• The effects of integrating children from lower and upper primary school years during lunch times on physical activity and social behavior

      Devonport, Tracey; Powell, Emma; Nevill, Alan; Brady, Abbe (United States Sports Academy, 2021-12-31)
      The present study examined physical activity (PA) and play behaviors of primary school children (N = 210) during segregated and mixed age group play. We hypothesised that providing more choice regarding who to play with would (1) increase PA and (2) reduce anti-social behaviors among children. In a mixed-method design, lunch time observations were recorded using the System for Observing Children’s Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP, Ridgers et al., 2010). These were completed whilst children were physically separated by lower (hereafter referred to as key-stage-one: four-seven years of age) and upper (hereafter referred to as key-stage-two: eight-11 years of age) primary year play, and following integrated age group play. Two playground supervisors and the head teacher were interviewed to ascertain perceptions of behavior under the two conditions. Observational results indicated moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased significantly for mixed play. Significant reductions in anti-social physical behaviors were also observed post-integration. Qualitative results indicate playground supervisors and the head teacher perceived increased post-integration PA to improve post lunch break classroom behavior and reduce anti-social physical and verbal behaviors. Findings illustrate the benefits of mixed age group play for increased physical activity and pro-social behaviors.
    • Postdigital artistic positionality and its potentials for cultural education

      Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      In 2002, in Culture in Bits, Gary Hall described challenges to the ‘identity’ of cultural studies, pointing to the debate between political economy and cultural studies. Rapid technological change has distracted us since, but these challenges remain. Furthermore, recent developments surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic have also revealed complex interconnections across viral biology and information science, with the global lockdown giving rise to related postdigital artistic activities. In Algorithmic Culture Ted Striphas discussed a delegation of the work of culture to computational processes, which significantly alters the practice, experience, and understanding of culture. This article examines to what extent postdigital art practices offer a form of resistance to political economic ‘illusions’ of democratic forms of public culture found across the Internet, and at which price. If humans and technology are acknowledged as part of a collaborative artistic process, can this address issues pertaining to power, exploitation, and emancipation, in our postdigital age? We conclude that when artists engage with their personal postdigital positionality, this brings such possibilities a little closer in these uncertain times.
    • Successful strategies for including adults with an intellectual disability into a research study using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (RCN Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities are not regularly recruited as participants in health research which may be due to perceptions regarding their inability to participate meaningfully with or without significant support and anticipated difficulty in gaining ethical approval because of issues around consent and mental capacity. This means that the voices of people with an intellectual disability are often missing within health research and their experiences and views are unexplored. Aim: To share successful strategies for accessing, recruiting and collecting data from a purposive sample of adults with an intellectual disability using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Discussion: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was a person-centred, flexible and creative approach to adopt. Meaningful collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities, their families, carers, advocacy group managers, specialists within intellectual disability services and research supervisors was vital to the success of conducting this study. Practical strategies for including people with an intellectual disability in a study from the perspective of a novice researcher, an outsider to the field of intellectual disability, have been shared. A limitation is that participants were not included in all stages of the research process. Conclusion: Inclusion of participants with an intellectual disability in research studies is important and achievable for healthcare researchers. A framework to support researchers outside of the specialist field of intellectual disabilities has been presented. Implications for practice: Adults with intellectual disabilities often receive poor healthcare and have poorer outcomes which is perpetuated if their input into research is not facilitated. People with intellectual disabilities make valuable contributions to the evidence base; personal views and perceptions of healthcare are important if health services are to meet individual needs.
    • The roles of motivational interviewing and self-efficacy on outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-based exercise intervention for inactive mid-older aged adults

      Rose, Catherine; Galbraith, Niall; Rose, Peter (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Increasing physical activity (PA) among inactive middle-older aged adults in rural communities is challenging. This study investigates the efficacy of a PA intervention supporting inactive adults in rural/ semi-rural communities. Inactive participants enrolled on either a single signposting session (n=427), or multi-session pathway combining signposting with motivational interviewing (MI) (n=478). Pre-post outcomes data assessed activity levels (IPAQ-S; SISEM), self-efficacy (NGSE) and well-being (WHO-5). Measures were repeated at longitudinal time points (26, 52 weeks) for the MI pathway. Outcomes were contrasted with results from an unmatched comparison group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Cost-utility (QALY-ICER) and return on investment (NHS-ROI; QALY-ROI) were estimated for short (5 years), medium (10 years) and long (25 years) time horizons. Both pathways significantly increased participants’ PA. The MI pathway resulted in significantly greater increases in PA than signposting-only and TAU. Improvements in psychological outcomes (NGSE; WHO-5) were significantly greater in the MI pathway than TAU. Longitudinal results indicated MI pathway participants sustained increases in light-intensity PA at 52 weeks (p<.001; ηp2=.16). Regression analyses found baseline self-efficacy predicted increased PA at 52 weeks, while baseline wellbeing did not. The relationship between self-efficacy and PA increased successively across time points. However, the magnitude of participants’ increased self-efficacy did not predict PA at any time point. Both pathways were cost-effective and costsaving for participants aged ≥ 61 years from the short time horizon, with the MI pathway having greater return on investment estimates. Overall, MI increased efficacy of a signposting PA intervention, and was cost-saving for older adults.
    • Talk like an expert: the construction of expertise in news comments concerning climate change

      Coen, Sharon; Meredith, Joanne; Woods, Ruth; Fernandez, Ana (SAGE, 2021-12-30)
      This paper explores how readers of UK newspapers construct expertise around climate change (CC). It draws on 300 on-line readers’ comments on news items in The Guardian, Daily Mail and The Telegraph, concerning the release of the IPCC report calling for immediate action on CC. Comments were analysed using discursive psychology. We identified a series of discursive strategies that commenters adopted to present themselves as experts in their commentary. The (mostly indirect) use of category entitlements (implicitly claiming themselves as expert) and the presentation of one’s argument as factual (based on direct or indirect technical knowledge or common sense) emerged as common ways in which readers made claims to expertise, both among the supporters and among the sceptics of CC science. Our findings indicate that expertise is a fluid concept, constructed in diverse ways, with important implications for public engagement with CC science.
    • The association between training load indices and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in elite soccer players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Comyns, Thomas; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (SAGE, 2021-06-17)
      This study aimed to investigate the association between training load indices and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) across different lag periods in elite soccer players. Internal training load was collected from 15 elite soccer players over one full season (40 weeks). Acute, chronic, Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR), Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages (EWMA) ACWR, 2, 3 and 4-week cumulative load, training strain and training monotony were calculated on a rolling weekly basis. Players completed a daily illness log, documenting any signs and symptoms, to help determine an URTI. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between training load indices and URTIs across different lag periods (1 to 7-days). The results found a significant association between 2-week cumulative load and an increased likelihood of a player contracting an URTI 3 days later (Odds Ratio, 95% Confidence Interval: OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 0.026-1.431). Additionally, a significant association was found between 3-week cumulative load and a players’ increased risk of contracting an URTI 4 days later (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.013–1.006). These results indicate that accumulated periods of high training load (2- and 3-week) associated with an increased risk of a player contracting an URTI, which may lead to performance decrements, missed training sessions or even competitions.
    • It is like ‘judging a book by its cover’: An exploration of the lived experiences of Black African mental health nurses in England

      Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2021-06-14)
      The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of perceived prejudices faced in England by Black African mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used to identify five nurses from sub-Saharan Africa. They were interviewed using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings were reported under two superordinate themes: Judging a book by its cover and opportunities. The findings showed that Black African nurses experience deep-rooted discrimination and marginalisation. Aside from that, because of their ethnicity and the fact that they speak English as a second language, they face discrimination and have difficulty achieving leadership roles. These findings provide key stakeholders, such as nursing trade unions and professional associations, as well as NHS employers, with the opportunity to act to counter hegemony in the NHS and recognise that discriminatory and racially related barriers hinder Black African nurses from reaching their full professional potential.
    • Accuracy of ECG chest electrode placements by paramedics; an observational study

      Gregory, Pete; Kilner, Tim; Lodge, Stephen; Paget, Suzy (The College of Paramedics, 2021-06-01)
      Background The use of the 12-lead ECG is common in sophisticated prehospital Emergency Medical Services but its value depends upon accurate placement of the ECG-electrodes. Several studies have shown widespread variation in the placement of chest electrodes by other health professionals but no studies have addressed the accuracy of paramedics. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the chest lead placements by registered paramedics. Methods Registered paramedics who attended the Emergency Services Show in Birmingham in September 2018 were invited to participate in this observational study. Participants were asked to place the chest electrodes on a male model in accordance with their current practice. Correct positioning was determined against the Society for Cardiological Science & Technology’s Clinical Guidelines for recording a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (2017) with a tolerance of 19mm being deemed acceptable based upon previous studies. Results 52 eligible participants completed the study. Measurement of electrode placement in the vertical and horizontal planes showed a high level of inaccuracy with 3/52 (5.8%) participants able to accurately place all chest electrodes. In leads V1 - V3, the majority of incorrect placements were related to vertical displacement with most participants able to identify the correct horizontal position. In V4, the tendency was to place the electrode too low and to the left of the pre-determined position whilst V5 tended to be below the expected positioning but in the correct horizontal alignment. There was a less defined pattern of error in V6 although vertical displacement was more likely than horizontal displacement. Conclusions Our study identified a high level of variation in the placement of chest ECG electrodes which could alter the morphology of the ECG. Correct placement of V1 improved placement of other electrodes. Improved initial and refresher training should focus on identification of landmarks and correct placement of V1.
    • Comparing individual and population differences in VE/VCO2 slopes using centile growth curves and log-linear allometry

      Nevill, Alan M; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross; Myers, Tony D (European Respiratory Society, 2021-05-27)
      Identifying vulnerable groups and/or individuals’ cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important challenge for clinicians/researchers alike. To quantify CRF accurately, the assessment of several variables is now standard practice including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and ventilatory efficiency, the latter assessed using the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope. Recently, reference values (centiles) for VE/VCO2 slopes for men and women aged 20 to 80 have been published, using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) data (treadmill protocol) from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). In the current observational study we provide centile curves for the FRIEND Registry VE/VCO2 slopes, fitted using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), to provide individuals with a more precise estimate of where their VE/VCO2 slopes fall within the population. We also confirm that by adopting allometric models (incorporating a log-transformation), the resulting ANCOVAs provided more normal and homoscedastic residuals, with superior goodness-of-fit using the Akaike information criterion AIC=14 671 (compared with traditional ANCOVA's AIC=15 008) that confirms allometric models are vastly superior to traditional ANCOVA models. In conclusion, providing sex-by-age centile curves rather than referring to reference tables for ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slopes) will provide more accurate estimates of where an individual's particular VE/VCO2 slope falls within the population. Also, by adopting allometric models researchers are more likely to identify real and valid inferences when analysing population/group differences in VE/VCO2 slopes.
    • Cyber-disability hate cases in the UK: the documentation by the police and potential barriers to reporting

      Alhaboby, Zhraa A.; Al-Khateeb, Haider M.; Barnes, James; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pitchford, Melanie; Conradie, Liesl; Short, Emma (SpringerCham, Switzerland, 2021-05-21)
      Disability hate crime is under-reported in the UK with perceived lim-ited support given to the victims. The use of online communication resulted in cyber-disability hate cases, recognised by the Police with the addition of an ‘online-flag’ in the documentation. However, the cases remain under-reported, with potential individual, societal and organisational barriers to reporting espe-cially during a pandemic. This paper aims to contextualise the reporting of cyber-disability hate cases, identify potential barriers, and provide recommendations to improve support to victims by the Police. The retrospective examination was car-ried out on disability-related cyber incidents documented by a police force in the UK for 19 months. Among 3,349 cyber-crimes, 23 cases were included. The anal-ysis covered descriptive statistics and qualitative document analysis (QDA). Only 0.7% of cyber incidents or 6.7% of cyber-hate incidents were disability re-lated. The age of victims ranged between 15 and 61 years, with a mean of 25.8 years. Most of the victims (78%) were from White ethnic background, and the majority were females (61.5%). Three overarching themes emerged from the qualitative data as influencers of reporting or documentation, these were: psy-chological impact, fear for safety, and the type of disability. Cyber-offences re-sulted in a serious impact on wellbeing, however, cases that included people with visible disabilities were more documented. Further awareness-raising targeting the police and public is needed to understand the impact of cyber-offences and recognise the different types of disabilities, which might encourage both report-ing and documentation.
    • Response to the Comment by Armstrong and Welsman on ‘Developing a new curvilinear allometric model to improve the fit and validity of the 20-m shuttle run test as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults and youth’

      Nevill, Alan M; Ramsbottom, Roger; Sandercock, Gavin; Bocachica-González, Carlos Eduardo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tomkinson, Grant (Springer, 2021-05-20)
    • Toward improved triadic functioning: Exploring the interactions and adaptations of coaches, parents and athletes in professional academy soccer through the adversity of COVID-19

      Maurice, James; Devonport, Tracey J.; Knight, Camilla J. (Frontiers Media, 2021-05-19)
      On March 23rd, 2020, elite soccer academies in the UK closed in compliance with the government enforced lockdown intended to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. This forced parents, players, and coaches to reconsider how they interacted with, and supported, one another. The aims of the present study were (a) to explore the perceptions of players, parents, and coaches (i.e., the athletic triangle) regarding how they interacted and collaborated with one another during the COVID-19 pandemic to support wellbeing and performance, and; (b) to identify opportunities to enhance workings of those within the athletic triangle resulting from adaptions made following enforced lockdown. Using an interpretive description methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five coaches, six players, and six parents from an English elite academy soccer club. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings highlighted (a) the importance of support and the different means of communication used between members of the athletic triangle to facilitate such support; (b) the increased understanding of each member of the athletic triangle, leading to enhanced relationships, and; (c) how members of the athletic triangle adapted practice to facilitate relationship development during the pandemic and beyond. The identification of these considerations has implications for coach and parent education initiatives to allow for optimal functioning of the athletic triangle as elite academy soccer clubs return from lockdown. These include (a) the importance of continued communication between coach, athlete and parent; (b) increasing understanding of each individual within the athletic triangle; and (c) utilising key interpersonal and technological skills learnt during the lockdown to further facilitate engagement within the athletic triangle.
    • “It’s the attraction of winning that draws you in” – A qualitative investigation of reasons and facilitators for videogame loot box engagement in UK gamers

      Nicklin, Laura; Spicer, Stuart Gordon; Close, James; Parke, Jonathan; Smith, Oliver; Raymen, Thomas; Lloyd, Helen; Lloyd, Joanne (MDPI, 2021-05-13)
      Excessive engagement with (increasingly prevalent) loot boxes within games has consist ently been linked with disordered gambling and/or gaming. The importance of recognising and managing potential risks associated with loot box involvement means understanding contributing factors is a pressing research priority. Given that motivations for gaming and gambling have been informative in understanding risky engagement with those behaviours, this qualitative study investigated motivations for buying loot boxes, through in-depth interviews with 28 gamers from across the UK. A reflexive thematic analysis categorized reasons for buying into seven ‘themes’; opening experience; value of box contents; game-related elements; social influences; emotive/impulsive influences; fear of missing out; and triggers/facilitators. These themes are described in detail and discussed in relation to the existing literature and motivation theories. This study contributes to understanding ways in which digital items within loot boxes can be highly valued by purchasers, informing the debate around parallels with gambling. Findings that certain motivations were disproportionately endorsed by participants with symptoms of problematic gambling has potential implications for policy and warrants further study.
    • The free school meal voucher scheme & children’s access to food during the Covid-19 crisis

      Lalli, Gurpinder (British Educational Research Association, 2021-05-13)
    • Speed agility trends in children according to growth

      Giuriato, Matteo; Codella, Roberto; Lovecchio, Nicola; Carnevale Pellino, Vittoria; Vandoni, Matteo; Nevill, Alan M (Taylor & Francis, 2021-05-11)
      Background Speed agility is considered as the whole assessment of speed of movement, agility and coordination. The 10x4m test has been broadly used to evaluate physical fitness and overall health in children of developmental ages. A myriad of studies have investigated the ecology of speed agility (SA). However, body dimensions are rarely appraised, and this is a weakness because body shapes are affected by growth. Aim This study aimed to model SA-specific allometric equations, and develop an approach objectively predictive for performance while controlling for maturity through age at peak height velocity (agePHV). Subjects and methods A total of 7317 (3627 girls) children aged 8–11 years were SA-tested. Multiplicative models with allometric body-size components, agePHV, and categorical differences, were implemented to evaluate SA performance. Results Model 1 accounted for body-size and shape only, whereas Model 2 included agePHV and Model 3 considered standing broad jump (SBJ) as a surrogate marker for explosive strength. An ectomorphic dominance was revealed across all the models. Conclusion The explosive strength resulted in influencing SA per height-to-weight ratio. Further, positive exponent of agePHV suggested that the late maturers were likely to show better SA performances. Predictive equations modelled on developmental factors are fundamental to scrutinise performances as valuable health and fitness outcomes in childhood.
    • Understanding the impact of ‘wish-granting’ interventions on the health and wellbeing of children with life-threatening health conditions and their families: A systematic review

      Heath, Gemma; Screti, Cassandra; Pattison, Helen; Knibb, Rebecca (SAGE, 2021-05-08)
      This review aimed to explore how wish-granting interventions impact on the health and wellbeing of children with life-threatening health conditions and their families, using any study design. Six electronic databases (Medline; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Embase; AMED; HMIC) were systematically searched to identify eligible research articles. Studies were critically appraised using a Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Findings were synthesised narratively. Ten papers were included, reporting studies conducted across five countries, published from 2007-2019. Study designs were diverse (four quantitative; two qualitative; four mixed method). Results indicated improvements to physical and mental health, quality of life, social wellbeing, resilience and coping for wish children, parents and siblings. In conclusion, wish-granting interventions can positively impact health and therefore, should not be discouraged; however, more research is needed to define and quantify the impact of wish-fulfillment and to understand how it can be maximized.
    • The value of pro-environmental behaviour in mate choice

      Daniel, Farrelly; Bhogal, Manpal (Elsevier, 2021-05-03)
      Previous research shows that prosocial behaviour such as altruism is important in mate choice. A plethora of research shows that people are attracted to prosocial mates, and in turn, display prosocial behaviours towards those they find attractive. However, most of this research has focused on everyday forms of prosociality. Here, we apply this theoretical framework to pro-environmental behaviours, which are important prosocial behaviours, considering there is a time cost involved in engaging in such behaviours. In addition, encouraging people to engage in pro-environmental behaviours has great implications for the protection of our planet. Here, across two experiments, we successfully show that engaging in pro-environmental behaviours can increase one’s desirability in the mating market (experiment 1, n = 157) and that people display a motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviours in the presence of attractive, opposite sex targets (experiment 2, n = 307). We therefore show that it could be possible to increase pro-environmental behaviours via mate choice motivation and also demonstrate their positive role in mate evaluation. These findings have implications for marketing and increasing environmental behaviour through the lens of evolutionary theory. Note: data and materials for both experiments are available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/g42bd/?view_only=916a807650ab4f77ae66b3fc56021752).
    • Prostate Cancer: is it beyond a joke? Using silly things to make serious points

      Matheson, David; Kishor, Vaidya (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-05-02)
    • The value of postdigital humans as objects, or subjects, in McDonaldised Society

      Hayes, Sarah; Maggi, Savin-Baden (Springer, 2021-04-26)
      Postdigital human encounters could be said to take shape differently depending on how they are either subjectively valued, or objectively evaluated. Digital technologies and humans are now intimately intertwined with shared and sometimes equal capabilities to perform human tasks. Yet still it may be argued that different disciplinary identities prevent computing and the humanities from being thought of as equivalent. Over many decades, humans and computers have been objectively evaluated in McDonaldised society, via rational language and measures where computing techniques are simply applied to improve productivity. Since the Covid-19 lockdown people have described more personal and subjective digital encounters from their homes, with their virtual identities growing as their physical presence has diminished. This chapter speculates on whether new postdigital positionalities are emerging that might finally challenge more dominant, rational interpretations of what computing means in individual lives. If so, perhaps a more subjective analysis of these new forms of postdigital participation will bring the humanities into computing, instead of vice versa. This could help to reveal the unique positionality in each individual postdigital human encounter, where subjective self-description may now be seen to be more appropriate than objective rationality.