• Exploring the professionalisation of further education teachers in England

      Wright, Victoria; Bates, Sandi; Loughlin, Theresa; Clarke, Nicola; Hale, Dayna (Taylor & Francis, 2022-12-31)
      The paper captures the professionalisation of teachers in the further education sector by shining a light on their everyday struggle to uphold their ethical goals in support of their students in a climate of performative and regulatory expectations. It reports on a small scale qualitative study in which the six participants were either on the Postgraduate Certificate in Post Compulsory Education course (PGCE in PCE) or on the Masters degree in Professional Practice and Lifelong Education (MA PPLE). They were therefore either student teachers or experienced teachers with different lengths of experience. Students were asked to rank order a set of cards and clarify their decisions. Semi- structured interviews were then undertaken in which the participants were asked to bring artefacts of their choice (potentially from their course of study). Reflection points included the construction of self as teacher and the tensions and impact of a range of expectations nationally and locally. Participants shared responses to continuous change in the sector, their institutions and within their practices. All expressed a common and sustained mission to make a difference, no matter how small, to their students’ lives.
    • Postdigital critical pedagogy

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Abdi, Ali A; Misiaszek, Greg William (Palgrave, 2022-12-31)
    • Neuromuscular training in pre-professional ballet dancers: A feasibility randomised controlled trial

      Kolokythas, Nico; Metsios, George S.; Galloway, Shaun; Allen, Nick; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Introduction: It is well documented that there is high prevalence of injuries in preprofessional and professional ballet dancers. Current evidence from high in quality and quantity research on injury prevention in sport, indicates that interventions can reduce injury risks by 30 to 50%. Injury prevention research in dance, is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility (adherence, fidelity, and practicality) of a randomised controlled trial for the utilisation of neuromuscular training in pre-professional ballet dancers. Methods: A convenience sample of 22 pre-professional ballet dancers were randomised into the intervention and the control group. The intervention group took part in a neuromuscular based training workout, five times per week before the ballet class, for ten weeks. The intervention was an adaptation of the FIFA 11+, an injury prevention intervention and is called 11+ Dance. The intervention consisted of low intensity bodyweight exercises, lasted 20-30 minutes and was performed daily. Results: Intervention adherence was 38±8%, with higher participation at the beginning of the study. Attendance for the pre- and post testing was low 45% and 36% for the intervention and control group, respectively, mainly due to injury. There were no adverse effects reported, however, the participants reported delayed onset muscle soreness at the beginning of the intervention, indicating that there may be a potential training effect. Fear of muscle hypertrophy and fatigue were also reported as reasons for attrition. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically non-significant differences for the CMJ F(1,9)= 0.36, p = .564, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2 = .04, RSI F(1, 7)= 0.02, p= .885, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2= 0.003, and IMTP F(1, 12)= 0.002, p= 0.967, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2= .000. Conclusion: The results of the study, together with the feedback from the participants suggest that some protocol modifications are necessary, for the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial in a pre-professional setting. The current trial has produced valuable information for the intervention frequency and load prescription.
    • The relationship of year group and sex on injury incidence and countermovement jump in adolescent ballet dancers: a cross-sectional analysis

      Kolokythas, Nico; Metsios, George S.; Galloway, Shaun; Allen, Nick; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-06-30)
      Introduction: Pre-professional ballet training involves long training hours from an early age that could influence young dancers’ physical performance and injury incidence. This cross-sectional analysis investigated the relationship of year group and sex, with countermovement jump, and injury incidence (primary outcome) in adolescent ballet dancers at a pre-professional dance school. Method: Countermovement jump (CMJ) height was recorded at the start of the academic year on 179 participants (M=68, F=111) spread across eight year-groups. Injury aetiology and incidence was prospectively recorded over a six-month period (Sep - Feb) by the medical team using a time-loss definition. Results: Between-subject statistically significant differences were reported for sex (F=101.49; p<0.001), year group (F=12.57; p<0.001) and sex*year group (F=9.22; p<0.001). Mean CMJ across the year groups ranged between 24.7-41.3cm for males and 23.5-25.1cm for females. Injury incidence per dancer was 0.84 (CI:0.13,1.56) and injury incidence per 1000hrs dance was 1.94 (CI:1.63, 2.25). No statistically significant differences, between sexes or year groups, were reported for injury incidence per 1000 dance hours, and time-loss. Hours dancing was statistically significantly positively associated with CMJ (r=.481, p<0.05) and negatively associated with injury incidence (r=-.253, p<0.05) for males; for females it was positively associated with time loss (r=.254, p<0.05). Conclusion: Even though CMJ was cross-sectionally monitored, the expected increased physical abilities in males as they grew older and progressed through their training was observed. Females did not indicate similar increase in their physical ability, but they seemed to become more susceptible to injuries as they grow older. The lack of this speculative physiological development for the females may be associated with the ballet-only approach in their training. The use of CMJ as an injury screening tool may be limited, however, it could still be used as a tool to monitor physiological and fundamental motor skill development of adolescent dancers, as jumping is an integral part of ballet.
    • Perceived severity and management of low back pain in adult dancers in the United States

      Henn, Erica; Smith, Tina; Ambegaonkar, Jatin; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-06-30)
      Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) lifetime prevalence in dancers reportedly ranges from 17%-88%. LBP can have negative secondary consequences on dancers’ lives and careers. Still, how LBP impacts dancer function and medical care-seeking behaviors, and whether these issues differ across dance genres, is understudied. Materials and Methods: 289 ballet, modern, and hip-hop dancers and teachers (median age=20.3 years; range:18-69) in the United States age 18 years and older completed an online 24 question survey assessing LBP related self-reported injury history, impact on their lives, and management strategies. We defined LBP as occurrence of acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions of the back. Results: 257 participants (88.9% of 289 total) reported at least one instance of LBP during their lifetime and 220 participants reported LBP in the prior four weeks. Of these 220, 72 (32.7%) had LBP severe enough to limit their activities of daily living. Of the 213 who had LBP and danced during that time, 89 (41.8%) reported that LBP limited their dancing. Pain intensity (median:4 on a 0-10 scale, IQR:3.0) and LBP prevalence were similar across dance genres. Dancers sought multiple medical professionals, most often chiropractors (n=94, 33.8%), medical doctors (n=77, 27.7%), and physiotherapists (n=60, 21.6%). 90 dancers (35.0% of those with LBP) never sought medical care for their LBP at all. Dancers who did seek care reported higher pain intensities (median:4, IQR:3.8) than those who did not (median:3, IQR:3.0). Conclusion: Overall, most participants did suffer from LBP. LBP negatively impacts dancers’ everyday activities and dancing. Pain intensity and loss of function may impact care-seeking. Our findings highlight the need for all dance stakeholders to educate dancers about their health, provide resources for dancer healthcare, and proactively create an environment that supports injury reporting behaviors in dancers.
    • Development of the Dance Fitness Indicator©: A high intensity dance fitness test

      Rogan, Kate; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, 2022-06-30)
      The aim of this study was to develop a contemporary dance technique specific high intensity dance fitness test, and carry out preliminary testing into measuring the physiological intensity and reliability. The choreography of the Dance Fitness Indicator© (DFI©) is based upon Humphrey/Limón, Graham, and Cunningham techniques and includes dance elements that relate to fitness elements, that increase in intensity over four levels, designed to observe changes in heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as the DFI© progresses. Each level lasts for four minutes, 16 seconds, with a 1-minute rest in between each level; the full DFI lasts for 20 minutes and 22 seconds. Twelve contemporary dancers (F=9 age 24±6.86 years, M=3 age 20±0.58 years) were taught the DFI© in a familiarization session before undertaking two test trials, within a one-week period. Dependent variablesto measure intensity were heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa). Data for level 4 during test 1 and test 2 respectively were HR: 184 b.min-1 ±16.79 vs 187 b.min1 ±16.18; RPE: 17 ±2.43 vs 17 ±2.12; and BLa = 8.9 mmol.L-1 ±2.71 vs 9.1 mmol.L-1 ±2.41. Reliability was calculated by determining the coefficient of variation from paired samples t-tests between test 1 and test 2, which demonstrated consistency/good reliability (<5%) for end BLa (3.2%), HR (1.7%) and RPE (0.9%). These preliminary results suggest that the DFI© requires a high physiological intensity demand, through movement-specific contemporary dance technique, relating to dance performance intensity, and is a reliable testing mode within a dance studio environment. It could also be used to assess dancers’ physiological abilities to cope with high intensity intermittent cardiovascular and technical demands of dance performance, however further testing with greater numbers is recommended.
    • How lesson study is used in initial teacher education: an international review of literature

      Bamfield, Vivienne; Boyle, Chris; Bethel, Alison; Knowler, Helen; Katene, Will; Koutsouris, George; Norwich, Brahm (Taylor & Francis, 2022-05-31)
      This paper focuses on the use of lesson study (LS) in initial teacher education (ITE) from a mapping review of international research published in peer reviewed journals. This method enables identification of characteristic features of the research field along with any gaps in the existing evidence base. We map out variations in ITE LS practices by employing a 7-dimensional framework of LS to illustrate the range and draw conclusions about the design and use of LS in ITE. We conclude that LS is an example of teacher enquiry-based practice; identified by researchers as one of the means of building the capacity for a self-improving education system. LS and related practices play a crucial role in preparing teachers to adopt a research orientation to their own practice. However, the paper also discusses the organisational challenges and the balance between acquiring skills and reflection for beginning teachers when introducing LS into ITE.
    • Rocks and hard places: Exploring educational psychologists’ perspectives on ‘off rolling’ or illegal exclusionary practices in mainstream secondary schools in England

      Done, Elizabeth; Knowler, Helen; Shield, Will; Baynton, Hannah (School of Psychology, University of East London, 2022-03-31)
      Research being undertaken by the Universities of Exeter and Plymouth is exploring Educational Psychologists’ knowledge of, and perspectives on, exclusionary practices in schools in England, particularly illegal practices referred to as ‘off rolling’. Preliminary findings from the survey element of a mixed methods research project are reported here. The role of business models in the provision of Educational Psychology Services to schools is considered through the conceptual lens of Giroux, Agamben and Ball to highlight ambiguities around the client relationship and to recast individualised ethical dilemmas as systemic features that inhibit direct challenges to school practices relating to inclusion. It is suggested that traded and privatised services risk implicating educational psychologists in schools’ management of the (in)visibility of ‘off rolling’ and the manufactured legitimacy of varied exclusionary practices.
    • Female genital mutilation: Nigerian Igbo men’s low acceptance of the practice

      Hemuka, Ngozika Jane; Morgan, Angela; Bellingham-Young, Denise; Stonard, Karlie (Springer, 2022-01-09)
      Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) involves the cutting of the external female genital organs for non-medical purposes. It is a widespread public health problem in Nigeria as it affects the health of women and girls. The views of women about FGM are widely researched and known, however very little empirical research has been conducted to understand the views of men. Aim: This study therefore sought to examine men’s views regarding the continuation of FGM and its associated factors in a rural Igbo community in Nigeria. Subject and Method: This paper reports the results of a survey of 215 men aged 18 and above living in Isuikwuato Local Government Area, Uturu in Nigeria. Bivariate and binary logistic regression were performed on 215 completed and returned questionnaires (86% response rate) using Statistical Package for Social Science. This is the first study to investigate Nigerian Igbo men’s views of FGM. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed that almost two thirds of the sample (63.7%) thought FGM should be discontinued. Logistic regression found that owning a television and/or a radio and holding a Christian faith significantly predicted favouring the discontinuation of FGM. Conclusion: This study provides evidence to suggest that some Nigerian Igbo men’s attitudes about FGM appear to be generally less than favourable. The major implication of these findings is that policy makers must place greater emphasis on addressing the economic and social development of rural areas in Nigeria if the harmful practice of FGM is to be reduced.
    • "Children are more than just a statistic. Education is more than government outlines": Primary teachers' perspectives on the standards agenda in England

      Williams-Brown, Zeta; Jopling, Michael (British Education Studies Association, 2022-01-05)
      This paper focuses on qualitative findings from a study that investigated primary teachers’ perspectives on the standards agenda in England. Q-methodology was used to investigate the complexity of their perspectives. The study’s Q-methodology findings are published in Education 3-13 (Williams-Brown and Jopling, 2021). This paper focuses on qualitative responses from this study that were completed after the Q-methodology card sort. It focuses on teachers’ overall perspectives on the standards agenda and statements from the card sort that were placed by five participants or more in the extreme columns of the distribution grid. Findings from the study evidence that teachers were not opposed to standards and accountability, but they voiced a variety of concerns that did not focus solely on SATs. These include concerns about perceptions of achievement, experiences of assessment and measures taken to hold teachers and schools accountable for their actions. Teachers did also emphasise concerns with SATs and discussed the need for objectives to be inclusive and consider the needs of children with SEND. The paper concludes by questioning whether this is the time to reconsider standards agenda objectives.
    • Online surveys to capture health and social care data during a pandemic

      Morgan, Angela; Ahmad, Nahid; Tilly, Liz (Routledge, 2021-12-29)
    • Let's talk about the negative experiences of black mental health service users in England: now is the moment to consider watchful waiting to support their recovery

      Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2021-12-28)
      Watchful waiting is a concept that is traditionally not associated with severe and enduring mental illness. This paper, however, boldly argues that the concept could be used as a ground-breaking and accessible antidote to the perceived inequality experienced by black service users experiencing both mild and severe mental illnesses in England. The novel concepts proposed in this paper are not intended to be consensual, but rather uncompromising to provoke critical thinking in mental health practice. A conceptual framework for watchful waiting in mental health is suggested.
    • Abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with or without enzalutamide for high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of primary results from two randomised controlled phase 3 trials of the STAMPEDE platform protocol

      Attard, Gerhardt; Murphy, Laura; Clarke, Noel W; Cross, William; Jones, Robert J; Parker, Christopher C; Gillessen, Silke; Cook, Adrian; Brawley, Chris; Amos, Claire L; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-12-23)
      Background Men with high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer are treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for 3 years, often combined with radiotherapy. We analysed new data from two randomised controlled phase 3 trials done in a multiarm, multistage platform protocol to assess the efficacy of adding abiraterone and prednisolone alone or with enzalutamide to ADT in this patient population. Methods These open-label, phase 3 trials were done at 113 sites in the UK and Switzerland. Eligible patients (no age restrictions) had high-risk (defined as node positive or, if node negative, having at least two of the following: tumour stage T3 or T4, Gleason sum score of 8–10, and prostate-specific antigen [PSA] concentration ≥40 ng/mL) or relapsing with high-risk features (≤12 months of total ADT with an interval of ≥12 months without treatment and PSA concentration ≥4 ng/mL with a doubling time of <6 months, or a PSA concentration ≥20 ng/mL, or nodal relapse) non-metastatic prostate cancer, and a WHO performance status of 0–2. Local radiotherapy (as per local guidelines, 74 Gy in 37 fractions to the prostate and seminal vesicles or the equivalent using hypofractionated schedules) was mandated for node negative and encouraged for node positive disease. In both trials, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a computerised algorithm, to ADT alone (control group), which could include surgery and luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, or with oral abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and oral prednisolone (5 mg daily; combination-therapy group). In the second trial with no overlapping controls, the combination-therapy group also received enzalutamide (160 mg daily orally). ADT was given for 3 years and combination therapy for 2 years, except if local radiotherapy was omitted when treatment could be delivered until progression. In this primary analysis, we used meta-analysis methods to pool events from both trials. The primary endpoint of this meta-analysis was metastasis-free survival. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, biochemical failure-free survival, progression-free survival, and toxicity and adverse events. For 90% power and a one-sided type 1 error rate set to 1·25% to detect a target hazard ratio for improvement in metastasis-free survival of 0·75, approximately 315 metastasis-free survival events in the control groups was required. Efficacy was assessed in the intention-to-treat population and safety according to the treatment started within randomised allocation. STAMPEDE is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00268476, and with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN78818544. Findings Between Nov 15, 2011, and March 31, 2016, 1974 patients were randomly assigned to treatment. The first trial allocated 455 to the control group and 459 to combination therapy, and the second trial, which included enzalutamide, allocated 533 to the control group and 527 to combination therapy. Median age across all groups was 68 years (IQR 63–73) and median PSA 34 ng/ml (14·7–47); 774 (39%) of 1974 patients were node positive, and 1684 (85%) were planned to receive radiotherapy. With median follow-up of 72 months (60–84), there were 180 metastasis-free survival events in the combination-therapy groups and 306 in the control groups. Metastasis-free survival was significantly longer in the combination-therapy groups (median not reached, IQR not evaluable [NE]–NE) than in the control groups (not reached, 97–NE; hazard ratio [HR] 0·53, 95% CI 0·44–0·64, p<0·0001). 6-year metastasis-free survival was 82% (95% CI 79–85) in the combination-therapy group and 69% (66–72) in the control group. There was no evidence of a difference in metatasis-free survival when enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate were administered concurrently compared with abiraterone acetate alone (interaction HR 1·02, 0·70–1·50, p=0·91) and no evidence of between-trial heterogeneity (I2 p=0·90). Overall survival (median not reached [IQR NE–NE] in the combination-therapy groups vs not reached [103–NE] in the control groups; HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·48–0·73, p<0·0001), prostate cancer-specific survival (not reached [NE–NE] vs not reached [NE–NE]; 0·49, 0·37–0·65, p<0·0001), biochemical failure-free-survival (not reached [NE–NE] vs 86 months [83–NE]; 0·39, 0·33–0·47, p<0·0001), and progression-free-survival (not reached [NE–NE] vs not reached [103–NE]; 0·44, 0·36–0·54, p<0·0001) were also significantly longer in the combination-therapy groups than in the control groups. Adverse events grade 3 or higher during the first 24 months were, respectively, reported in 169 (37%) of 451 patients and 130 (29%) of 455 patients in the combination-therapy and control groups of the abiraterone trial, respectively, and 298 (58%) of 513 patients and 172 (32%) of 533 patients of the combination-therapy and control groups of the abiraterone and enzalutamide trial, respectively. The two most common events more frequent in the combination-therapy groups were hypertension (abiraterone trial: 23 (5%) in the combination-therapy group and six (1%) in control group; abiraterone and enzalutamide trial: 73 (14%) and eight (2%), respectively) and alanine transaminitis (abiraterone trial: 25 (6%) in the combination-therapy group and one (<1%) in control group; abiraterone and enzalutamide trial: 69 (13%) and four (1%), respectively). Seven grade 5 adverse events were reported: none in the control groups, three in the abiraterone acetate and prednisolone group (one event each of rectal adenocarcinoma, pulmonary haemorrhage, and a respiratory disorder), and four in the abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with enzalutamide group (two events each of septic shock and sudden death). Interpretation Among men with high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer, combination therapy is associated with significantly higher rates of metastasis-free survival compared with ADT alone. Abiraterone acetate with prednisolone should be considered a new standard treatment for this population.
    • Development and validation of the RAFFLE; a measure of reasons and facilitators for loot box engagement

      Lloyd, J; Nicklin, LL; Spicer, SG; Fullwood, C; Uther, M; Hinton, DP; Parke, J; Lloyd, H; Close, J; School of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK. (MDPI, 2021-12-18)
      Qualitative studies have identified a diverse array of motivations for purchasing items within video games through chance-based mechanisms (i.e., “loot boxes”). Given that some individuals—particularly those at risk of disordered gaming and/or gambling—are prone to over-involvement with loot box purchasing, it is important to have a reliable, valid means of measuring the role of different motivations in driving purchasing behaviour. Building on prior qualitative re-search, this paper reports the development and validation of the “RAFFLE” scale, to measure the Reasons and Facilitators for Loot box Engagement. A 23-item, seven-factor scale was developed through cognitive interviews (n = 25) followed by two surveys of UK-based gamers who purchase loot boxes; analysed via exploratory (n = 503) and confirmatory (n = 1495) factor analysis, respectively. Subscales encompassed “enhancement’; “progression’; “social pressure’; “distraction/com-pulsion’; “altruism’; “fear of missing out’; and “resale”. The scale showed good criterion and con-struct validity (correlating well with measures of loot box engagement; the risky loot box index (r = 0.63) and monthly self-reported spend (r = 0.38)), and good internal validity (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84). Parallels with, and divergence from, motivations for related activities of gaming and gambling, and alignment with broader theoretical models of motivation, are discussed.
    • The blockchain university: disrupting ‘disruption'

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Jandric; Bonderup Dohn, Nina; Jørgen Hansen, Jens; Børsen Hansen, Stig; Ryberg, Thomas; de Laat, Maarten (Springer, 2021-12-15)
      This paper explores the promise of disruption of higher education offered by latest platform technologies - a combination of mobile applications for connecting teachers and students and blockchain technology for secure transactions of information and money. We start with a brief examination of several generations of technological disruptions arriving from the Silicon Valley with a special focus to educational technology. Showing that these disruptions are primarily focused to furthering capitalist mode of production, we question whether the latest disruption could provide different results. Advertised as 'Uber for students, Airbnb for teachers', the Woolf University offers the seductive promise of radical transformation of higher education based on cooperative principles. Our analysis, which is based on early ideas about the development of the Woolf University, indicates that it has the potentials to offer cooperative learning to students, cooperative employment to academic workers, all the while retaining highest quality of teaching and learning modelled after ancient scholastic principles. On that basis, we conclude that the Woolf University, together with other adaptations of blockchain technology for educational purposes, does offer a lot of potential for fundamental disruption of higher education and should be closely watched in the times to come.
    • This is me: Evaluation of a boardgame to promote social engagement, wellbeing and agency in people with dementia through mindful life-storytelling

      Niedderer, Kristina; Holthoff-Detto, Vjera; van Rompay, Thomas JL; Karahanoğlu, Armağan; Ludden, Geke DS; Almeida, Rosa; Durán, Raquel Losada; Aguado, Yolanda Bueno; Lim, Jennifer NW; Smith, Tina; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-12-15)
      Receiving a dementia diagnosis is a difficult experience for most people and often affects their wellbeing negatively. To support people's wellbeing, in a therapeutic context, life-storytelling, reminiscence and mindfulness are used with people with dementia. In an everyday context, traditional games are used as a resource for stimulating memory, cognition and social activity. While an increasing number of creative strategies are available to support people with dementia, the area of board games design and their effect on wellbeing is underexplored. This paper reports on the evaluation of the This is Me (TIM) mindful life-storytelling board game by the European project MinD. Using a co-design methodology, TIM was developed with and for people with mild to moderate dementia to support their wellbeing by enhancing self-empowerment and social engagement. A focus group methodology was used to evaluate TIM with 50 people with dementia and 19 carers across four countries. TIM was evaluated with regard to the usability and experience of the design as well as people's emotional wellbeing, social engagement and agency. The thematic analysis demonstrated that the combination of life-storytelling and mindfulness allowed players to engage in meaningful social interaction and, as a result, they reported enjoyment, learning, more acceptance of the past and present situation, and that they perceived looking forward into the future together with others as helpful. The study demonstrates that design can be a useful means to support people with dementia in aspects of emotional wellbeing, social engagement and a sense of agency.
    • Public intellectuals in the age of viral modernity: An EPAT collective writing project

      Peters, Michael A; Jandrić, Petar; Fuller, Steve; Means, Alexander J; Rider, Sharon; Lăzăroiu, George; Hayes, Sarah; Misiaszek, Greg William; Tesar, Marek; McLaren, Peter; et al. (Routledge, 2021-12-07)
    • Considerations of control groups: Comparing active-control with no treatment for examining the effects of brief intervention

      Lane, Andrew; Beedie, Chris J; Devonport, Tracey; Friesen, Andrew P.; Research Centre for Sport, Physical Activity (SPARC) School of Sport, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Walsall Campus, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. (MDPI, 2021-11-19)
      Background: A large-scale online study completed by this research team found that brief psychological interventions were associated with high-intensity pleasant emotions and predicted performance. The present study extends this work using data from participants (n = 3376) who completed all self-report data and engaged in a performance task but who did not engage with an intervention or control condition and therefore present as an opportunistic no-treatment group. Methods: 41,720 participants were selected from the process and outcome focus goals intervention groups, which were the successful interventions (n = 30,096), active-control (n = 3039), and no-treatment (n = 8585). Participants completed a competitive task four times: first as practice, second to establish a baseline, third following an opportunity to complete a brief psychological skills intervention, and lastly following an opportunity to repeat the intervention. Repeated measures MANOVA indicated that over four performance rounds, the intensity of positive emotions increased, performance improved, and the amount of effort participants exerted increased; however, these increases were significantly smaller in the no-treatment group. Conclusions: Findings suggest that not engaging in active training conditions had negative effects. We suggest that these findings have implications for the development and deployment of online interventions.
    • Gender differences in videoed accounts of victim blaming for revenge porn for self-taken and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos

      Attrill-Smith, Alison; Wesson, Caroline J; Chater, Michelle L; Weekes, Lucy (Masaryk University, 2021-11-18)
      Using video recounts from revenge porn victims, this study explores whether levels of victim blaming differs for the sharing of self- and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos. Building on previous work which has demonstrated victim blame for both self- and stealth generated images in occurrences of revenge porn (Zvi &amp; Schechory-Bitton, 2020), the reported study presents an original and ecologically valid methodological approach whereby 342 (76 male, 266 female) participants (Mage = 39.27, SD = 11.70) from the UK watched videoed accounts of real experiences of falling victim to revenge porn, rather than using text based, often fictional, vignettes to attribute blame which dominate studies in this area. All data was collected in 2019. The results demonstrated that significantly more blame was assigned to victims when participants were indirectly rather than directly asked who was to blame for the occurrence of revenge porn, supporting the notion of an unconscious processing bias in attributing blame. More blame was also assigned to those victims who themselves generated the material compared to when it had been acquired without their awareness by a perpetrator, suggesting the cognitive bias to be in line with a just world hypothesis. Male participants were more likely to blame a victim than were female participants, although sex of victim and mode of shared sexually-explicit material (video or image) did not appear to affect levels of victim-blame. Findings are considered in terms of extant research and the need for future work in the area of victim blame and revenge pornography.
    • Exclusion and the strategic leadership role of Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCos) in England: planning for COVID-19 and future crises

      Done, Elizabeth; Knowler, Helen (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-11-16)
      A small-scale study funded by the British Educational Association (BERA Small Awards 2020) investigated the role of SENCos in England immediately prior to, during and following the first closure of schools nationally in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed methods research strategy comprising semi-structured interviews and a national online survey generated data related to SENCos’ involvement in strategic planning for crisis conditions, focusing specifically on students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) and concerns around exclusionary practices. Findings suggest that pandemic conditions have exacerbated familiar issues related to the SENCo role and SEND provision in English schools, e.g. engagement in reactive firefighting, onerous workloads, uneven SENCo involvement in strategic planning, and schools’ failure to prioritise students with SEND. Minimal evidence of ‘advocacy leadership’ or of SENCos challenging exclusionary practices was found. Disparities between anecdotal and published data around illegal exclusion found in earlier research were also evidenced.