• A Bibliographic Review of Medicine and Science Research in DanceSport

      Wyon, Matthew; Riding-McCabe, T; Ambegaonkar, J; Redding, E (Science & Medicine, 2013-06)
      DanceSport is the competitive form of ballroom dancing, and even though it has more participants worldwide than ballet and modern dance, there is less peer-reviewed research. A review was conducted to identify all relevant literature to help researchers and clinicians gain an enhanced understanding of dancesport. Eight databases were searched, with 34 articles found in topics including participation motives, psychology, exercise physiology, fitness training, injuries and injury prevention, biomechanics, menstrual dysfunction, and substance use. Our results indicate that researchers have been inconsistently recording and reporting anthropometric and dancesport data; for example, 31 studies separated participants by gender, 21 included the competition classification of dancers, 19 reported which style of dancesport participants competed in, and 13 described the participants as a dance couple. Common injuries affected the neck, shoulder, spine, knee, lower leg, and foot. Dancesport is in the very heavy to extremely heavy category in energy expenditure (mean heart rate: male 175.2 ± 10.7, female 178.6 ± 8.6 bpm) and utilizes both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Alpha-beta and heart rate variability intervention techniques are reported to successfully enhance performance in dancers. Dancesport participants also appear less likely to smoke cigarettes, but have little knowledge about anti-doping rules. During events, professionals danced farther (30 m) and faster (0.3 m/sec) than junior dancers. Female competitors were more likely to be eumenorrheic. Dancesport is a physically and mentally demanding competitive sport, but there is a need to standardize measurements in future studies to allow comparison.
    • A brief exposure to moderate passive smoke increases metabolism and thyroid hormone secretion.

      Metsios, Giorgos S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Carrillo, A.E.; Kouretas, Dimitris; Germenis, A.E.; Gourgoulianis, K.; Kiropoulos, T.; Tzatzarakis, M.N.; Tsatsakis, A.M.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (The Endocrine Society/HighWire Press, 2007)
      CONTEXT: Active smoking influences normal metabolic status and thyroid function. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess experimentally the effects of 1 h of moderate passive smoking in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment on the metabolism and thyroid hormone levels in healthy nonsmokers. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen (nine females, nine males) healthy individuals (mean +/- sd: age, 25.3 +/- 3.1 yr; height, 174.0 +/- 10.1 cm; weight, 65.2 +/- 13.7 kg) participated in the study. DESIGN: In repeated-measures randomized blocks, participants visited the laboratory on 2 consecutive days. In the experimental condition, they were exposed to 1 h of moderate passive smoking at a carbon monoxide concentration of 23 +/- 1 ppm in an environmental chamber, whereas in the control condition participants remained in the same chamber for 1 h breathing normal atmospheric air. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In both conditions, cotinine serum and urine levels, resting energy expenditure (REE), as well as concentration of T3, free T4, and TSH were assessed before participants entered the chamber and immediately after their exit. Heart rate and blood pressure were tested in 10-min intervals during all REE assessments. RESULTS: The mean +/- sd difference of serum and urine cotinine levels (-0.27 +/- 3.94 vs. 14.01 +/- 6.54 and 0.05 +/- 2.07 vs. 7.23 +/- 3.75, respectively), REE (6.73 +/- 98.06 vs. 80.58 +/- 120.91) as well as T3 and free T4 (0.05 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.13 +/- 0.12 and 0.02 +/- 0.15 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.20) were increased in the experimental compared with the control condition at baseline and follow-up (P < 0.05). No statistically significant variation was observed in the mean difference of the remaining parameters (P > 0.05). Serum and urine cotinine values were linearly associated with REE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: One hour of passive smoking at bar/restaurant levels is accompanied by significant increases in metabolism and thyroid hormone levels.
    • A comparative study on the clinical decision making processes of nurse practitioners versus medical doctors using scenarios within a secondary care environment

      Barratt, Julian; Moorley, Calvin; Thompson, Stephen (Wiley, 2017-04-07)
      Subjects This study was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013.Aim To investigate the decision-making skills of secondary care nurse practitioners compared to those of medical doctors.Background A literature review was conducted, searching for articles published from 1990 to 2012. The review found that nurse practitioners are key to the modernisation of the National Health Service. Studies have shown that compared to doctors, nurse practitioners can be efficient and cost-effective in consultations.Design Qualitative research design. Methods The information processing theory and think-aloud approach were used to understand the cognitive processes of 10 participants (5 doctors and 5 nurse practitioners). One nurse practitioner was paired with one doctor from the same speciality, and they were compared using a structured scenario-based interview. To ensure that all critical and relevant cues were covered by the individual participating in the scenario, a reference model was used to measure the degree of successful diagnosis, management and treatment.Results The data were processed for 5 months, from July to November 2012. The two groups of practitioners differed in the number of cue acquisitions obtained in the scenarios. In our study, nurse practitioners took three minutes longer to complete the scenarios. Conclusion This study suggests that nurse practitioner consultations are comparable to those of medical doctors within a secondary care environment in terms of correct diagnoses and therapeutic treatments. The information processing theory highlighted that both groups of professionals had similar models for decision-making processes.
    • A comparison of developmental coordination disorder prevalence rates in Canadian and Greek children.

      Tsiotra, Georgia D.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Faught, Brent E.; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Andrew M.; Skenteris, Nicolaos (Elsevier BV, 2006)
      We examined whether lifestyle differences between Canadian and Greek children may be reflected in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) prevalence rates. Data revealed that the relatively inactive Greek children demonstrated higher DCD prevalence rates compared to the Canadian sample and exhibited a greater risk for clinical obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness.
    • A History of World Cup Posters 1930-2014

      Williams, Jean (Berg, 2017)
      The historical development of official World Cup posters provides a fascinating means of considering the growth of the world’s most popular sport. There are important continuities with the history of the modern Olympic Games, which were inaugurated in 1896 in Athens. From 1908 the Olympic Games staged a small but influential football tournament, out of which the World Cup eventually developed. At the London 1908 Olympic Games, the Football Association (FA) organised the competition, though it remained contested whether representative players were entirely amateur. Formed in 1863, the FA had agreed to tolerate professionalism since 1885, and the entirely professional Football League was formed in 1888. Friendly international football rivalries against other national teams has begun in 1872, and were instantly popular with spectators and the media alike.
    • A large scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment

      Hinton, Danny; Higson, Helen (PLOS, 2017-08)
      The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.
    • A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue

      Pereira, Mayara P.; Ferreira, Laís A.A.; da Silva, Flávia H.S.; Christoffolete, Marcelo A.; Metsios, George S.; Chaves, Valéria E.; de França, Suélem A.; Damazo, Amílcar S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Kawashita, Nair H. (Elsevier, 2017-05)
    • A multicentre community-based study of dementia cases and subcases in older people in China--the GMS-AGECAT prevalence and socio-economic correlates.

      Chen, Ruoling; Ma, Ying; Wilson, Ken; Hu, Zhi; Sallah, David; Wang, Jiaji; Fan, Lihua; Chen, Ruo-Li; Copeland, John R (Wiley, 2011-09-21)
      Previous studies indicated overall relatively low prevalence of dementia in older people in China, which may be biased by studied samples or methods. We determined the prevalence of dementia cases and subcases in China and examined their socio-economic correlates. Using the Geriatric Mental State interview, we examined random samples of 2917 participants aged ≥ 65 years in urban and rural Anhui, China in 2001-2003, and 3327 in four other provinces in 2008-2009. Dementia cases and subcases were diagnosed by Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy. Age-standardised prevalence for cases and subcases of dementia in the Anhui elders was 7.20% (95%CI 6.29%-8.20%) and 10.5% (9.38%-11.6%), and in the four provinces, 9.86% (8.80%-10.9%) and 8.51% (7.51%-9.52%). The matched figures among the participants who were literate were 3.05% (2.08%-4.02%) and 10.0% (8.38%-11.6%), and 4.92% (3.89%-5.96%) and 6.76% (5.55%-7.96%), respectively. There were higher prevalence rates of dementia cases and subcases in the rural elders than in the urban. Both the Anhui and four-province studies showed an obvious association of dementia with higher and lower incomes among elders who had lower educational levels or had the lowest occupational class. The highest risk of dementia was found in those who were illiterate but had the highest income or had the job of business/nonmanual labouring. People in China have a higher prevalence of dementia than previously reported. Its U-shaped relationship with income and the excess subcases prevalence predicates a significant burden of disease, both now and for the future, suggesting preventive strategy for dementia in China.
    • A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer

      Reilly, Thomas; Williams, A. Mark; Nevill, Alan M.; Franks, A. (Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2000-09)
      The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one (16 elite, 15 sub-elite) young players matched for chronological age (15± 16 years) and body size were studied. Test items included anthropometric (n = 15), physiological (n = 8), psychological (n = 3) and soccer-specific skills (n = 2) tests. Variables were split into separate groups according to somatotype, body composition, body size, speed, endurance, performance measures, technical skill, anticipation, anxiety and task and ego orientation for purposes of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function analysis. The most discriminating of the measures were agility, sprint time, ego orientation and anticipation skill. The elite players were also significantly leaner, possessed more aerobic power (9.0 ± 1.7 vs 55.5 ± 3.8 ml´kg- 1 ´min- 1) and were more tolerant of fatigue (P < 0.05). They were also better at dribbling the ball, but not shooting. We conclude that the test battery used may be useful in establishing baseline reference data for young players being selected onto specialized development programmes.
    • A National Learning Entitlement: Moving Beyond University Tuition Fees

      Tuckett, Alan (LLAKES Research Papers, 2018-01)
      The paper sets out a proposal for a National Learning Entitlement as a means of supporting all post-secondary students. The proposal takes the debate beyond the current narrow focus on university education and student debt, to a broader and more inclusive system which would encourage learning at all ages by a diverse range of students, at a lower cost than the abolition of university fees. The proposal is for a national learning entitlement which would enable free access to publicly provided, or publicly recognised, education and training for the equivalent of two years for all those aged 18 and above. It would be valid for further and adult education colleges as well as higher education. The entitlement would be pitched at around £5K per year, but could be used flexibly for part-time study, and spread over a lifetime. By going beyond university students the NLE spreads public subsidy far more equitably and efficiently. It brings into play the other 50% of the youth cohort, as well as adults who have missed out first time round. It strongly encourages diversity of provision and so matches supply better to demand. It wins on fairness, efficiency and future orientation.
    • A new quality of life consultation template for patients with venous leg ulceration

      Green, J.; Jester, R.; McKinley, R.; Pooler, A.; Mason, S.; Redsell, S.; Lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST4 6QG; Professor, Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, SE1 0AA.; Professor of Education in General Practice, Keele University Medical School, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG.; Lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST4 6QG; Clinical Lead Tissue Viability, Staffordshire and Stoke on Trent Partnership Trust, Bradwell Hospital, Chesterton, Newcastle-under-Lyme, ST5 7NJ; Professor of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Social Care & Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge (MA Healthcare Ltd, 2015-03-02)
      OBJECTIVE: Chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) are common and recurrent, however, care for patients predominantly has a focus which overlooks the impact of the condition on quality of life. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, evidence-based consultation template, with patients and practitioners, which focuses consultations on quality of life themes. METHOD: A nominal group was undertaken to develop a new consultation template for patients with CVLUs based on the findings of earlier qualitative study phases. RESULTS: A user-friendly two-sided A4 template was designed to focus nurse-patient consultations on the quality of life challenges posed by CVLUs. CONCLUSION: CVLUs impact negatively on the quality of life of the patient but this receives inadequate attention during current consultations. This new template will help to ensure that key concerns are effectively raised, explored and addressed during each consultation. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: The NHS West Midlands Strategic Health Authority funded this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
    • A Policy pathway to reducing teenage pregnancy in Africa

      Odejimi, O; Bellingham-Young, Denise (Journal of Human Growth and Development, 2014-06)
      Background: Teenage pregnancy remains an important and complex issue around the world, with reports indicating that Africa has higher rates than other continents. Studies have indicated that social and economic determinants are associated with these higher rates. Therefore this study aims to identify the social and economic influencers of teenage pregnancy which would help develop a best-practice approach to reduce its incidence in Africa. Methods: Data sets from the World Bank Organisation between 2008 and 2010 specific to 51 Africa countries were obtained to conduct this study, based on availability. Independent t-test, Spearman’s correlation and regression analysis were performed. The eight social and economic variables used in this study are: GDP per capita, GINI index, Female Literacy rate, Health expenditure, Unemployed female rate, Gender equality, Contraceptive prevalence and urban population rate. Results: Independent t-test revealed that in countries where teenage pregnancy rate is high, Literacy rate, contraceptive prevalence rate and Healthcare expenditure rate was low. Spearman correlation indicated that female literacy rate, Healthcare expenditure, GDP per capita and Contraceptive prevalence had a significant inverse relationship with teenage pregnancy rate. Logistic regression indicates that Female Literacy rate is the best predictor of teenage pregnancy in Africa. Conclusion: Result suggest that a practical approach to reduce teenage pregnancy rate in Africa is to implement strategies and policies aimed at improving female literacy rate, Health care expenditure and the GDP per capita of a country. Additionally, an increase in female literacy rate would concurrently increase Contraceptive prevalence rate.
    • A qualitative study of self-evaluation of junior doctor performance: is perceived ‘safeness’ a more useful metric than confidence and competence?

      Roland, Damian; Matheson, David; Coats, Timothy; Martin, Graham (BMJ, 2015-11-04)
      Objectives: The terms confidence and competence have been poorly defined and are often misused by junior doctors. Given safe practice relies on healthcare professionals being aware of their own skill sets improving self-assessment of confidence and competence is important. The aim of this work was to explore junior doctors’ understanding of how they perceive their own performance in respect of managing feverish children in an emergency department. Setting: A children’s emergency department in a tertiary hospital in the East Midlands, UK. Participants: 22 Junior doctors volunteered to undertake focus groups via a meta-planning methodology over 2 years (14 participants in the first year and 8 in the second). Results: Although doctors were aware of the difference between confidence and competence they were not able to distinguish between them in practical terms. The feeling of being ‘safe’ emerged as a term in which there was a shared understanding compared to reported confidence and competence. Conclusions: A perception of ‘safeness’ is a concept that may aid self-evaluation and we present a matrix that might be used by supervisors and educators to examine this and its relationship with confidence and competence.
    • A Research Note on the Influence of Relationship Length and Sex on Preferences for Altruistic and Cooperative Mates

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-04-04)
      Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one’s character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss’s Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate. We also found that although women placed greater importance on cooperativeness in a mate compared to men, this preference was not influenced by whether they were seeking a short-term or a long-term mate. We successfully replicate previous literature exploring the role of altruism in mate choice.
    • A summary of research into Knowledge Exchange and Enterprise Network (KEEN) projects. Report 2

      Boucher, David; Jones, Andrew; Lyons, Gillian; Royle, Karl; Saleem, Shazad; Simeon, Paula; Stokes, Michael (University of Wolverhampton Business Solutions, 2015-10-20)
    • A survey of engagement and competence levels in interventions and activities in a community mental health workforce in England.

      Lang, Linda; Orton, Sophie; Sallah, David; Hewitt-Moran, Teresa; Zhang, Dongmei; Cullen, Sean; Dixon, Sheila; Bell, Brian; Bell, David; Meeson, Lesley; Chen, Ruoling (Biomed Central, 2011-12-29)
      National Health Service (NHS) mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6%) and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%). The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient). There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent), Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38), Occupational therapists (3.76), Nurses (4.01), Medical staff (4.05), Social workers (4.25) and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert). These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner) and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert). In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. There was a reasonable competence level in the community-setting mental health workforce, but competence varied with professional groups and cluster activities. New staff and other non-qualified support professions need to receive efficient training, and the training content is more important than frequency to increase level of competence.
    • A systematic review and meta-analysis of lifestyle and body mass index predictors of successful assisted reproductive technologies.

      Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, S C E; van den Akker, O B A (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-27)
      Lifestyle (smoking, drinking alcohol) and body mass index (BMI) predictors of successful outcomes in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments were examined in this meta-analysis.