• Workload intensity and rest periods in professional ballet: Connotations for injury

      Kozai, Andrea; Twitchett, Emily; Morgan, Sian; Wyon, Matthew (Thieme, 2020-03-31)
      Fatigue and overwork have been cited as the main cause of injury with the dance profession. Previous research has shown a difference in workload between professional dancers of different rank, but the role of sex has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine workload intensity, rest, and sleep profiles of professional ballet dancers. 48 professional ballet dancers (M=25, F=23) took part in an observational design over 7-14 days using triaxial accelerometer devices. Minutes in METS at different intensities, total time asleep and rest breaks were analysed. Significant main effects for rank (p<0.001) and rank by sex (p=0.003) for total PA, working day activity, post work activity and sleep. Sleep ranged between 2.4-9.6 hours per night. All participants spent more time between 1.5-3 METS outside of work. Significant amounts of exercise where carried out outside of their work day, therefore when injury is reported per 1000 hours dance activity, this extra-curricular activity might need to be included. When looking at potential causes of injury in dance, a global perspective of physical activity is required that includes activity outside of work and sleep patterns, all activities that influence physiological recovery.
    • A conversation analysis of asking about disruptions in method of levels psychotherapy

      Cannon, Caitlyn; Meredith, Joanne; Speer, Susan; Mansell, Warren (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Method of Levels (MOL) is a cognitive therapy with an emerging evidence base. It is grounded in Perceptual Control Theory and its transdiagnostic nature means techniques are widely applicable and not diagnosis-specific. This paper contributes to psychotherapy process research by investigating a key technique of MOL, asking about disruptions, and in doing so aims to explore how the technique works and aid the understanding of related techniques in other psychotherapies. Method: Conversation Analysis (CA) is applied to asking about disruptions in twelve real-life therapeutic interactions. Findings: Analyses explore how and when therapists ask about disruptions, with examples presented according to their degree of adherence to the MOL approach. The majority of identified instances project responses consistent with MOL aims; encouraging further talk, focused on the client’s problem, and with a shift to meta-level commentary. Also presented are examples of therapist and client influence on disruptions. Conclusion: The paper provides support for a number of MOL practices, with clinical implications and links to other psychotherapies highlighted.
    • Indigenous Languages of Scotland: culture and the classroom

      Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Matheson, David; Bell, Robert; Broadfoot, Patricia; Cowen, Robert; Ferrer, Ferran (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Scotland’s indigenous languages were, for very many years, under attack. The Gaelic of the Highlands and Western Isles, arguably one of the earliest written European languages, after Greek and Latin, had a brief apotheosis around 1000CE when it was the language of the Scottish Royal Court. Scots, spoken by the mass of the people, was the language of the renowned Mediaeval poets known as the Makars. Gaelic was effectively ignored but for attempts, by the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, to engender transient bilingualism in order to have the Gaelic diminished and then forgotten. Following the accession of the James VI of Scotland to the throne of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland, the Authorised Edition of the Bible was commissioned and published but only in English, no Scots version being deemed necessary. After the Union of the Parliaments in 1707, what prestige remained to the Scots language diminished rapidly and henceforth almost the entire written output from Scotland has been in English. Exceptions have included Hugh MacDiarmid’s poetry, Liz Lochhead’s translation into Scots of Molière’s Tartuffe (1664/1986), which toured urban working-class areas in the 1980s and to great acclaim, and Trainspotting.
    • Physiological characteristics of musical theatre performers and the effect on cardiorespiratory demand whilst singing and dancing

      Wyon, Matthew; Stephens, Nicola (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2019-12-31)
      Musical Theatre (MT) combines acting, singing and dancing within a performance. The purpose of the current study was two-fold; firstly, to report on the cardiorespiratory fitness of pre-professional MT dancers and secondly, to examine the cardiorespiratory demand of singing whilst dancing. Twenty-one participants (F=16, M=5; 20 ±1.23 yrs; 169.1 ±9.24cm; 62.7 ±10.56kg) in their final year of pre-professional training volunteered for the study. All participants carried a maximal aerobic capacity test on a treadmill using a portable breath-by-breath gas analyser. Nine participants completed a 4-minute section from Chorus Line twice; singing and dancing, and just dancing, in a randomised order whilst wearing the same portable gas analyser. Blood lactate was measured at the end of each trial. Male participants had significantly greater peak oxygen consumption (M vs. F; 67.6 ±2.30 vs. 55.6 ±4.42 ml.kg-1 .min-1 , p<0.001) and anaerobic threshold (% of peak VO2) (M vs. F; 54.6 ±4.04% vs. 43.1 ±3.68% p<0.001) whilst maximum heart rate and heart rate at anaerobic threshold were similar. The physiological demands of dancing vs. singing+dancing were similar with the exception of the singing+dancing trial having significantly reduced mean breathing frequency and increased lactate (p<0.01). MT dancers’ aerobic capacity is greater than that observed in other theatre-based dance genres. The observed breathing frequency and lactate differences in the Chorus-line trails could be due to singing reducing breathing frequency thereby influencing cardiorespiratory recovery mechanics and subsequently blood lactate levels.
    • School related gender based violence: an intersectional approach

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Herriot Watt University, 2019-12-31)
      Despite increasing attention to SRGBV, little consideration has been given to the multiple identities of teachers and students and their role in perceptions and performances of SRGBV. This paper explores the intersections of gender with constructs of ethnicity, culture, religion and sexuality norms and enactments of SRGBV in three secondary schools in England. It draws on qualitative interview data collected for the project ‘Developing Gender Equality Charter Marks in order to overcome gender stereotyping in education across Europe’. The intersectionality of gender with sexual norms emerged in essentialist views about female academic and professional competence and normative expectations of sexual conduct, sustaining a culture of gender disrespect and a gender regime in which SRGBV was the penalty of transgressions of gender and sexual norms and the means to reiterate male privilege in two schools. The intersectionality of gender with culture, ethnicity and religion emerged in one of the three schools in teachers’ discourses of ethnic deficit associated with perceived lack of ability, freedom, and choice in ethnic minority girls’ lives and inappropriate expressions of sexuality that diverted from white British norms. Further research is required to enhance knowledge about the performances of SRGBV alongside other axes of power and discrimination.
    • Fit to Dance Survey: elements of lifestyle and injury incidence in Chinese dancers

      Dang, Yanan; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2019-12-31)
      The Fit to Dance survey has been conducted a number of times using primarily Western participants and has provided foundation data for other studies. The purpose of the current study was to replicate the Fit to Dance 2 survey focusing on features of health and injuries in pre-professional and professional Chinese dancers of different genres. Results revealed that respondents (n=1040) were from Chinese Folk dance (44.4%), Chinese Classical Dance (25.6%), ballet (10.2%) and contemporary dance (9.8%). Compared to the Fit to Dance 2 survey, alcohol consumption (29% vs 82%; p<0.01) and smoking (13% vs 21%; p<0.05) were significantly less in Chinese dancers, but a higher percentage reported using weight reducing eating plans (57% vs 23%; p<0.01) or having psychological issues with food (27% vs 24%; p<0.05). Reported injuries in a 12-month period prior to data collection were significantly lower in the current survey (49% vs 80%; p<0.01). The type of injury (muscle and joint/ligament) and perceived cause of injury (fatigue, overwork and reoccurrence of an old injury) were the same in both the current and previous survey. Mean injury rate for the studied 12-month period ranged from 4.9 injuries per dancer (contemporary) to 3.4 injuries per dancer (Chinese Folk dance) which is comparable to previously reported data on western dance populations. This survey has provided the first comprehensive data on the health and injury incidence of Chinese dancers.
    • Where quality counts: The perceived influence of in-hospital care on family donation decisions

      Walker, Wendy; Nicholls, Wendy; Rodney, Amanda (ELPAT, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Theoretically, public support for deceased organ donation may be high, yet the availability of organs for transplantation remains a global concern. A key area of organ loss is the rate of family consent to donation. Families are necessary partners in the organ donation process, and their related experiences are known to influence donation decisions. Aim: This presentation provides insight into the perceived influence of in-hospital care on family donation decision-making. The study findings are derived from a systematic review and thematic synthesis of secondary research involving family members who experienced an approach for organ donation in a hospital setting. Method: A protocol was developed and registered in an international database of prospective systematic reviews. Studies were identified by searching three electronic databases, Google search engine and by hand-examination of relevant research reports. Study selection was supported by the application of predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Specifically, we sought to include qualitative studies of European, Australasian and North American (Western world) origin, reported in English and published over the past two decades. A date range of 1998-2018 was guided by an early theoretical argument that the rates of organ donation could be increased by enhancing the quality of hospital care (DeJong et al. 1998). A process of thematic synthesis (Thomas and Harden 2008) was used to extract and combine family-reported experiences of care. Results: Descriptive themes depicting donor and non-donor family narrative accounts of the donation process revealed the significance of the care experience in the organ donation decision. At the analytic stage we aim to generate a comprehensive set of quality care indicators that can be used as a basis for evidence-informed practice development and as an item pool for questionnaire design. Evaluation and measurement present opportunity to elicit the key components of care foremost in improving the rates of family consent to deceased organ donation.
    • Measuring training load in dance: the construct validity of session-RPE

      Surgenor, Brenton; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine Inc, 2019-12-31)
      The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) is a practical and non-invasive method that allows a quantification of internal training load (ITL) in individual and team sports. As yet, no study has investigated its construct validity in dance. This study examines the convergent validity between the session-RPE method and an objective heart rate (HR)-based method of quantifying the similar ITL in vocational dance students during professional dance training. METHODS: Ten dance students (4 male, 20±1.16 yrs; 6 female, 20±0.52 yrs) participated in this study. During a normal week of training, session-RPE and HR data were recorded in 96 individual sessions. HR data were analysed using Edwards-TL method. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the convergent validity between the session-RPE and Edwards-TL methods for assessing ITL in a variety of training modes (contemporary, ballet, and rehearsal). RESULTS: The overall correlation between individual session-RPE and Edwards-TL was r=0.72, p<0.0001, suggesting there was a statistically significantly strong positive relationship between session-RPE and Edwards-TL. This trend was observed across all the training modes: rehearsal sessions (r=0.74, p=0.001), contemporary (r=0.60, p=0.001), and ballet (r=0.46, p=0.018) sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that session-RPE can be considered as a valid method to assess ITL for vocational dance students, and that notably there is some variation between session-RPE and HR-based TL in different dance activities. Med Probl Perform Art 2019;34(1):1–5.
    • Endocrine parameters in association with bone mineral accrual in young female vocational ballet dancers

      Amorim, Tânia; Metsios, George S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Wyon, Matthew; Marques, F; Nogueira, L; Adubeiro, N; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; et al. (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose Little is known on bone mass development in dancers involved in vocational training. The aim of the present study was to model bone mineral content (BMC) accruals and to determine whether circulating levels of oestrogens, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) explain differences in bone mass gains between vocational dance students and matched-controls. Methods The total of 67 vocational female dancers (VFD) and 68 aged-matched controls (12.1±1.9yrs and 12.7±2.0yrs at baseline, respectively) were followed for two consecutive years (34 VFD and 31 controls remained in the study for the full duration). BMC was evaluated annually at impact [femoral neck (FN); lumbar spine (LS)], and non-impact sites (forearm) using DXA. Anthropometry, age at menarche (questionnaire) and hormone serum concentrations (immunoradiometric assays) were also assessed for the same period. Results VFD demonstrated consistently reduced body weight (p<0.001) and BMC at all three anatomical sites (p<0.001) compared to controls throughout the study period. Menarche, body weight, GH and IGF-1 were significantly associated with bone mass changes over time (p<0.05) but did not explain group differences in BMC gains at impact sites (p>0.05). However, body weight did explain the differences between groups in terms of BMC gains at the forearm (non-impact site). Conclusion Two consecutive years of vocational dance training revealed that young female dancers demonstrate consistently lower bone mass compared to controls at both impact and non-impact sites. The studied endocrine parameters do not seem to explain group differences in terms of bone mass gains at impact sites.
    • Paradoxical paradigm proposals- Learning languages in mobile societies

      Traxler, John; Read, Timothy; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Barcena, Elena (Federación Argentina de Asociaciones de Profesores de Inglés, 2019-11-30)
      The concept of paradigms gives us the capacity to look analytically at historical scientific and intellectual episodes in a broader framework. It does however potentially also give us the capacity to look more analytically at contemporary scientific and intellectual activity and make conjectures and predictions. This paper looks at various contemporary pedagogic paradigms, including language learning and mobile learning, and suggests both their failings and then their replacement by an over-arching pedagogic paradigm more suited to societies permeated by personal digital technologies. This might be called the mobility, learning and language paradigm. The paper uses these examples as a way of exploiting paradigmatic thinking in order to catalyse intellectual progress.
    • Between the post and the com-post: Examining the postdigital ‘work’ of a prefix

      Sinclair, Christine; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      In examining the work of the prefix ‘post’, we aim to contribute to the current postdigital dialogue. Our paper does not provide a rationale for the use of ‘postdigital’ in the title of this journal: that has been thoroughly explored elsewhere. We want instead to consider the work the prefix might do. We look at ‘post’, as it appears to ‘act’ in the terms of ‘postmodernism’ and ‘posthumanism’, suggesting that modernism and humanism are in need of questioning and reworking. We also examine what gets ‘post-ed’, or sometimes ‘com-posted’. (Com- is another interesting prefix, meaning ‘with’.) We then consider how these inquiries inform our understanding of a ‘postdigital reality’ that humans now inhabit. We understand this as a space of learning, struggle, and hope, where ‘old’ and ‘new’ media are now ‘cohabiting artefacts’ that enmesh with the economy, politics and culture. In entering this postdigital age, there really is no turning back from a convergence of the traditional and the digital. However, this is not simply a debate about technological and non-technological media. The postdigital throws up new challenges and possibilities across all aspects of social life. We believe this opens up new avenues too, for considering ways that discourse (language-in-use) shapes how we experience the postdigital.
    • Improving reference equations for cardiorespiratory fitness using multiplicative allometric rather than additive linear models: Data from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database Registry

      Nevill, Alan M; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross (Elsevier, 2019-11-22)
      New improved reference equations for cardiorespiratory fitness have recently been published, using Data from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). The new linear equation for VO2max (ml.kg−1.min−1) was additive, derived using multiple-linear regression. An alternative multiplicative allometric model has also been published recently, thought to improve further the quality of fit. The purpose of the current study was to compare the accuracy and quality/goodness-of-fit of the linear, additive model with the multiplicative allometric model using the FRIEND database. The results identified that the allometric model out performs the linear model based on all model-comparison criteria. The allometric model demonstrates; 1) greater explained variance (R2 = 0.645; R = 0.803) vs. (R2 = 0.62; R = 0.79), 2) residuals that were more normally distributed, 3) residuals that yielded less evidence of curvature, 4) superior goodness-of-fit statistics i.e., greater maximum log-likelihood (MLL) and smaller Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) statistics, 5) less systematic bias together with smaller unexplained standard error of estimates. The Bland and Altman plots also confirmed little or no evidence of curvature with the allometric model, but systematic curvature (lack-of-fit) in the linear model. The multiplicative allometric model to predict VO2max was; VO2max (ml.kg−1.min−1) = M-0.854 · H1.44 · exp. (0.424–0.346 · (sex) -0.011.age), where M = body mass and H = height (R2 = 0.645; R = 0.803) and sex is entered as a [0,1] indicator variable (male = 0 and female = 1). Another new insight obtained from the allometric model (providing construct validity) is that the height-to-body-mass ratio is similar to inverse body mass index or the lean body mass index, both associated with leanness when predicting VO2max. In conclusion adopting allometric models will provide more accurate predictions of VO2max (ml.kg−1.min−1) using more plausible, biologically sound and interpretable models.
    • Postdiagnosis sedentary behavior and health outcomes in cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

      Swain, Christopher TV; Nguyen, Nga H; Eagles, Tobyn; Vallance, Jeff K; Boyle, Terry; Lahart, Ian M; Lynch, Brigid M (Wiley, 2019-11-12)
      Background High levels of sedentary behavior may negatively affect health outcomes in cancer survivors. A systematic review and meta‐analysis was performed to clarify whether postdiagnosis sedentary behavior is related to survival, patient‐reported outcomes, and anthropometric outcomes in cancer survivors. Methods The Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from study inception to June 2019. Studies of adults who had been diagnosed with cancer that examined the association between sedentary behavior and mortality, patient‐reported outcomes (eg, fatigue, depression), or anthropometric outcomes (eg, body mass index, waist circumference) were eligible for inclusion. Meta‐analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest levels of sedentary behavior for all‐cause and colorectal cancer‐specific mortality outcomes. The ROBINS‐E (Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies‐of Exposures tool) and the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system were used to assess the risk of bias and the strength of evidence, respectively. Results Thirty‐three eligible publications from a total of 3569 identified articles were included in the review. A higher level of postdiagnosis sedentary behavior was associated with an increased risk of all‐cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06‐1.41; heterogeneity [I2 statistic], 33.8%) as well as colorectal cancer‐specific mortality (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14‐2.06; I2, 0%). No clear or consistent associations between sedentary behavior and patient‐reported or anthropometric outcomes were identified. The risk of bias in individual studies ranged from moderate to serious, and the strength of evidence ranged from very low to low. Conclusions Although avoiding high levels of sedentary behavior after a cancer diagnosis may improve survival, further research is required to help clarify whether the association is causal.
    • The moral impact of studying science

      Riordan, Sally; Billingsley, Berry; Chappell, Keith; Reiss, Michael J. (Springer, 2019-11-07)
      Science and religion are most usually compared on epistemic grounds: what do they tell us about the natural world and what methods do they use to determine those truths? The suggestion here is that the two fields should be compared on moral grounds: how do scientific and religious experiences affect the way a person lives his or her life? A hypothesis is presented in this vein: engaging in scientific work or education alters a person’s moral outlook on everyday matters. In this chapter, I articulate and motivate this claim by framing it against both theological and philosophical debate. I explore how it might be tested as a claim in moral psychology. The resulting vision presented here is of science and religion engaged in dialogue—at times necessarily embroiled—not only about the nature of the world, but regarding how best we navigate our way in it.
    • Only connect: indigenous digital learning

      Traxler, John (Scuola IaD, 2019-10-31)
      There is now a unique interdisciplinary opportunity to work across the various digital technology development communities, for example ICT4D and m4d, albeit with their conservative conceptions of learning, and the innovative digital learning communities breaking away from institutional e-learning formats, for example the open learning movement, at a time when many indigenous communities in the global South have considerable experience, access, ownership and familiarity with personal and social digital systems and when the decolonising movement provide the impetus and processes to develop new tools and techniques to work together for an accurate and authentic understanding of learning needs and the methods to address them. This is timely and urgent since digital technologies, produced by Anglophone global corporations and promoting the global knowledge economy, threaten fragile cultures and languages and promote the Fourth Industrial Revolution whilst in fact delivering the next wave of epistemicides. This paper sets out the case for urgent, collective and coherent action.
    • Try before you buy: a small business employer (SME) perspective of international student mobility in England

      Sutherland, Matthew; Thompson, David; Edirisingha, Prabash (Informa UK Limited, 2019-10-25)
      Attracting international students has become a strategic priority for UK immigration policy as well as for British universities. However, research shows that there are emergent intercultural barriers that challenge international students’ carrier aspirations and inhibit their ability to find employment. Also, small business employers (SMEs) are becoming a significant force in the post-Brexit UK economy and integral to creating innovation and employment opportunities. Despite this significance, we do not know what SME owners view the value of international students and how these perceptual discourses shape international student experience and mobility. In response, this research investigates small business employer discourses relating to international student employability. We base our data collection in strategically important North East of England and draw from semi-structured in-depth interviews with small business employers from the region. Our findings discuss their perception of international students as well as universities and discuss how these prevailing discourses influence international students’ employability. We specifically show how socio-cultural dispositions of international students, dominant British employer and market discourses, and universities strategic pursuits interplay and contribute to challenges international students confront within the highly competitive and dynamic higher education environment.
    • Challenges to concordance: theories that explain variations in patient responses

      Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca (Mark Allen Group, 2019-10-23)
      Failing to establish a collaborative relationship between patient and health professional can be a significant obstacle to recovery. Julie Green and Rebecca Jester delve into the psychology behind patient responses and present methods to empower patients.
    • The prevention of arboviral diseases using mobile devices: a preliminary study of the attitudes and behaviour change produced by educational interventions

      Traxler, John; Bond, Carol; Matheson, David; Santos, Silvana; Santos-Silva,, Tais; Olinda,, Ricardo; Mangueira,, Francisco; Smania-Marques,, Roberta; Albino, Victor (Wiley, 2019-10-18)
      Objectives In Brazil, the National Policy for Dengue Control seeks to incorporate the lessons of national and international experience in dengue control, emphasizing the need for health education activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to the prevention of arboviruses before and after a two‐month educational intervention using a learning platform on mobile devices. Methods This quasi‐experimental study corresponds to the first phase of the project "Impact of mobile learning in the prevention and management of complications caused by arboviruses (Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya) – ZIKAMOB”, sponsored as part of the British Council Newton Fund. Results Thirty of the 93 participants were first‐year undergraduate university students (36.7% male) and 63 were police officers (84.1% male). The pattern of attitudes and behaviour was very similar in both groups before the intervention. The students changed their attitudes and behaviour (p=0.032) in relation to their engagements in actions for the prevention of arboviral diseases and several other activities related to house inspections and precautions with water tanks (p<0.01). However, recycling and surveillance activities were not as effective in changing behaviour. Female participants showed more motivation to participate in preventive activities, but living alone and working were barriers to participation. Individuals who already perform selective waste collection and are cultivating gardens demonstrated both a positive attitude and positive behaviour towards actions for the prevention of arboviral diseases. Conclusion Mobile learning and behaviour change theories might be successful as the basis for school‐based and community‐based interventions to avoid arboviruses. These outcomes need to be confirmed in broader future studies.
    • ‘We’re the lassies from Lancashire’: Manchester Corinthians Ladies FC and the use of overseas tours to defy the FA ban on women’s football

      Williams, Jean (Taylor & Francis, 2019-10-15)
      The FA banned women’s football from the grounds of Association-affiliated clubs in 1921, on the grounds that the organisation perceived that football was ‘unsuitable’ for women and too much money raised for charity had been absorbed in player expenses. But women continued to play. This article analyses how Manchester Corinthians Ladies Football Club, which had been formed in 1949, was able to sustain a varied range of overseas tours and domestic matches in spite of the ban. Using a range of methods, including oral history, family history interviews, a reunion of the surviving players and player memorabilia, firstly, the article provides a history of Corinthians and Nomads from 1949 onwards. Secondly, the article uses oral history to reflect what the players felt about playing for the club and particularly its overseas tours, and charity work. Not all of the players are represented due to constraints of space, but this is an introduction to a larger ongoing project to reclaim the teams’ history. Finally, the article argues that it is important to examine the 1950s and 1960s, decades when women’s football was an unregulated activity, in order to understand that which followed once the FA ban was lifted in 1969.
    • Dancers’ heart: Cardiac screening in elite dancers

      Metsios, George; Wyon, Matthew; Patel, Kiran; Allen, Nick; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Taylor & Francis, 2019-10-10)
      Using electrocardiography and echocardiography, we screened elite men and women ballet dancers for abnormal cardiovascular conditions using an observation design with blinded clinical analysis of cardiac function tests. Fifty-eight (females n=33) elite professional ballet dancers (age: 26.0±5.7 years, body mass index: 19.9±2.2 kg/m2) with no past or present history of cardio vascular disease volunteered. Participants were assessed via a 12-lead electrocardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography for cardiac function. Electrocardiography revealed that 83% of our dancers demonstrated normal axis, while 31% had incomplete right bundle branch block and 17% had sinus bradycardia; none showed any abnormal findings. Findings from the echocardiography were also normal for all participants and comparable to their counterparts in other sports. Significant differences (p<0.05) were detected in almost all studied echocardiographic parameters between males and females. In conclusion, heart function and structure seem to be normal in elite ballet dancers, placing them at low risk for sudden cardiac death and performance-related cardiovascular complications. Larger samples are required to confirm these findings.