasios; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2010)
      In this study, we investigated the effect of eccentric exercise on position sense and reaction angle of the elbow and knee flexors. Twelve males underwent two eccentric exercise sessions involving a randomized crossover design. In the first session participants used their elbow flexors and in the other session their knee flexors. Muscle damage indices, position sense, and joint reaction angle to release of the elbow and knee flexors were measured before, immediately after, and up to 7 days after exercise. Exercise induced greater muscle damage in the elbow flexors than knee flexors. Exercise disturbed position sense of the elbow and knee joint. For both limbs, the participants adopted a more extended position than the reference angle. The elbow and knee joint reaction angles to release increased after exercise for both the elbow and knee flexors. The disturbances in position sense and reaction angle after exercise were greater in the elbow flexors than knee flexors. The elbow flexors remained more accurate and faster than the knee flexors at all time points. These results may be explained by the higher density of muscle spindles and the lower innervation ratio of the elbow flexors compared with the knee flexors, as well as the fact that the arms are more accustomed than the legs to perform fast and accurate movements.
    • Economic motives to attend university: a cross-country study

      Bartram, Brendan (Taylor & Francis, 2016-10-26)
      This paper considers students’ economic motives to attend university. Drawing on selected results from a tri-national survey involving online questionnaires and interviews with students at English, German and Portuguese universities, it examines and compares this particular extrinsic motivational dimension, alongside the influence of the national economic contexts within which the students are located. The findings suggest a strong consensus across all three settings in relation to high levels of motivation driven by the students’ economic goals – careers, qualifications and future income – irrespective of background variables and fee structures. An exploration of the impact of the broader economic climate, however, reveals a more fragmented picture. The differences revealed between national settings offer tentative evidence that the students’ perceptions of their country’s economic situation does have a differential impact on their decision to take up university studies.
    • Education and social work working collaboratively to support vulnerable families: benefits and tensions

      Jopling, Michael; Vincent, Sharon; Williams-Brown, Zeta; Mander, Sarah; Williams-Brown, Zeta; Mander, Sarah (Routledge, 2020-10-29)
      This chapter examines two innovative programmes aimed at improving support and provision for vulnerable families, and promoting their well-being and resilience. It focuses on the benefits, tensions and challenges associated with the inter-agency collaboration, which was central to the two programmes and, arguably, all effective support for vulnerable children, young people and families. After a brief discussion of the term “vulnerable” and inter-agency collaboration, we focus on what our research into the programmes told us about how education and social work professionals collaborate both with each other and (less commonly) with the families with whom they work, both of which are relatively unexplored areas.
    • Education in Scotland

      Matheson, David; Fulton, David; Matheson, David (Routledge, 2014-08)
      An Introduction to the Study of Education provides a comprehensive and reflective introduction to the study of education, inviting students to question what education is, who it is for and what purpose it serves. Taking the reader from the early years through to lifelong learning, it examines all forms of education and learning.
    • Education is associated with lower levels of abdominal obesity in women with a non-agricultural occupation: an interaction study using China's Four Provinces survey.

      Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Chen, Ruoling; Shipley, Martin J; Marmot, Michael G (Biomed Central, 2013-08-21)
      The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their populations become exposed to obesogenic environments. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial and service-based economy results in important lifestyle changes. Yet different socioeconomic groups may experience and respond to these changes differently. Investigating the socioeconomic distribution of obesity in LMICs is key to understanding the causes of obesity but the field is limited by the scarcity of data and a uni-dimensional approach to socioeconomic status (SES). This study splits socioeconomic status into two dimensions to investigate how educated women may have lower levels of obesity in a context where labour market opportunities have shifted away from agriculture to other forms of employment. The Four Provinces Study in China 2008/09 is a household-based community survey of 4,314 people aged ≥60  years (2,465 women). It was used to investigate an interaction between education (none/any) and occupation (agricultural/non-agricultural) on high-risk central obesity defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm. An interaction term between education and occupation was incorporated in a multivariate logistic regression model, and the estimates adjusted for age, parity, urban/rural residence and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, meat and fruit & vegetable consumption). Complete case analyses were undertaken and results confirmed using multiple imputation to impute missing data. An interaction between occupation and education was present (P = 0.02). In the group with no education, the odds of central obesity in the sedentary occupation group were more than double those of the agricultural occupation group even after taking age group and parity into account (OR; 95%CI: 2.21; 1.52, 3.21), while in the group with any education there was no evidence of such a relationship (OR; 95%CI: 1.25; 0.92, 1.70). Health behaviours appeared to account for some of the association. These findings suggest that education may have a protective role in women against the higher odds of obesity associated with occupational shifts in middle-income countries, and that investment in women's education may present an important long term investment in obesity prevention. Further research could elucidate the mechanisms behind this association.
    • Education, study of

      Matheson, David (Sage, 2018)
    • Effect of a booster dose of influenza vaccine in patients with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant recipients: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

      Liao, Zhengfa; Xu, Xiaojia; Liang, Yaping; Xiong, Yongzhen; Chen, Ruoling; Ni, Jindong (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-26)
      Booster influenza vaccination has been recommended for patients with chronic renal disease in order to enhance the immune response to the influenza vaccine; however, the efficacy of a booster influenza vaccination is a matter of controversy. Therefore, we made a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy in patients with hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and renal transplant recipient (RT). The sero-protection rate was used as a serologic parameter to describe the immune response to the vaccine. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate the pooled rate difference (RD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled RD for the H1N1, H3N2 and B influenza vaccines was 0.02 (95% CI: −0.02–0.06), 0.05 (95% CI: −0.01–0.11), 0.04 (95% CI: −0.02–0.10), respectively. We concluded that a booster dose of the influenza vaccine did not effectively enhance immunogenicity. Therefore, a booster dose of vaccine is not recommended for patients with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant recipients.
    • The Effect of a Comprehensive Injury Audit Program on Injury Incidence in Ballet: A 3-Year Prospective Study.

      Allen, Nick; Nevill, Alan M.; Brooks, John H M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013-04-03)
      OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to determine whether an intervention with individualized conditioning program based on injury history and functional movement screening would be effective in reducing ballet injury incidence. DESIGN:: Prospective 3-year epidemiological study. SETTING:: Professional Ballet Company and its in-house medical facility. PARTICIPANTS:: Dancers from a professional ballet company over the 3-year study period. Participant numbers ranged from 52 to 58 (year 1: 52; year 2: 58; year 3: 53). INTERVENTIONS:: The intervention consisted of individual conditioning programs developed using injury history and functional movement screening. Analysis was undertaken of the all dancers who were present in the company during the study period. The significance of change in injuries over a 3-year period was determined using a Poisson distribution model. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:: To determine whether individual conditioning programs resulted in a decrease in injury incidence over the study period. RESULTS:: The injury count reduced significantly in years 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). Injury incidence for male dancers declined from year 1 (in year/1000 h) (4.76/1000 h) to year 2 (2.40/1000 h) and year 3 (2.22/1000 h). For women, a reduction in the injury incidence was observed from year 1 (4.14/1000 h) to year 2 (1.71/1000 h) and year 3 (1.81/1000 h). CONCLUSIONS:: Through prospective injury surveillance, we were able to demonstrate the benefit of individualized conditioning programs based on injury history and functional movement screening in reducing injuries in ballet. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:: The implementation of well-structured injury surveillance programs can impact on injury incidence through its influence on intervention programs.
    • Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children.

      Gorely, Trish; Nevill, Mary E.; Morris, John G.; Stensel, David J.; Nevill, Alan M. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2009)
      Background: Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method: A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control). Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks); a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results: Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day), their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change) and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase). A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion: The intervention produced positive changes in physical activity levels and body composition. It appeared to have little or no effect on consumption of fruit and vegetables. Schools are a suitable setting for the promotion of healthy lifestyles although more work, particularly focussed on dietary change, is needed in a variety of schools and social settings.
    • The effect of elevated muscle pain on neuromuscular fatigue during exercise

      Norbury, Ryan; Smith, Samuel A.; Burnley, Mark; Judge, Megan; Mauger, Alexis R.; Endurance Research Group, School of Sports and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, Chipperfield Building, Canterbury Campus, Canterbury, CT2 7NZ, Kent, UK. (Springer, 2021-09-29)
      Purpose: Muscle pain can impair exercise performance but the mechanisms for this are unknown. This study examined the effects of muscle pain on neuromuscular fatigue during an endurance task. Methods: On separate visits, twelve participants completed an isometric time-to-task failure (TTF) exercise of the right knee extensors at ~ 20% of maximum force following an intramuscular injection of isotonic saline (CTRL) or hypertonic saline (HYP) into the vastus lateralis. Measures of neuromuscular fatigue were taken before, during and after the TTF using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation. Results: The mean pain intensity was 57 ± 10 in HYP compared to 38 ± 18 in CTRL (P < 0.001). TTF was reduced in HYP (4.36 ± 0.88 min) compared to CTRL (5.20 ± 0.39 min) (P = 0.003). Maximum voluntary force was 12% lower at minute 1 (P = 0.003) and 11% lower at minute 2 in HYP (P = 0.013) compared to CTRL. Voluntary activation was 4% lower at minute 1 in HYP compared to CTRL (P = 0.006) but not at any other time point (all P > 0.05). The TMS silent period was 9% longer at 100 s during the TTF in HYP compared to CTRL (P = 0.026). Conclusion: Muscle pain reduces exercise performance through the excacerbation of neuromuscular fatigue that is central in origin. This appears to be from inhibitory feedback from group III/IV nociceptors which acts to reduce central motor output.
    • The effect of ethnicity on the vascular responses to cold exposure of the extremities

      Maley, MJ; Eglin, CM; House, JR; Tipton, MJ; Extreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 2ER, UK, matthew.maley@port.ac.uk. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-08-01)
      © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Purpose: Cold injuries are more prevalent in individuals of African descent (AFD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extremity cooling on skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature (Tsk) between ethnic groups.Methods: Thirty males [10 Caucasian (CAU), 10 Asian (ASN), 10 AFD] undertook three tests in 30 °C air whilst digit Tsk and SkBF were measured: (i) vasomotor threshold (VT) test—arm immersed in 35 °C water progressively cooled to 10 °C and rewarmed to 35 °C to identify vasoconstriction and vasodilatation; (ii) cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) test—hand immersed in 8 °C water for 30 min followed by spontaneous warming; (iii) cold sensitivity (CS) test—foot immersed in 15 °C water for 2 min followed by spontaneous warming. Cold sensory thresholds of the forearm and finger were also assessed.Results: In the VT test, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation occurred at a warmer finger Tsk in AFD during cooling [21.2 (4.4) vs. 17.0 (3.1) °C, P = 0.034] and warming [22.0 (7.9) vs. 12.1 (4.1) °C, P = 0.002] compared with CAU. In the CIVD test, average SkBF during immersion was greater in CAU [42 (24) %] than ASN [25 (8) %, P = 0.036] and AFD [24 (13) %, P = 0.023]. Following immersion, SkBF was higher and rewarming faster in CAU [3.2 (0.4) °C min−1] compared with AFD [2.5 (0.7) °C min−1, P = 0.037], but neither group differed from ASN [3.0 (0.6) °C min−1]. Responses to the CS test and cold sensory thresholds were similar between groups.Conclusion: AFD experienced a more intense protracted finger vasoconstriction than CAU during hand immersion, whilst ASN experienced an intermediate response. This greater sensitivity to cold may explain why AFD are more susceptible to cold injuries.
    • Effect of exercise on postprandial endothelial function in adolescent boys.

      Sedgwick, Matthew J; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E; Tolfrey, Keith; Nevill, Alan M.; Barrett, Laura A (2013-07)
    • Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

      Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, Alan M. (2013-12-22)
      Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals.
    • Effect of force plate coverings on vertical ground reaction forces

      Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Smith, Tina (International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology, 2018-06-30)
    • The effect of HVP training in vowel perception on bilingual speech production

      Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria (Consentia Beam, 2021-03-10)
      Prior investigations (Giannakopoulou et al., 2013) have indicated high variability phonetic training intervention can help L2 English adult learners change the perception of vowels such that they shift their attention to primary cues (spectral features) rather than secondary cues (e.g. duration) to correctly identify vowels in L2. This experiment explores if high-variability training impacts on L2 adult learners’ production of L2 speech. Production samples from a prior experiment were used to conduct ratings of accuracy (Giannakopoulou, 2012). In the current experiment, the production samples were transcribed and rated for accuracy by twenty native English listeners. The intelligibility levels of L2 learners’ speech samples as indexed by higher accuracy in transcription were observed as having been rated higher following training than prior to training. The implications of the results are considered with regard to theories on the connection between speech production and perception, and Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model.