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Psychosocial aspects and support networks associated with disability in two longevous populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional studyBackground Among the oldest old, aged 80 years and over, the prevalence of disability is higher than in other age groups and can be considered a predictor of mortality. Objective To evaluate how psychosocial aspects and support networks influence the disability of these oldest-old individuals, performing a comparison between two longevous populations, one living in one of the poorest regions of Brazil, in the backlands of Paraíba, and another living in one of the largest urban centres in Latin America. Method A cross-sectional study in which 417 oldest-old persons aged 80 years and older were interviewed, with data collected through the “Health, Welfare and Ageing” survey conducted in two Brazilian cities. Disability was assessed by reporting the need for assistance in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Bivariate and multiple analyses were performed using R statistical software. Results Food insufficiency in the first years of life had negative repercussions on the disability of oldest old people living in the northeast. On the other hand, in this region, older people have a higher rate of support and live longer with their peers, which may contribute to reducing feelings of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and worse self-perception of health. In the Southeast, financial constraints, subjective poverty, and unmet needs may favour the development of functional limitations between long-lived people. Conclusion Our findings indicate that regional differences in Brazil may influence the disability of older people aged 80 and older. In northeast Brazil, having no partner may contribute to disability for ADLs and IADLs; while, in the longevous population of São Paulo, having a worse self-rated health may contribute to disability for IADLs.