• The effects of muscle damage following eccentric exercise on gait biomechanics.

      Paschalis, Vassilis; Giakas, Giannis; Baltzopoulos, Vassilios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Theoharis, Vassilios; Kotzamanidis, Christos; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Elsevier, 2007)
      To examine the effects of knee extensors muscle damage on walking and running biomechanics in healthy males. Muscle damage was caused by 60 (6x10) maximal eccentric knee flexions of both legs, selected in a random order, at an angular velocity of 1.05rad/s in 10 volunteers (mean age 20+/-1.0 years). Muscle damage indicators (creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), eccentric and isometric (110 degrees knee flexion) peak torque), pelvic three dimensional (3D) orientation, as well as hip, knee and ankle-joint flexion/extension angles during gait (walking at 1.2m/s and running at 2.8m/s) were assessed pre- and 48h post-eccentric exercise. All muscle damage indicators revealed significant changes post- compared to pre-exercise data (P<0.05) confirming that muscle damage did occur. Kinematic analysis revealed that muscle damage significantly decreased the knee-joint angle range of movement at the stance and swing phases during walking (P<0.05) and running (P<0.05), respectively. These changes were accompanied by corresponding increases of pelvic rotation (P<0.05) and decrease of pelvic tilt (P<0.05). The present data demonstrate that damage of knee extensors result in changes of treadmill walking and running kinematics at both knee joint and pelvis. The fact that these alterations occur at different gait phases could be attributed to the speed of movement and to a self-protection mechanism to prevent further damage.