• Dance as an eccentric form of exercise: practical implications.

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Kitas, George D; Paschalis, Vassilis; Koutedakis, Yiannis (2012-06)
      The eccentric action is an integral part of the stretch-shortening (or eccentric-concentric) cycle of muscle movement, especially when repositioning of the centre of gravity is required. Jumps and landing tasks are examples of this cycle and are incorporated in most dance activities. However, unaccustomed eccentric muscle action can cause muscle damage, which is characterised by the development of delayed-onset muscle soreness and swelling, decline of pain-free range of motion, as well as sustained loss of muscle force and range of motion. Furthermore, unaccustomed eccentric muscle action can induce disturbances in movement economy and energy expenditure, so dancers spend more energy during a routine than usual. Such negative effects are gradually reduced and eventually disappear due to physiological adaptations to this form of muscular activity. Given that eccentric exercises also appear to induce greater muscle performance improvements than other forms of muscle conditioning, it is advised that they should be integrated into dancers' weekly schedules. The purpose of the present review is to examine the possible effects of the eccentric component of dance on the performance and health status of dancers.
    • Dance biomechanics: a tool for controlling health, fitness, and training.

      Koutedakis, Yiannis; Owolabi, Emmanuel O.; Apostolos, Margo (J. Michael Ryan, 2008)
      The need for superior performance in dance has impelled teachers and choreographers to use increasingly effective and sophisticated methods of preparation. To that end, such modalities ofbiomechanics as advanced motion-capture, muscle-function and muscle-strength techniques are being used to provide useful information about which of the dancers' needs require special attention. This often involves improving aspects of dance technique, which, in turn, may help dancers to prevent disabling injuries, the most frequent cause of notoriously short dance careers. Biomechanics may also help dancers to assess fitness levels, to control overtraining or "burnout," and assist them and their teachers in the effective scheduling of practice and exercise sessions.
    • Dance floor mechanical properties and dancer injuries in a touring professional ballet company.

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Allen, Nick; Hopper, Luke S; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Elliott, Bruce C; Ackland, Timothy R (2014-01)
      The mechanical properties of the floors used by dancers have often been suggested to be associated with injury, yet limited etiological evidence is available to support this hypothesis. The dance floors at three theatres regularly used by a touring professional ballet company were mechanically quantified with the aim of comparing floor properties with injury incidence in dancers.
    • Dancers’ heart: Cardiac screening in elite dancers

      Metsios, George; Wyon, Matthew; Patel, Kiran; Allen, Nick; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Taylor & Francis, 2019-10-10)
      Using electrocardiography and echocardiography, we screened elite men and women ballet dancers for abnormal cardiovascular conditions using an observation design with blinded clinical analysis of cardiac function tests. Fifty-eight (females n=33) elite professional ballet dancers (age: 26.0±5.7 years, body mass index: 19.9±2.2 kg/m2) with no past or present history of cardio vascular disease volunteered. Participants were assessed via a 12-lead electrocardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography for cardiac function. Electrocardiography revealed that 83% of our dancers demonstrated normal axis, while 31% had incomplete right bundle branch block and 17% had sinus bradycardia; none showed any abnormal findings. Findings from the echocardiography were also normal for all participants and comparable to their counterparts in other sports. Significant differences (p<0.05) were detected in almost all studied echocardiographic parameters between males and females. In conclusion, heart function and structure seem to be normal in elite ballet dancers, placing them at low risk for sudden cardiac death and performance-related cardiovascular complications. Larger samples are required to confirm these findings.
    • The dangers of estimating V˙O2max using linear, nonexercise prediction models

      Nevill, Alan M.; Cooke, Carlton B (American College of Sports Medicine, 2016-12-01)
      Purpose This study aimed to compare the accuracy and goodness of fit of two competing models (linear vs allometric) when estimating V˙O2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) using nonexercise prediction models. Methods The two competing models were fitted to the V˙O2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) data taken from two previously published studies. Study 1 (the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey) recruited 1732 randomly selected healthy participants, 16 yr and older, from 30 English parliamentary constituencies. Estimates of V˙O2max were obtained using a progressive incremental test on a motorized treadmill. In study 2, maximal oxygen uptake was measured directly during a fatigue limited treadmill test in older men (n = 152) and women (n = 146) 55 to 86 yr old. Results In both studies, the quality of fit associated with estimating V˙O2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) was superior using allometric rather than linear (additive) models based on all criteria (R2, maximum log-likelihood, and Akaike information criteria). Results suggest that linear models will systematically overestimate V˙O2max for participants in their 20s and underestimate V˙O2max for participants in their 60s and older. The residuals saved from the linear models were neither normally distributed nor independent of the predicted values nor age. This will probably explain the absence of a key quadratic age2 term in the linear models, crucially identified using allometric models. Not only does the curvilinear age decline within an exponential function follow a more realistic age decline (the right-hand side of a bell-shaped curve), but the allometric models identified either a stature-to-body mass ratio (study 1) or a fat-free mass-to-body mass ratio (study 2), both associated with leanness when estimating V˙O2max. Conclusions Adopting allometric models will provide more accurate predictions of V˙O2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) using plausible, biologically sound, and interpretable models.
    • Data for development: shifting research methodologies for Covid-19

      Traxler, John; Smith, Matt (Commonwealth of Learning, 2020-11-20)
      Successful and appropriate informal digital learning can help individuals and communities build sustainable and meaningful livelihoods, strengthen social cohesion and resilience, preserve and enhance cultural traditions and engage constructively and robustly with the wider world. Building digital learning that embodies participative and collaborative development and community ownership and control rests on the work of educators who understand these individuals and communities and their cultures, which may be very distant and different from global norms and the mainstream of their countries. These educators may however be reliant on research tools and techniques that are inappropriate or inadequate in these different settings and situations. This paper sets out a brief critique of these established tools and techniques as the prelude to reviewing a range of more innovative and eclectic ones drawn from a variety of disciplines. This is timely because COVID-19 has increased the barriers that separate educators from would-be learners whilst also increasing the education that these people and communities need.
    • Death by effectiveness: Exercise as medicine caught in the efficacy trap!

      Beedie, C; Mann, S; Jimenez, A; Kennedy, L; Lane, AM; Domone, S; Wilson, S; Whyte, G; Department of Psychology, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, Wales, UK ukactive Research Institute, London, UK. (BMJ, 2016-03-02)
      Sport and Exercise Medicine (SEM) has had a good run. For a while it was the low-cost magic bullet. With efficacy demonstrated in study after study, the conclusion was clear: ‘Exercise is Medicine’, a potential public health panacea. Sadly, the early promise waned. While we continue to be bombarded by original research and reviews extoling the efficacy of exercise, there is an apparent dearth of evidence of its effectiveness. This fact is highlighted in 2014 reports from the UK Government and Public Health England.
    • Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

      Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis (Springer, 2014-02)
      Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.
    • Defining expertise in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy

      Roskell, Carolyn; Cross, Vinette (2001)
      This study attempted to define expertise in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy to inform future development of the speciality. A Delphi technique was used to elicit clinicians’ perceptions of expert cardiorespiratory practice. There was good consensus within and between groups on category selection, which provided a framework for exploration of tacit skills under categories supplied by respondents.
    • Defining instances and limbs during performance of the standing turn

      Smith, Tina; Strike, Siobhan (Elsevier, 2017-05-12)
      Conventions have been reported to describe walking and turning gait. No such descriptions appear for the 180° standing turn and as such there are inconsistencies in the literature reporting on this movement. The complexity of explaining the standing turning motion, variation in number of steps when turning, and differing strategies used means conventions will make research reporting easier to comprehend and less likely for errors in interpretation. We propose definitions of the 180° standing turning motion and steps used to complete a turn for able-bodied and pathological populations to encourage consistency in reporting. It is recommended that the definitions be applied in future research on standing turns.
    • Defying geometric similarity: Shape centralization in male UK offshore workers.

      Stewart, Arthur D; Ledingham, Robert J; Furnace, Graham; Williams, Hector; Nevill, Alan M. (Wiley, 2016-11-01)
      Applying geometric similarity predictions of body dimensions to specific occupational groups has the potential to reveal useful ergonomic and health implications. This study assessed a representative sample of the male UK offshore workforce, and examined how body dimensions from sites typifying musculoskeletal development or fat accumulation, differed from predicted values.
    • Demographic and socio-economic influences on community-based care and caregivers of people with dementia in China

      Chen, Ruoling; Lang, Linda; Clifford, Angela; Chen, Yang; Hu, Zhi; Han, Thang S. (Sage, 2016-06-21)
      Background Dementia is a major public health challenge and China has the largest population with dementia in the world. However, dementia care and caregivers for Chinese are less investigated. Objectives and design To evaluate demographic and socio-economic influences on dementia care, management patterns and caregiver burden in a household community-dwelling-based survey, using participants’ care receipts and Zarit scale. Setting and participants Rural and urban communities across six provinces of China comprising 4837 residents aged ≥60 years, in whom 398 had dementia and 1312 non-dementia diseases. Results People with dementia were less likely to receive care if they were living in rural compared to urban areas (Odd ratio (OR) = 0.20; 95%CI: 0.10–0.41), having education level below compared to above secondary school (OR = 0.24; 95%CI: 0.08–0.70), manual labourer compared to non-manual workers (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.13–0.55), having personal annual income below RMB 10,000 yuan (£1000) compared to above (OR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.13–0.74) or having four or more than compared to less four children (OR = 0.52; 95%CI: 0.27–1.00). Caregivers for dementia compared with those for non-dementia diseases were younger and more likely to be patients’ children or children in-law, had lower education and spent more caring time. Caregiver burden increased with low education, cutback on work and caring for patients who were younger or living in rural areas, and this caregiver burden was three-fold greater than that for non-dementia diseases. Conclusions There are a number of inequalities in dementia care and caregiver burden in China. Reducing the socio-economic gap and increasing education may improve community care for people with dementia and preserve caregivers’ well-being.
    • Detection of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in saliva of ventilated and non-ventilated preterm neonates.

      Hayes, Julie; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Perera, Shantha; Anderson, Janet (National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, 1999)
      The very young preterm neonate has multiple immune deficiencies which may increase his or her vulnerability to infection. Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important role in the protection of epithelial surfaces exposed to the external environment; nevertheless controversy exists with regards to the ontogeny of SIgA in newborns and especially the preterm neonate. The objective was to investigate if SIgA could be detected in the saliva of very/extremely low birthweight neonates (V/ELBW). A total of 707 samples which were collected twice daily (morning and afternoon) for three consecutive days were obtained from sixty-eight preterm neonates (mean gestational age 28 weeks; conceptional age ranged from 25-35 weeks). A repeated measures design was used. Total concentration of SIgA was determined from unstimulated saliva by an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay technique. Results indicated that SIgA was detectable in the early postnatal period in the saliva of both ventilated preterms who were receiving intravenous total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and non-ventilated preterms. A 3-way repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed no significant effect from 'before' and 'after' samples during a period of spontaneous activity, time and day of sampling. A significant effect of mode of nutrition was found; neonates who were receiving expressed breast milk had significantly higher concentrations of SIgA than those infants receiving TPN (df=3, F=14.27, p<0.0001). These results have implications for the care of the preterm neonate in intensive care.
    • Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression.

      Chen, Ruoling; Hu, Zhi; Chen, Ruo-Li; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongmei; Wilson, Kenneth (Cambridge University Press, 2013-09-01)
      Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression have been not well studied. To investigate risk factors for undetected dementia and depression in older communities. Using the method of the 10/66 algorithm, we interviewed a random sample of 7072 participants aged ≥60 years in six provinces of China during 2007-2011. We documented doctor-diagnosed dementia and depression in the interview. Using the validated 10/66 algorithm we diagnosed dementia (n = 359) and depression (n = 328). We found that 93.1% of dementia and 92.5% of depression was undetected. Both undetected dementia and depression were significantly associated with low levels of education and occupation, and living in a rural area. The risk of undetected dementia was also associated with 'help available when needed', and inversely, with a family history of mental illness and having functional impairment. Undetected depression was significantly related to female gender, low income, having more children and inversely with having heart disease.
    • Determinants of 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance in elite rowers

      Ingham, Stephen A.; Whyte, Gregory P.; Jones, K.; Nevill, Alan M. (Springer-Verlag, 2002)
      This study examined the physiological determinants of performance during rowing over 2,000 m on an ergometer in finalists from World Championship rowing or sculling competitions from all categories of competion rowing (19 male and 13 female heavyweight, 4 male and 5 female lightweight). Discontinuous incremental rowing to exhaustion established the blood lactate threshold, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max)and power at VO2max; five maximal strokes assessed maximal force, maximal power and stroke length. These results were compared to maximal speed during a 2,000 m ergometer time trial. The strongest correlations were for power at VO2max, maximal power and maximal force (r=0.95; P<0.001). Correlations were also observed for VO2max (r=0.88, P<0.001) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at the blood lactate threshold (r=0.87, P=0.001). The physiological variables were included in a stepwise regression analysis to predict performance speed (metres per second). The resultant model included power at VO2max, VO2 at the blood lactate threshold, power at the 4 mmolÆl–1 concentration of blood lactate and maximal power which together explained 98% of the variance in the rowing performance over 2,000 m on an ergometer. The model was validated in 18 elite rowers, producing limits of agreement from –0.006 to 0.098 mÆs–1 for speed of rowing over 2,000 m on the ergometer, equivalent to times of – 1.5 to 6.9 s (–0.41% to 1.85%). Together, power at VO2max, VO2 at the blood lactate threshold, power at 4 mmolÆl–1 blood lactate concentration and maximal power could be used to predict rowing performance.
    • Determinants of 800-m and 1500-m Running Performance Using Allometric Models

      Ingham, Stephen A.; Whyte, Gregory P.; Pedlar, Charles R.; Bailey, David M.; Dunman, Natalie; Nevill, Alan M. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2008)
      Purpose: To identify the optimal aerobic determinants of elite, middle-distance running (MDR) performance, using proportional allometric models. Methods: Sixty-two national and international male and female 800-m and 1500-m runners undertook an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Mean submaximal running economy (ECON), speed at lactate threshold (speedLT), maximum oxygen uptake (V˙ O2max), and speed associated with V˙ O2max (speedV˙ O2max) were paired with best performance times recorded within 30 d. The data were analyzed using a proportional power-function ANCOVA model. Results: The analysis identified significant differences in running speeds with main effects for sex and distance, with V˙ O2max and ECON as the covariate predictors (P G 0.0001). The results suggest a proportional curvilinear association between running speed and the ratio (V˙ O2maxIECONj0.71)0.35 explaining 95.9% of the variance in performance. The model was cross-validated with a further group of highly trained MDR, demonstrating strong agreement (95% limits, 0.05 T 0.29 mIsj1) between predicted and actual performance speeds (R 2 = 93.6%). The model indicates that for a male 1500-m runner with a V˙ O2max of 3.81 LIminj1 and ECON of 15 LIkmj1 to improve from 250 to 240 s, it would require a change in V˙ O2max from 3.81 to 4.28 LIminj1, an increase of $0.47 LIminj1. However, improving by the same margin of 10 s from 225 to 215 s would require a much greater increase in V˙ O2max, from 5.14 to 5.85 LIminj1 an increase of $0.71 LIminj1 (where ECON remains constant). Conclusion: A proportional curvilinear ratio of V˙ O2max divided by ECON explains 95.9% of the variance in MDR performance.
    • Determinants of Fatigue after First-Ever Ischemic Stroke during Acute Phase

      Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Jia-Ji; Wang, Pei-Xi; Wang, Shan-Shan (PLoS One, 2014-10-10)
    • Determinants of fish consumption in older people: a community-based cohort study

      Bakre, Aishat; Song, Yiqing; Clifford, Angela; Chen, Anthony; Smith, Tina; Wan, Yuhui; Devlin, Linda; Tang, James; Zhou, Weiju; Danat, Isaac M; et al. (Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice, 2018-11-19)
      Objectives: Habitual fish consumption and its determinants in older people have not been well investigated. We addressed these issues through a population-based cohort study. Methods: In 2001-2003 we interviewed a random sample of 3336 residents aged ≥60 years in China, documenting socioeconomic status (SES) and disease risk factors. In 2007-2009 we re-interviewed 1757 survivors, additionally surveying average self-reported intake of fish over the past two years. Results: Of 1757 participants, 1697 responded to the fish consumption questionnaire; 23.0% of whom had “never eat” fish, 43.4% “once a week”, 26.9% “more than twice a week”, and 6.7% “≥once a day”. There was an inverse association of fish consumption with older age (multivariate adjusted odds ratio 0.64 [95% CI 0.45-0.92] and 0.35 [0.24-0.52] at ages of 75-79, and ≥80 years), female gender (0.63, 0.47-0.84), smoking (0.65, 0.48-0.88), living in a rural area (0.10, 0.07-0.15), having educational level of ≤primary school (0.10, 0.05-0.19), occupation of peasant (0.08, 0.05-0.14), low income (0.11, 0.07-0.18), financial difficulties (0.25, 0.18-0.34), being never married/divorced (0.48, 0.28-0.81), having undetected hypertension (0.71, 0.55-0.91), depression (0.50, 0.29-0.84) and dementia (0.64, 0.41-0.98). However, participants with central obesity and heart disease at baseline had increased odds of fish consumption. Separate data analysis for different levels of fish consumption showed a dose-response trend for these associations. Conclusion: In older Chinese, there are large socioeconomic inequalities, and certain lifestyle, psychosocial factors and health-related conditions are strong determinants of fish consumption. Such information is important for future development or refinement of effective dietary interventions targeting older adults.
    • Determining pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers: A systematic review

      Hough-Coles, Kelly; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-09-15)
      Dancing 'en pointe' is an integral aspect of ballet for female dancers who start pointe training in young adolescence. The primary objective of this review was to investigate the screening tests used to determine pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers, and the secondary objective was to determine the injuries associated with pointe training. The search engines Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were mined using Medical Subject Heading terms "pointe", "pointe readiness", "injury", "young", "adolescent", "female", "dancer" and a manual search of relevant articles was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: females; aged 8-20 years; pre-pointe, training en pointe; pointe-related injury. Search strategy followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The following data were extracted; first author, year of publication, study design, participant size, mean age, testing, outcome, and general notes of each study. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Research Triangle Institute Item Bank (RTI-IB). Eight cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggested topple, airplane, sauté, and relevé tests are statistically better determinants of pointe readiness than chronological age alone. Utilising these methods alongside age, strength, body maturation, range of motion (ROM), and teacher evaluation could provide an all-round insight into a dancer's readiness for pointe. However, the included studies had contradictory outcomes with regards to pointe-related injury and the review's conclusions are limited by methodological design.
    • Developing a basic principles model to inform threshold concepts of public health

      Bellingham-Young, Denise (Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement, 2015-04)
      Education and training is the foundation stone of effective and sustainable improvement in any discipline; public health and social care is no exception. This short communication offers suggestions for a model of public health practice to support educators, trainers and practitioners in developing and continually improving their skill.