• Determining pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers: A systematic review

      Hough-Coles, Kelly; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Dancing 'en pointe' is an integral aspect of ballet for female dancers who start pointe training in young adolescence. The primary objective of this review was to investigate the screening tests used to determine pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers, and the secondary objective was to determine the injuries associated with pointe training. The search engines Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were mined using Medical Subject Heading terms "pointe", "pointe readiness", "injury", "young", "adolescent", "female", "dancer" and a manual search of relevant articles was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: females; aged 8-20 years; pre-pointe, training en pointe; pointe-related injury. Search strategy followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The following data were extracted; first author, year of publication, study design, participant size, mean age, testing, outcome, and general notes of each study. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Research Triangle Institute Item Bank (RTI-IB). Eight cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggested topple, airplane, sauté, and relevé tests are statistically better determinants of pointe readiness than chronological age alone. Utilising these methods alongside age, strength, body maturation, range of motion (ROM), and teacher evaluation could provide an all-round insight into a dancer's readiness for pointe. However, the included studies had contradictory outcomes with regards to pointe-related injury and the review's conclusions are limited by methodological design.
    • Postdigital critical pedagogy

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Abdi, Ali A; Misiaszek, Greg William (Palgrave, 2022-12-31)
    • Nobody needs a label’: Responses on Facebook to a Team GB equity, diversity and inclusion initiative

      Devonport, Tracey; Biscomb, Kay; Leflay, Kath; Richardson-Walsh, Helen; Richardson-Walsh, Kate; Thelwall, Mike (Taylor & Francis, 2022-12-31)
      In support of the UK Stonewall Rainbow Laces Campaign, which focuses on supporting LGBTQ+ people, the British Olympic Association “Team GB” changed their Facebook logo to ‘Team LGBT+’ for a Day. Using reflexive thematic analysis, we assessed public reactions to an official Facebook post explaining the temporary logo change. During polarised debate, opposition was rarely expressed using directly homophobic sentiments but instead argued that the initiative was divisive by highlighting difference and would be ineffective, reflecting defensive conservative strategies to avoid supporting marginalised groups. Others, engaging in substantial online discussions, claimed to be upset about LGBTQ+ issues being forced on them. Proponents explained the purpose of the Day and the positive impact it could have. Findings suggested the importance of explaining that supporting one marginalised group does not undermine the rights of others, the ongoing difficulties that many face, and that the current situation is not a level playing field.
    • ‘Silence is the sentence’: adult learners’ experiences of a co-created curriculum constructed through free writing tasks

      Scott, Howard; Bennett, Pete (Liverpool John Moores University, 2022-12-31)
      This paper outlines the pedagogical approaches taken on a University Access course, teaching predominantly mature students on a 12-week ‘inclusion in education’ module. The methods aimed to validate and develop literacy and academic skills for students undertaking undergraduate courses. Practice on the programme of study, replicated over three years, is informed by transformative learning theories. We outline how our developing praxis situates students’ self-concepts in confronting past biographical experiences of education and empowers them to improved literacy and purpose. We further propose that such andragogical approaches to teaching and learning can potentially serve as a model for improved literacy practices in post-compulsory education in England – a curriculum and qualification regime in radical need of overhaul and replacement.
    • Hip-Hop party dance: Cardiorespiratory profile and responses to a predefined sequence

      Prates, Claudia Machado; Tsiouti, Nefeli; Fagundes, Alex de Oliveira; Reichert, Thaís; Wyon, Matthew; Haas, Aline Nogueira (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Hip-hop is a popular dance genre practised worldwide that has gained popularity since the 1970’s. Despite which, studies related to the area and its physiological demands are still scarce. The purpose of this study was to report the cardiorespiratory profile of a group of male and female hip-hop dancers and determine the zones of intensity of a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Eight Brazilian professional hip-hop dancers, 4 women and 4 men, mean age 22 ± 2.3 years participated in the study. Using a portable gas analyser (Cosmed K5) their cardiorespiratory variables were measured at two different times: first, during a maximal treadmill test; and later during a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) were used for calculated the dependent variables: oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and the intensity zones for the predefined hip-hop sequence. Data normality was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to check any sex-related difference (p<0.01). No statistical difference between male and female dancers was found in the cardiorespiratory profile and responses to the predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. On the treadmill, the participants’ VO2peak was 57.3 ± 12.7 ml·kg-1·min-1, and HRmax was 190.0 ± 9.1 b·min-1. The predefined hip-hop party dance sequence was mainly performed (61% of the sequence) in the moderate aerobic zone. However, when the dancers jumped, the intensity of the sequence increased. This information could be used to develop a specific supplementary training protocols for hip-hop dancers, thus helping to improve their physiological fitness parameters and reduce the incidence of injury.
    • The efficacy of the physical fitness training on dance injury: A systematic review

      Dang, Yanan; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Chen, Ruoling; Wyon, Matthew (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2022-12-31)
      Greater levels of physical fitness have been linked to improved dance performance and decreased injury incidence. The aim was to review the efficacy of physical fitness training on dance injury. The electronic databases CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure were used to search peer-reviewed published articles in English or Chinese. Studies were scored using Strength of the Evidence for a Conclusion and a risk bias checklist. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria from an initial 2450 publications. These studies offered physical fitness training for professional (n=3) and pre-professional dancers (n=7), participant sample size ranged between 5 to 62, ages from 11 to 27 years, and most participants were females. Assessment scores were classified as Fair (n=1), Limited (n=7), and Expert Opinion Only (n=2) and risk of bias scores ranged from 22.7- 68.2%. After physical fitness training, 80% of studies reported significant benefits in injury rate, the time between injuries, pain intensity, pain severity, missed dance activities and injury count. This review suggests that physical fitness training could have a beneficial effect on injury incidence in dance. The evidence is limited by the current study methodologies.
    • Walking on thin ice: Exploring demands and means of coping during an extreme expedition

      Devonport, Tracey; Meijen, Carla; Lloyd, Juliette (Purdue University Press, 2022-12-31)
      The present exploratory study was undertaken with two experienced explorers in order to examine daily events, perceived demands, coping strategies, and mood during a unique 636-675 km ‘double solo’ crossing of Lake Baikal, a frozen lake in Siberia. A 59-year-old female explorer and a 49-year-old male explorer completed a daily survey and written diary during the expedition to collect situational data. Two semi-structured interviews were also completed, one within 24-hours and a second within four months of their return. These interviews sought to identify demands and coping efforts perceived as being most pertinent during their expedition. Guided by the work of Skinner et al. (2003), families of coping were organised around three human concerns (autonomy, relatedness, and competence) and two targets of coping (self or context). Findings illustrate two very different expedition experiences as evidenced by demands faced and coping strategies utilised, which influenced perceptions of workload and emotions experienced. Each explorer brought idiosyncrasies, which, when combined with different expedition experiences, bore influence on coping behaviours (focused on the self or context) and outcomes relative to the concerns of autonomy, relatedness, and competency. In discussing the findings, recommendations are offered for those preparing to undertake expeditions in extreme environments.
    • The effects of the 11+ dance on jump height and lower extremity biomechanics in female adolescent dancers: A non-randomized controlled pilot trial

      Sudds, Karen; Mauras, Philipp; Nigg, Sandro; Wyon, Matthew; Kolokythas, Nico (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Introduction: Neuromuscular warm-up programs, such as FIFA 11+ were developed as early as 2006. These programs have been effective in reducing the risk of injury in female athletes by decreasing the moments surrounding the knee and improving neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements such as jumping and landing. In addition, they have been effective for improving jump height in soccer, volleyball, and basketball. Methods: The effects of the 11+ Dance, a dance-specific neuromuscular warm-up program, was examined on jump height and lower extremity biomechanics during bilateral and single leg countermovement jumps in recreational dancers. Twenty female adolescents from two dance schools participated in this two-centered 8-week controlled non-randomized trial. The intervention group (IG) performed the 11+ Dance program 3x/week for 8-weeks during the first 30-min of their regularly scheduled dance classes. The control group (CG) continued with their regular dance classes routine. Ground reaction force and motion capture data were used to assess jump height and lower extremity biomechanics pre and post intervention Results: Both groups statistically increased their jump height (CG: Z=1.89-2.45, p≤0.0167; IG: Z=2.18-2.76, p≤0.0167). However, no statistical between group differences were observed (Z=0.38-1.22, p>0.05). During takeoff, the IG statistically reduced peak knee extension moments (t(18)=-3.04 to -3.77, p≤0.0167) while increasing peak hip extension moments (t(18)=2.16-2.79, p≤0.05) and peak hip flexion angles (t(18)=2.68-3.72, p≤0.0167) compared to the CG. The IG also increased the hip flexion angles compared to the CG during landing (t(18)=2.78-5.13, p≤0.0167) while no systematic differences were observed in all other variables of lower extremity biomechanics. Conclusion: The reduced joint load at the knee observed during takeoff needs further investigation. Neuromuscular training, such as the 11+Dance, is supported by numerous quality research. Due to its simplicity, the 11+ Dance may be feasible and beneficial to complement regular warm-ups in recreational dance practice.
    • NICE’s recent guidelines on “the size of your waist” unfairly penalizes shorter people

      Nevill, Alan M.; Duncan, Michael J; Myers, Tony (Elsevier, 2022-08-09)
      The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has just released its latest guidelines to assess and predict health risk, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Their latest advice is “Keep the size of your waist to less than half of your height”. We believe this advice is flawed and will seriously and unfairly penalize shorter people and lull taller people into a false sense of security. In this short communication, we provide this evidence. We consider this a serious oversight by NICE and feel strongly that this evidence needs to be made available in the public domain.
    • Docetaxel for nonmetastatic prostate cancer: Long-term survival outcomes in the STAMPEDE randomized controlled trial

      James, Nicholas D; Ingleby, Fiona C; Clarke, Noel W; Amos, Claire L; Attard, Gerhardt; Brawley, Christopher D; Chowdhury, Simon; Cross, William; Dearnaley, David P; Gilbert, Duncan C; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2022-07-25)
      Background STAMPEDE previously reported adding upfront docetaxel improved overall survival for prostate cancer patients starting long-term androgen deprivation therapy. We report long-term results for non-metastatic patients using, as primary outcome, metastatic progression-free survival (mPFS), an externally demonstrated surrogate for overall survival. Methods Standard of care (SOC) was androgen deprivation therapy with or without radical prostate radiotherapy. A total of 460 SOC and 230 SOC plus docetaxel were randomly assigned 2:1. Standard survival methods and intention to treat were used. Treatment effect estimates were summarized from adjusted Cox regression models, switching to restricted mean survival time if non-proportional hazards. mPFS (new metastases, skeletal-related events, or prostate cancer death) had 70% power (α = 0.05) for a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.70. Secondary outcome measures included overall survival, failure-free survival (FFS), and progression-free survival (PFS: mPFS, locoregional progression). Results Median follow-up was 6.5 years with 142 mPFS events on SOC (3 year and 54% increases over previous report). There was no good evidence of an advantage to SOC plus docetaxel on mPFS (HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 1.19; P = .43); with 5-year mPFS 82% (95% CI = 78% to 87%) SOC plus docetaxel vs 77% (95% CI = 73% to 81%) SOC. Secondary outcomes showed evidence SOC plus docetaxel improved FFS (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.88; P = .002) and PFS (nonproportional P = .03, restricted mean survival time difference = 5.8 months, 95% CI = 0.5 to 11.2; P = .03) but no good evidence of overall survival benefit (125 SOC deaths; HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.64 to 1.21; P = .44). There was no evidence SOC plus docetaxel increased late toxicity: post 1 year, 29% SOC and 30% SOC plus docetaxel grade 3-5 toxicity. Conclusions There is robust evidence that SOC plus docetaxel improved FFS and PFS (previously shown to increase quality-adjusted life-years), without excess late toxicity, which did not translate into benefit for longer-term outcomes. This may influence patient management in individual cases.
    • Mosquito-borne arboviruses in Brazil: Assessment of apps based on the mobile apps rating scale (MARS)

      Alves Albino, Victor; Dutra Fernandes, Izabelly; Almeida, Ricardo; Santos-Silva, Tais Acácia; Smania-Marques, Roberta; Smith, Matt; Traxler, John; Santos, Silvana (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2022-07-19)
      Background: In Brazil, the prevalence of arboviral diseases, such as dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya, transmitted mainly by mosquitos, has increased alarmingly. In recent years, numerous free mobile apps tackling this issue have become available for various purposes and users. Objectives: This study aimed to systematically survey and evaluate these apps using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Methods: The survey was performed on Google Play Store and sought to identify these apps adopting the descriptors “Chikungunya”, “Dengue” and “Zika”. The MARS scale was used by two researchers to evaluate the apps following their translation to Portuguese and subsequent validation. Student's T-test, Kappa statistics, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were employed to evaluate the interobserver agreement and the reliability of the scale. Results: Most apps (20 out of 29 or ~70%) were created to disseminate basic information about arboviral diseases to the population or for entertainment. There was an agreement between the two researchers for all parameters of the MARS scale, except for the engagement (p=0.002). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated good reliability. Conclusions: The use of the MARS scale has shown that most of the evaluated apps were developed to share information about arboviral diseases in an interactive way, but they do not necessarily have the purpose of influencing their users to change behaviours related to vector control or the prevention of arboviral diseases, which the authors feel would be a more appropriate aim for future app development.
    • What is the physiological impact of reducing the 2,000 m Olympic distance in rowing to 1,500 m and 1,000 m for French young competitive rowers? Insights from the energy system contribution

      Diry, Allison; Ratel, Sébastien; Nevill, Alan M.; Maciejewski, Hugo (Frontiers Media, 2022-07-18)
      French rowing federation reduced the competition distance to 1,500 and 1,000 m in rowers under 16- (U16) and 14-year-old (U14) respectively, to prepare them progressively to the Olympic 2,000 m distance in under 18-year-old (U18). This study aimed to check the hypothesis that relative aerobic (%EAe) and anaerobic (%EAn) energy contributions would be comparable between the competition distances since the more oxidative profile of younger age categories could offset the greater anaerobic contribution induced by shorter rowing races. Thirty-one 12- to 17-year-old competitive rowers performed a race of 2,000, 1,500, or 1,000 m on a rowing ergometer according to their age category. %EAe and %EAn were estimated from oxygen consumption, changes in blood lactate concentration and their energy equivalents. %EAe was lower in U16 than U18 (84.7 vs. 87.0%, p < 0.01), and in U14 than U16 (80.6 vs. 84.7%, p < 0.001). %EAn was higher in U16 than U18 (15.3 vs. 13.0%, p < 0.01), and in U14 than U16 (19.4 vs. 15.3%, p < 0.01). The results did not confirm our initial hypothesis since %EAe and %EAn were significantly different between the race distances, and thus age categories. However, %EAn in U18, U16 and U14 were found to be in the range of values previously found in adult rowers over the 2,000 m Olympic distance (12–30%). Therefore, on a practical level, the strategy implemented by the French rowing federation to reduce the competition distance in the younger age categories could be relevant to progressively prepare them to the physiological requirements encountered over the Olympic distance.
    • Collective writing: the continuous struggle for meaning-making

      Jandrić, Petar; Luke, Timothy; Sturm, Sean; McLaren, Peter; Jackson, Liz; MacKenzie, Alison; Tesar, Marek; Georgina, Stewart; Peter, Roberts; Abegglen, Sandra; et al. (Springer, 2022-07-15)
      This paper is a summary of philosophy, theory, and practice arising from collective writing experiments conducted between 2016 and 2022 in the community associated with the Editors’ Collective and more than 20 scholarly journals. The main body of the paper summarises the community’s insights into the many faces of collective writing. Appendix 1 presents the workflow of the article’s development. Appendix 2 lists approximately 100 collectively written scholarly articles published between 2016 and 2022. Collective writing is a continuous struggle for meaning-making, and our research insights merely represent one milestone in this struggle. Collective writing can be designed in many different ways, and our workflow merely shows one possible design that we found useful. There are many more collectively written scholarly articles than we could gather, and our reading list merely offers sources that the co-authors could think of. While our research insights and our attempts at synthesis are inevitably incomplete, ‘Collective Writing: The Continuous Struggle for Meaning-Making’ is a tiny theoretical steppingstone and a useful overview of sources for those interested in theory and practice of collective writing.
    • In most supermarkets food does not cost £3 per day...’: The impact of the school food voucher scheme during COVID-19

      Lalli, Gurpinder Singh (Wiley, 2022-07-14)
      Households with children eligible for Free School Meals (FSM) are at risk of food insecurity. This paper reports on a rapid-response study that investigated the impact of the school food voucher scheme during the COVID-19 crisis on young people, families and schools. It pays close attention to the reliance of the state on the good will of society and its citizens in feeding those most in need. The capabilities approach is used to highlight factors that inhibited and restricted use of the vouchers to produce the capability of having good nutrition for children in need of free school meals. The approach moves towards creating a society where children and young people are able to lead a life of their own choice and contribute to key policy decisions. This qualitative study funded by the British Education Research Association (BERA) was conducted between September 2020 and March 2021. The study posed two research questions: i) how have schools responded to COVID-19 in relation to food during holiday provision? ii) what have families identified as barriers to accessing the school food voucher scheme? Data collection involved online interviews with young people, schools and organisations (i.e. public health, director from the food industry etc.). The findings highlight the difficulties with accessing and using the school food voucher and implications for future policy directions. Due to this being a small scale study, it is not generalisable to the wider population but does highlight localised issues.
    • Investigating the experience of viewing extreme real-world violence online: naturalistic evidence from an online discussion forum

      Stubbs, Joshua; Nicklin, Laura; Wilsdon, Luke; Lloyd, Joanne (SAGE, 2022-07-07)
      This study investigates the psychological impact of viewing user-generated content depicting extreme real-world violence. Eight threads were harvested from publicly accessible online discussion forums in which people 17 discussed their experiences of witnessing real-world torture, maiming, or death online. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to systematically analyse these threads. The themes capture the contradictory ways in which people react to viewing extreme real-world violence online, with some finding it intensely distressing and others using it as a resource for psychological grounding or (perceived) strengthening. Based on this analysis, we highlight pathways that may lead to the cessation or continuation of viewing such content and argue that greater research on this seemingly common but under-studied experience is warranted.
    • Analysis of the physiological response in junior tennis players during short-term recovery: Understanding the magnitude of recovery until and after the 25 seconds rule

      Morais, Jorge E; Bragada, José A; Silva, Rui; Nevill, Alan M.; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Marinho, Daniel A (SAGE, 2022-07-03)
      Literature lacks evidence about the physiological recovery of tennis players between points. This study aimed to: (i) verify the heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) recovery variance in young tennis players from the end of a tennis drill until the 25-s mark and onwards (65-s limit), performed at several intensities, and (ii) test the curve fitting that better characterizes the players’ HR and V̇O2 recovery, from the end of the drill until the 65-s mark. The sample was composed of 13 male tennis players (age: 16.80 ± 1.61 years) recruited from a National Tennis Association. Players were instructed to perform a drill test (“two-line drill wide mode”) based on an intensity increment protocol. Three levels of intensity were used based on the reserve HR and V̇O2. A significance level effect was observed on the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve (P < .001). At all three levels of intensity, the first 25 s were enough to significantly (P < .001) recover the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve. The same significance trend (P < .001) was maintained until the 65 s but with a lower magnitude over time. Overall, the HR and V̇O2 curve fitting indicated a cubic relationship at the three levels of intensity (except the V̇O2 at the first level). Considering the specific test performed, players significantly elicited their physiological profile for every additional 10 s (after the 25-s rule) in the three levels of intensity performed. Despite this being a drill test and not a competitive point, coaches, players, and tennis organizations should be aware of these findings.
    • The impact of treatment with bile acid sequestrants on quality of life in patients with bile acid diarrhoea

      Kumar, Aditi; Galbraith, Niall; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Jain, Manushri; Phipps, Oliver; Butterworth, Jeffrey; Steed, Helen; McLaughlin, John; Brookes, Matthew (BMC, 2022-07-02)
      Background Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can be severely debilitating and negatively affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). We carried out a multi-centre prospective study exploring QoL outcomes in patients with BAD after treatment with colesevelam. Methods Patients with or without a positive 23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan were recruited and categorised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group (CG), idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy (PC) and post-terminal ileal resection for Crohn’s disease (CD). Patients with a positive SeHCAT were treated with colesevelam and dosing was titrated to symptomatic response. Patients were reviewed at 4- and 8-weekly intervals and QoL was evaluated by EQ-5D-3L, SF-36, IBDQ-32 at each visit (where relevant). Patients with a negative SeHCAT (CG cohort) completed one set of questionnaires before being discharged from the study. Results 47 patients (BAD = 24, PC = 12, CD = 11) completed paired QoL questionnaires before and after treatment and 30 CG patients completed a baseline questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in IBDQ-32 mean scores before and after treatment in CD patients [134.6 (95%CI 112.5–156.6) and 158.4 (136.1–180.6), respectively (p = 0.007). Following treatment, BAD patients had significantly improved mean SF-36 scores in the “Role limitation due to physical health” dimension (p = 0.02) and in the overall mental component summary (p = 0.03). Prior to starting treatment, BAD patients had the lowest scores in the ‘activity’ dimension of the EQ-5D-3L (p = 0.04), which improved significantly after treatment (p = 0.002). Overall, the BAD and CD cohort showed improved mean scores with treatment in all components of the SF-36 and EQ-5D-3L, while the PC cohort showed a general decline in mean scores after treatment. 55% of patients clinically responded to treatment of which 41.7%, 58.3% and 81.8% responded from the BAD, PC and CD groups respectively. Correlations between those deemed as responders with improvements on the SF-36 and EQ-5D dimensions were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our results demonstrate improved QoL in the BAD and CD cohort with treatment. Further larger studies are recommended specifically investigating the PC cohort and whether patients may improve with newer treatments such as FXR agonists.
    • Brief remote intervention to manage food cravings and emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study

      Devonport, Tracey; Chao-Hwa Chen-Wilson; Wendy Nicholls; Claudio Robazza; Jonathan Y. Cagas; Javier Fernandez-Montalvo; Youngjun Choi; Montse C. Ruiz (Frontiers Media, 2022-06-30)
      As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic people have endured potentially stressful challenges which have influenced behaviours such as eating. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of two brief interventions aimed to help individuals deal with food cravings and associated emotional experiences. Participants were 165 individuals residing in United Kingdom, Finland, Philippines, Spain, Italy, Brazil, North America, South Korea, and China. The study was implemented remotely, thus without any contact with researchers, and involved two groups. Group one participants were requested to use daily diaries for seven consecutive days to assess the frequency of experience of their food cravings, frequency of giving in to cravings, and difficulty resisting cravings, as well as emotional states associated with their cravings. In addition to completing daily food diaries, participants in group two were asked to engage in mindful eating practice and forming implementation intentions. Participants assessed their perceived changes in eating, wellbeing, and health at the beginning and end of the intervention. Repeated measures MANOVAs indicated that participants experienced significantly less food cravings (i.e., craving experience, acting on cravings, difficulty resisting), as well as lower intensities of unpleasant states associated with cravings across time (T1 vs. T7). In contrast to our hypothesis, the main effects of the group (food craving diary vs. food craving diary and mindful eating practice) were not significant. Participants reported less eating and enhanced wellbeing at the end of the study (T7 vs. T1). Our findings can be used to inform future remote interventions to manage food cravings and associated emotions and highlight the need for alternative solutions to increase participant engagement.
    • “You want to know that you’re safe”: Experiences of risk, restriction and resilience online among people with an intellectual disability

      Chadwick, Darren (Masaryk University Press, 2022-06-30)
      People with intellectual and developmental disabilities remain more digital excluded than many other groups within society. Perceived vulnerability of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities by those providing support may increase their digital exclusion and the digital divide. Few studies have considered online risk from the perspective of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Online risks have previously been classified as contact, conduct and content but little is known about how adults with intellectual disabilities experience these specific risks. Underpinned by post-postivist and phenomenological epistemologies, perceptions and meanings of online risks for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities were gathered. Individual interviews were conducted with thirteen adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities who all identified themselves as self advocates. Interview discussions considered online risk experiences of being online and using social media. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Overarching themes of risk experiences, awareness and support to manage salient risks, and developing independence and resilience through online participation were identified. Accounts also identified concerns around online risks and carer gatekeeping as potential instrumental factors in digital exclusion, such exclusion was considered detrimental to wellbeing. Adults with intellectual disabilities with low support needs appeared more able to manage online risk than may be presupposed by a vulnerability-focused perspective. The importance of utilising language salient to the person when discussing risk was also highlighted. Experiential learning to better understand and manage salient online risks appears a way forward for both research and practice.