• Can a rules-based model illuminate resilience mechanisms?

      Lewis, Lydia; Ecclestone, Kathryn; Lund, Peter (Pedagogy in Practice, 2015-06)
      Purpose: To set out a rules-based model for resilience from bioscience and to explore its translation for helping to illuminate the mechanisms through which resilience operates in the context of children and young people’s wellbeing and for critical evaluative research into interventions in this area. Design: The theoretical model is applied to an example of a school-based social and emotional learning programme, ‘Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies’ (PAThS), drawing on examination of programme materials, a focus group with practitioners and existing research literature on the programme. Results: The model fitted well with the core problem-solving elements of the PAThS curriculum but less so with other aspects of the programme. It was useful for breaking down the processes involved in generating resilience in this context into a series of steps and in providing a basis for introducing critical evaluative questions about interventions. An initial critical evaluative framework for resilience interventions is proposed.
    • Can greater muscularity in larger individuals resolve the 3/4 power-law controversy when modelling maximum oxygen uptake?

      Nevill, Alan M.; Markovic, G; Vucetic, V; Holder, Roger L. (Taylor & Francis, 2004)
      BACKGROUND: The power function relationship, MR = a.m(b), between metabolic rate (MR) and body mass m has been the source of much controversy amongst biologists for many years. Various studies have reported mass exponents (b) greater than the anticipated 'surface-area' exponent 0.67, often closer to 0.75 originally identified by Kleiber. AIM: The study aimed to provide a biological explanation for these 'inflated' exponents when modelling maximum oxygen uptake (max), based on the observations from this and previous studies that larger individuals develop disproportionately more muscle mass in the arms and legs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A cross-sectional study of 119 professional soccer players from Croatia aged 18-34 was carried out. RESULTS: Here we confirm that the power function relationship between max and body mass of the professional soccer players results in an 'inflated' mass exponent of 0.75 (95% confidence interval from 0.56 to 0.93), but also the larger soccer players have disproportionately greater leg muscle girths. When the analysis was repeated incorporating the calf and thigh muscle girths rather than body mass as predictor variables, the analysis not only explained significantly more of the variance in max, but the sum of the exponents confirmed a surface-area law. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the pitfalls of fitting body-mass power laws and suggest using muscle-girth methodology as a more appropriate way to scale or normalize metabolic variables such as max for individuals of different body sizes.
    • Can I help you? Information sharing in online discussion forums by people living with a long-term condition.

      Bond, Carol; Ahmed, Osman Hassan (BCS, 2016-11-10)
      Background Peer-to-peer health care is increasing, especially amongst people living with a long-term condition. How information is shared is, however, sometimes of concern to health care professionals. Objective This study explored what information is being shared on health-related discussion boards and identified the approaches people used to signpost their peers to information. Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis methodology to explore information shared on discussion boards for people living with diabetes. Whilst there is debate about the best ethical lens to view research carried out on data posted on online discussion boards, the researchers chose to adopt the stance of treating this type of information as “personal health text”, a specific type of research data in its own right. Results Qualitative content analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used to analyse the selected posts. Two major themes were identified: ‘Information Sharing from Experience’ and ‘Signposting Other Sources of Information’. Conclusions People were actively engaging in information sharing in online discussion forums, mainly through direct signposting. The quality of the information shared was important, with reasons for recommendations being given. Much of the information sharing was based on experience, which also brought in information from external sources such as health care professionals and other acknowledged experts in the field. With the rise in peer-to-peer support networks, the nature of health knowledge and expertise needs to be redefined. People online are combining external information with their own personal experiences and sharing that for others to take and develop as they wish.
    • Can inspectors really improve the quality of teaching in the PCE sector? Classroom observations under the microscope

      O'Leary, Matt (Taylor & Francis, 2006)
      For some years now, teachers in the post compulsory sector have been lambasted in educational circles for what some perceive as the poor quality of teaching and learning in classrooms. Such criticisms have tended to emanate from those responsible for inspecting the sector’s provision. In fact, when Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) and the ALI (Adult Learning Inspectorate) took over responsibility from the FEFC (Further Education Funding Council) for post compulsory inspections, it made it clear that as part of its remit, it would endeavour to bring about an overall improvement in the standards of teaching and learning in classrooms. This ‘improvement’ was to be based significantly on the strengths and weaknesses identified by inspectors in classroom observations. This paper examines the role that classroom observation has to play as a tool for teacher assessment and development in external inspections and similar schemes within the post compulsory sector. It is argued throughout that current models of classroom observation, which typically involve some form of appraisal or assessment of the teacher’s performance, run contrary to the principles of teacher development and as such do little to improve the overall quality of teacher performance. The position postulated in this paper is that such approaches to observation tend to induce a culture of negatively charged emotions and focus on the more trivial features of teaching. Furthermore, instead of providing teachers with the opportunity to develop their own ability to reflect on, and assess, their teaching, they tend to rely too heavily on the subjective judgements of inspectors/observers. In conclusion, this paper contests that if future classroom observation schemes are serious about improving the standards of teaching and learning in the post compulsory sector, then they must move towards a more equitable model in which both teachers and learners themselves are actively involved in the process of assessment.
    • Can Serial Rapists be Distinguished from One-off Rapists?

      Slater, Chelsea; Woodhams, Jessica; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Chelsea Slater, School of Psychology, Frankland Building; University of Birmingham; Edgbaston Birmingham B15 2TT UK; University of Birmingham; UK; University of Birmingham; UK (Wiley, 2014-03)
      There are investigative advantages to being able to determine early in a police investigation whether a rape has been committed by a serial or one-off rapist. Previous research has found some differences in the crime-scene behaviours of serial and one-off rapists, however, this research suffers from the limitation of utilising a sample of rapes within which there was a mixture of victim-offender relationships. To address this limitation, this study sampled 38 serial (two or more convictions) and 50 one-off (one conviction) stranger rapists and compared their crime scene behaviour across four domains (control, sex, escape and style behaviours). Serial and one-off rapists differed in some control and sexual behaviours; in particular, in the type of victim targeted, the offence locations, methods of control and the sexual acts forced upon the victim. However, the results did not indicate a striking difference in the offending behaviour of the two groups. The implications of these findings for criminal investigations are discussed.
    • Can subthreshold summation be observed with the Ehrenstein illusion?

      Salvano-Pardieu, Veronique; Taliercio, Alain; Manktelow, Ken I.; Meigen, Thomas; Wink, Brian (Pion, 2006)
      Subthreshold summation between physical target lines and illusory contours induced by edges such as those produced in the Kanizsa illusion has been reported in previous studies. Here, we investigated the ability of line-induced illusory contours, using Ehrenstein figures, to produce similar subthreshold summation. In the first experiment, three stimulus conditions were presented. The target line was superimposed on the illusory contour of a four-arm Ehrenstein figure, or the target was presented between two dots (which replaced the arms of the Ehrenstein figure), or the target was presented on an otherwise blank screen (control). Detection of the target line was significantly worse when presented on the illusory contour (on the Ehrenstein figure) than when presented between two dots. This result was consistent for both curved and straight target lines, as well as for a 100 ms presentation duration and unlimited presentation duration. Performance was worst in the control condition. The results for the three stimulus conditions were replicated in a second experiment in which an eight-arm Ehrenstein figure was used to produce a stronger and less ambiguous illusory contour. In the third experiment, the target was either superimposed on the illusory contour, or was located across the central gap (illusory surface) of the Ehrenstein figure, collinear with two arms of the figure. As in the first two experiments, the target was either presented on the Ehrenstein figure, or between dots, or on a blank screen. Detection was better in the dot condition than in the Ehrenstein condition, regardless of whether the target was presented on the illusory contour or collinear with the arms of the Ehrenstein figure. These three experiments demonstrate the ability of reduced spatial uncertainty to facilitate the detection of a target line, but do not provide any evidence for subthreshold summation between a physical target line and the illusory contours produced by an Ehrenstein figure. The incongruence of these results with previous findings on Kanizsa figures is discussed.
    • Can the British Heart Foundation PocketCPR application improve the performance of chest compressions during bystander resuscitation: A randomised crossover manikin study

      Eaton, G.; Renshaw, J.; Gregory, P.; Kilner, T. (SAGE Publications, 2016-07-11)
      This study aims to determine whether the British Heart Foundation PocketCPR training application can improve the depth and rate of chest compression and therefore be confidently recommended for bystander use. A total of 118 candidates were recruited into a randomised crossover manikin trial. Each candidate performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 2 min without instruction or performed chest compressions using the PocketCPR application. Candidates then performed a further 2 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation within the opposite arm. The number of chest compressions performed improved when PocketCPR was used compared to chest compressions when it was not (44.28% vs 40.57%, p < 0.001). The number of chest compressions performed to the required depth was higher in the PocketCPR group (90.86 vs 66.26). The British Heart Foundation PocketCPR application improved the percentage of chest compressions that were performed to the required depth. Despite this, more work is required in order to develop a feedback device that can improve bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation without creating delay.
    • Can turnout measurements be used to predict physiotherapist-reported injury rates in dancers?

      Baker Jenkins, Jo; Wyon, Matthew A.; Nevill, Alan M. (2013-12)
      Research has suggested that dancers may be more at risk of injury when they excessively utilise non-hip components of turnout to compensate for deficits in hip external rotation when trying to achieve maximal total turnout. However, recently different measures of turnout have been cited in the literature as well as suggestions for derived variables to account for shortfalls in particular components of turnout. This study aimed to assess whether measurements of turnout can predict the number of injuries (0 or 1 injury, or 2+ injuries) over a 10-month period.
    • Can waist circumference provide a new “third” dimension to BMI when predicting percentage body fat in children? Insights using allometric modelling

      Nevill, Alan M.; Bryant, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Kate; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Chaves, Raquel; Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José; Duncan, Michael J. (Wiley, 2018-12-27)
      Introduction: Body mass index (BMI) is often criticised for not being able to distinguish between lean and fat tissue. Waist circumference (WC), adjusted for stature, is proposed as an alternative weight-status index, as it is more sensitive to changes in central adiposity. Purpose: To combine the three dimensions of height, mass and WC to provide a simple, meaningful and more accurate index associated with percentage body fat (BF%). Methods: We employed a four independent sample design. Sample 1 consisted of 551 children (320 boys) (Mean ± S.D. of age = 7.2 ± 2.0 years), recruited from London, UK. Samples 2, 3 and 4 consisted of 5387 children (2649 boys) aged 7-17 years recruited from schools in Portugal. Allometric modelling was used to identify the most effective anthropometric index associated with BF%. The data from sample 2, 3 and 4 were used to confirm and cross validate the model derived in sample 1. Results: The allometric models from all four samples identified a positive mass exponent and a negative height exponent that was approximately twice that of the mass exponent and a waist circumference exponent that was approximately half the mass exponent. Consequently, the body-shape index most strongly associated with BF% was BMI√WC. The √WC component of the new index can simply be interpreted as a WC “weighting” of the traditional BMI. Conclusions: Compared to using BMI and WC in isolation, BMI√WC could provide a more effective and equally non-invasive proxy for BF% in children that can be used in public and community health settings.
    • Can we trust “Magnitude-based inference”?

      Nevill, AM; Williams, AM; Boreham, C; Wallace, ES; Davison, GW; Abt, Grant; Lane, AM; Winter, EM (Informa UK Limited, 2018-11-04)
      Since the times and works of William Sealy Gosset (1876-1937) and Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962), imperfections of conventional null-hypothesis significance testing and in particular, use of P-values to evaluate such testing (invariably referred to as inferential statistics), have been well recognised (Wilkinson, 1999; Wasserstein and Lazar, 2016). Attempts have been made to identify alternatives. For example, Cohen's effect sizes (Cohen 1988) and region of practical equivalence procedure (ROPE) (Kruschke, 2014). A more recent alternative is magnitude-based inference (MBI) (Hopkins and Baterham, 2016) although unlike others, MBI has created considerable controversy when reporting the results of studies (almost exclusively used in the field of sport and exercise science). Instead of defining research effects as “significant” based on P-values (using traditional hypothesis testing), MBI uses terms such as “implementable” and “substantial” based on two constraints called the “risk of harm” and the “chance of benefit”. However, concerns have been raised about the MBI approach. Stanford statistician Kristin Sainani was so concerned about the consequences of using MBI that she wrote a formal analysis of the MBI method. Published in MSSE (Sainani, 2018) her paper showed that, depending on sample size and thresholds for harm/benefit, MBI produces false positive rates that can be two to six times greater than those using traditional hypothesis testing. A finding, she claims, that makes MBI less reliable.
    • Can we use the Jackson and Pollock equations to predict body density/fat of obese individuals in the 21st century?

      Nevill, Alan M.; Metsios, Giorgos S.; Jackson, A.S.; Wang, J.; Thornton, J.; Gallagher, D. (Smith-Gordon, 2008)
      Objective: Jackson and Pollock’s (JP) ground-breaking research reporting generalized body density equations to estimate body fat was carried out in the late 1970s. Since then we have experienced an ‘obesity epidemic’. Our aim was to examine whether the original quadratic equations established by Jackson and co-workers are valid in the 21st century. Methods: Reanalyzing the original JP data, an alternative, more biologically sound exponential powerfunction model for body density is proposed that declines monotonically, and hence predicts body fat to rise monotonically, with increasing skin-fold thicknesses. The model also remains positive irrespective of the subjects’ sum-of-skinfold thicknesses or age. Results: Compared to the original quadratic model proposed by JP, our alternative exponential power-function model is theoretically and empirically more accurate when predicting body fat of obese subjects (sums of skinfolds >120mm). A cross-validation study on 14 obese subjects confirmed these observations, when the JP quadratic equations under estimated body fat predicted using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) by 2.1% whereas our exponential power-function model was found to underestimate body fat by less than 1.0%. Otherwise, the agreement between the DXA fat (%) and the two models were found to be almost identical, with both coefficients of variation being 10.2%. Conclusions: Caution should be exercised when predicting body fat using the JP quadratic equations for subjects with sums of skinfolds>120 mm. For these subjects, we recommend estimating body fat using the tables reported in the present manuscript, based on the more biologically sound and empirically valid exponential power-function model.
    • Capturing personality from Facebook photos and photo-related activities: How much exposure do you need?

      Eftekhar, Azar; Fullwood, Chris; Morris, Neil (Elsevier, 2014-05-21)
      Photo-related activities are noticeably prevalent among social media users. On Facebook, users predominantly communicate visually and manage their self-presentation. Such online behaviours tend to mimic what would be expected of individuals’ offline personalities. This study sought to address the link between Facebook users’ photo-related activities and the Big Five personality traits by encoding basic Facebook visual features. Content analysis on the actual profiles (n = 115) and multiple regression analyses revealed many associations as a manifestation of users’ characteristics. For instance, Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted more photo uploads. Conscientiousness was predictive of more self-generated albums and video uploads and Agreeableness predicted the average number of received ‘likes’ and ‘comments’ on profile pictures. Additionally, the Facebook experience in interaction with the personality factors was found to be influential on the type of photo-related activity and the level of photo participation of users. The findings provide evidence that Facebook users with various personality traits set up albums and upload photos differently. Given the uses and gratification model, users adapt the construction of their profiles and manage their interactions to gratify their psychological needs on Facebook.
    • Cardio-respiratory fitness, habitual physical activity and serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in men and women

      Currie, James; Ramsbottom, Roger; Ludlow, Helen; Nevill, Alan M.; Gilder, Michael (2009)
      Short episodes of high intensity exercise transiently increase serum levels of BDNF in humans, but serum levels of BDNF at rest appear to be lower in more physically active humans with greater levels of energy expenditure. The relationship between serum BDNF concentration, cardio-respiratory fitness (Åstrand–Rhyming test estimated VO2 max) and volume of long-term, regular exercise and sporting activity (Baecke Habitual Physical Activity Index) was investigated in 44 men and women between the age range of 18–57 years. In this group an inverse relationship between resting serum BDNF concentration and measures of both estimated VO2 max (r =−0.352; P < 0.05) and long-term sporting activity (r =−0.428, P < 0.01) was found. These results indicate that increased levels of cardio-respiratory fitness and habitual exercise are associated with lower resting levels of serum BDNF in healthy humans. This is the first study to demonstrate an inverse relationship between a physiological estimate of cardio-respiratory fitness and serum BDNF.
    • Cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following exposure to a typical smoking environment.

      Flouris, Andreas D.; Metsios, Giorgos S.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (BMJ Publishing Group, 2010)
      OBJECTIVE: Millions of non-smokers suffer daily passive smoking (PS) at home or at work, many of whom then have to walk fast for several minutes or climb a few sets of stairs. We conducted a randomised single-blind crossover experiment to assess the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following PS. DESIGN: Data were obtained from 17 (eight women) non-smoking adults during and following 30 minutes of moderate cycling administered at baseline and at 0 hour, 1 hour and 3 hours following a 1-hour PS exposure set at bar/restaurant PS levels. RESULTS: We found that PS was associated with a 36% and 38.7% decrease in mean power output in men and women, respectively, and that this effect persisted up to 3 hours (p<0.05). Moreover, at 0 hour almost all cardiorespiratory and immune variables measured were markedly reduced (p<0.05). For instance, FEV(1) values at 0 hour dropped by 10.2% in men and 10.8% in women, while IL-5 increased by 59.2% in men and 44% in women, respectively (p<0.05). At 3-hour mean values of respiratory quotient, mean power, perceived exertion, cotinine, FEV(1), IL-5, IL-6 and INFgamma in both sexes, recovery diastolic and mean arterial pressure, IL-4 and TNFalpha in men, as well as percentage predicted FEV(1) in women remained different compared to baseline (p<0.05). Also, some of the PS effects were exacerbated in less fit individuals. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that 1 hour of PS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the response to moderate physical activity in healthy non-smokers for at least 3 hours following PS.
    • Cardiorespiratory fitness and activity explains the obesity-deprivation relationship in children

      Nevill, Alan M.; Duncan, Michael J; Lahart, Ian; Sandercock, Gavin (Oxford University Press, 2017-01-06)
      This study examined the association between obesity and deprivation in English children and whether cardiorespiratory fitness or physical activity (PA) can explain this association. Obesity was assessed using IOTF criteria in 8,398 10-16 year olds. Social deprivation was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (subdivided into 3 groups; high, mid and low deprivation). Obesity was analysed using binary logistic regression with stature, age and sex incorporated as confounding variables. Children's fitness levels were assessed using predicted VO2 max (20-metre shuttle run test) and PA was estimated using the PA Questionnaire for Adolescents or Children (PAQ). A strong association was found between obesity and deprivation. When fitness and PA were added to the logistic regression models, increasing levels in both were found to reduce the odds of obesity, although it was only by including fitness into the model that the association between obesity and deprivation disappeared. Including estimated PA into the model was found to be curvilinear. Initial increases in PA increase the odds of obesity. Only by increasing PA to exceed the 71(st) percentile (PAQ = 3.22) did the odds of being obese start to decline. In order to reduce deprivation inequalities in children's weight-status, health practitioners should focus on increasing cardiorespiratory fitness via physical activity levels in areas of greater deprivation.
    • Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in people who have rheumatoid arthritis at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study

      Sobejana, M; van den Hoek, J; Metsios, GS; Kitas, GD; Jorstad, HT; van der Leeden, M; Pijnappels, M; Lems, WF; Nurmohamed, MT; van der Esch, M; et al. (Springer, 2021-07-31)
      Lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) associate with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but the relationship between CRF and PA in people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at an increased CVD risk (CVD-RA) is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of CRF and PA in people who have CVD-RA and to investigate the association of CRF with PA in people who have CVD-RA. A total of 24 consecutive patients (19 women) with CVD-RA (> 4% for 10-year risk of fatal CVD development as calculated using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation)-were included in the study. CRF was assessed with a graded maximal exercise test determining maximal oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2max</sub>). PA was assessed with an accelerometer to determine the amount of step count, sedentary, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes per day. Mean age of patients was 65.3 ± 8.3 years. CRF mean values were 16.3 ± 1.2 ml·kg<sup>-1</sup> min<sup>-1</sup>, mean step count per day was 6033 ± 2256, and the mean MVPA time was 16.7 min per day. Significant positive associations were found for CRF with step count (B = 0.001, P = 0.01) and MVPA time (B = 0.15, P = 0.02); a negative association was found for CRF with sedentary time (B =  - 0.02, P = 0.03). CRF is low and is associated with step count, sedentary time and MVPA time in people who have RA at an increased CVD risk.
    • Cardiorespiratory fitness levels and their association with cardiovascular profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

      Koutedakis, Yiannis; Metsios, George S; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonis; Vitalis, Panagiotis; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Rouse, Peter C; Kitas, George D (Oxford Journals (OUP), 2015-07-25)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the association of different physical fitness levels [assessed by the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test] with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with RA.A total of 150 RA patients were assessed for cardiorespiratory fitness with a VO2max test and, based on this, were split in three groups using the 33rd (18.1 ml/kg/min) and 66th (22.4 ml/kg/min) centiles. Classical and novel CVD risk factors [blood pressure, body fat, insulin resistance, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), physical activity, CRP, fibrinogen and white cell count], 10-year CVD risk, disease activity (DAS28) and severity (HAQ) were assessed in all cases.Mean VO2max for all RA patients was 20.9 (s.d. 5.7) ml/kg/min. The 10-year CVD risk (P = 0.003), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.039), HDL (P = 0.017), insulin resistance and body fat (both at P < 0.001), CRP (P = 0.005), white blood cell count (P = 0.015) and fibrinogen (P < 0.001) were significantly different between the VO2max tertiles favouring the group with the higher VO2max levels. In multivariate analyses of variance, VO2max was significantly associated with body fat (P < 0.001), HDL (P = 0.007), insulin resistance (P < 0.003) and 10-year CVD risk (P < 0.001), even after adjustment for DAS28, HAQ and physical activity.VO2max levels are alarmingly low in RA patients. Higher levels of VO2max are associated with a better cardiovascular profile in this population. Future studies need to focus on developing effective behavioural interventions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in RA.
    • Cardiorespiratory measurements during field tests in CF: Use of an ambulatory monitoring system

      Bradley, Judy M.; Kent, Lisa; O'Neill, Brenda; Nevill, Alan M.; Boyle, Lesley; Elborn, J. Stuart (Wiley-Liss, 2010)
      Respiratory inductive plethysmography (e.g., LifeShirt) may offer in-depth study of the cardiorespiratory responses during field exercise tests. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability, discriminate validity, and responsiveness of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt during field exercise tests in adults with CF. To assess reliability and discriminate validity, participants with CF and stable lung disease and healthy participants performed the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Modified Shuttle Test (MST) on two occasions. To assess responsiveness, participants with CF experiencing an exacerbation performed the 6MWT at the start and end of an admission for intravenous antibiotics. The LifeShirt was worn during all exercise tests. Reliability and discriminate validity were assessed in 18 participants with CF (mean (SD) age: 26 (10) years; FEV1 %predicted: 69.2 (23)%) and 18 healthy participants (age: 24 (5) years, FEV1 %predicted: 92 (8)%). There was no difference in 6MWT and MST performance between days and reliability of cardiorespiratory measures was acceptable (bias: P > 0.05; CV < 10%). Participants with CF demonstrated a significantly greater response to exercise (e.g., ventilation, respiratory rate) compared to healthy participants indicating discriminate validity. Responsiveness was assessed in 12 participants with CF: clinical measurements and 6MWT performance improved (61 (81) min; P < 0.05) however, cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt remained the same (bias: P > 0.05; CV < 10%). This study provides evidence that cardiorespiratory responses can be measured non-invasively during field exercise tests in adults with CF. Reliability and discriminate validity of key cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt were demonstrated. Some information on responsiveness is reported.
    • Cardiorespiratory profile and performance demands of elite hip-hop dancers: Breaking and new style

      Wyon, Matthew A; Harris, Julie; Adams, Faye; Cloak, Ross; Clarke, Francis A; Bryant, Janine (Scandmed, 2018-09-01)
      Dancers need to constantly maintain and develop their physiological capabilities to support their performances. Previously these physiological demands have been investigated only in traditional dance styles such as ballet and modern. The aim of this study was to examine the physiological demands of two types of hip-hop: new style and break dance. Nine female new style dancers (age 20±6 yrs, height 163.5±1.4 cm, mass 55.8±22 kg) and 9 male break dancers (age 23±4.2 yrs, height 178.2±5.7 cm, mass 62.1±7.7 kg) volunteered for the study. Each subject completed a maximal graded treadmill test and a dance performance routine, either new style (approx 1:45-2:30 min) or breaking (2 min). Breathe-by-breathe gas analysis and heart rate (HR) were collected by a portable gas analyser, and blood lactate (BLa) was measured at the end of the treadmill test and each routine. The male breaker dancers had significantly higher VO2 peak than other equivalent dancers in other genres, whilst the female new style dancers were similar to that previously reported for female dancers. Performance data showed significant differences between the two styles for VO2, HR, and BLa (p<0.001) and for VO2 and HR relative to individual maximal treadmill data (p<0.05). New style is more comparable to other theatrical dance genres, with a lower relative mean VO2 demand, whilst break dance is shorter in duration, allowing a higher cardiorespiratory demand and generating significant levels of blood lactate. This difference is also reflected in the dancers' cardiorespiratory profiles.
    • Cardiorespiratory Training for Dancers

      Wyon, Matthew A. (2005)
      Dance performance has been classified as high-intensity intermittent exercise that utilizes the aerobic and glycolytic energy production systems. Dance class and rehearsal have been shown to inadequately stress these energy systems and supplemental training is one method of preparing the body to meet these demands. The use of interval exercise training to elicit the required training effect has been suggested and the recommended exerciseto- rest ratios are examined in relation to the underlying physiology. The training environment and frequency is also examined with regard to movement specificity and the need for peripheral adaptations to occur in appropriate muscle fibers. Finally, the levels of dancers (professional, vocational student, and recreational) are discussed in relation to the importance of supplemental training to their goals.