• Measuring training load in dance: the construct validity of session-RPE

      Surgenor, Brenton; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine Inc, 2019-12-31)
      The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) is a practical and non-invasive method that allows a quantification of internal training load (ITL) in individual and team sports. As yet, no study has investigated its construct validity in dance. This study examines the convergent validity between the session-RPE method and an objective heart rate (HR)-based method of quantifying the similar ITL in vocational dance students during professional dance training. METHODS: Ten dance students (4 male, 20±1.16 yrs; 6 female, 20±0.52 yrs) participated in this study. During a normal week of training, session-RPE and HR data were recorded in 96 individual sessions. HR data were analysed using Edwards-TL method. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the convergent validity between the session-RPE and Edwards-TL methods for assessing ITL in a variety of training modes (contemporary, ballet, and rehearsal). RESULTS: The overall correlation between individual session-RPE and Edwards-TL was r=0.72, p<0.0001, suggesting there was a statistically significantly strong positive relationship between session-RPE and Edwards-TL. This trend was observed across all the training modes: rehearsal sessions (r=0.74, p=0.001), contemporary (r=0.60, p=0.001), and ballet (r=0.46, p=0.018) sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that session-RPE can be considered as a valid method to assess ITL for vocational dance students, and that notably there is some variation between session-RPE and HR-based TL in different dance activities. Med Probl Perform Art 2019;34(1):1–5.
    • Breaking down boundaries? Exploring mutuality through art-making in an open studio mental health setting

      Lewis, Lydia; Spandler, Helen (Intellect Ltd, 2019-12-31)
      Community-based participatory arts projects have been shown to promote well-being and mental health recovery. One reason for this is because they provide opportunities for mutuality – connectedness to others and different kinds of sharing and reciprocity. Yet research into mental health arts projects has not focused on shared creative practice between participants/members and practitioners. This article reports on qualitative research in an arts and mental health organization employing an open studio approach in which art therapists made art alongside members. It explores the possibilities for, and tensions associated with, generating mutuality between studio managers and members through this approach. Conducted from a critically engaged, feminist sociological perspective, the study encompassed an analytical focus on power, especially gender relations. Findings are presented along three themes: (de)constructing and obscuring relational asymmetries; mutual acceptance and its limits; and maintaining, working with and challenging ‘boundaries’. Implications for applied arts and mental health practice are highlighted.
    • Indigenous Languages of Scotland: culture and the classroom

      Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Matheson, David (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Scotland’s indigenous languages were, for very many years, under attack. The Gaelic of the Highlands and Western Isles, arguably one of the earliest written European languages, after Greek and Latin, had a brief apotheosis around 1000CE when it was the language of the Scottish Royal Court. Scots, spoken by the mass of the people, was the language of the renowned Mediaeval poets known as the Makars. Gaelic was effectively ignored but for attempts, by the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, to engender transient bilingualism in order to have the Gaelic diminished and then forgotten. Following the accession of the James VI of Scotland to the throne of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland, the Authorised Edition of the Bible was commissioned and published but only in English, no Scots version being deemed necessary. After the Union of the Parliaments in 1707, what prestige remained to the Scots language diminished rapidly and henceforth almost the entire written output from Scotland has been in English. Exceptions have included Hugh MacDiarmid’s poetry, Liz Lochhead’s translation into Scots of Molière’s Tartuffe (1664/1986), which toured urban working-class areas in the 1980s and to great acclaim, and Trainspotting.
    • A conversation analysis of asking about disruptions in method of levels psychotherapy

      Cannon, Caitlyn; Meredith, Joanne; Speer, Susan; Mansell, Warren (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Method of Levels (MOL) is a cognitive therapy with an emerging evidence base. It is grounded in Perceptual Control Theory and its transdiagnostic nature means techniques are widely applicable and not diagnosis-specific. This paper contributes to psychotherapy process research by investigating a key technique of MOL, asking about disruptions, and in doing so aims to explore how the technique works and aid the understanding of related techniques in other psychotherapies. Method: Conversation Analysis (CA) is applied to asking about disruptions in twelve real-life therapeutic interactions. Findings: Analyses explore how and when therapists ask about disruptions, with examples presented according to their degree of adherence to the MOL approach. The majority of identified instances project responses consistent with MOL aims; encouraging further talk, focused on the client’s problem, and with a shift to meta-level commentary. Also presented are examples of therapist and client influence on disruptions. Conclusion: The paper provides support for a number of MOL practices, with clinical implications and links to other psychotherapies highlighted.
    • Animal faux pas: two legs good four legs bad for theory of mind, but not in the broad autism spectrum

      Atherton, Gray; Cross, Liam (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Research shows that the general population varies with regards to both autistic traits and theory of mind (ToM) ability. Other work has shown that autistic individuals may not under-perform on ToM tests when the agent of evaluation is anthropomorphic rather than typically human. Two studies examined the relation between ToM and autistic trait profiles in over 650 adults using either the standard Faux Pas Recognition Test (FPT) or an anthropomorphised version (FPTa). Results showed that autistic trait profiles were related to faux pas detection ability in the FPT but not the FPTa. Furthermore, while those with the broad autism phenotype scored significantly worse than those who were typically developed on the FPT, scores did not significantly differ on the FPTa. These findings add to a growing body of work suggesting that ToM ability is not at a global deficit in those on the autistic spectrum, but may relate to the mindreading of specifically human agents.
    • Between the post and the com-post: Examining the postdigital ‘work’ of a prefix

      Sinclair, Christine; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      In examining the work of the prefix ‘post’, we aim to contribute to the current postdigital dialogue. Our paper does not provide a rationale for the use of ‘postdigital’ in the title of this journal: that has been thoroughly explored elsewhere. We want instead to consider the work the prefix might do. We look at ‘post’, as it appears to ‘act’ in the terms of ‘postmodernism’ and ‘posthumanism’, suggesting that modernism and humanism are in need of questioning and reworking. We also examine what gets ‘post-ed’, or sometimes ‘com-posted’. (Com- is another interesting prefix, meaning ‘with’.) We then consider how these inquiries inform our understanding of a ‘postdigital reality’ that humans now inhabit. We understand this as a space of learning, struggle, and hope, where ‘old’ and ‘new’ media are now ‘cohabiting artefacts’ that enmesh with the economy, politics and culture. In entering this postdigital age, there really is no turning back from a convergence of the traditional and the digital. However, this is not simply a debate about technological and non-technological media. The postdigital throws up new challenges and possibilities across all aspects of social life. We believe this opens up new avenues too, for considering ways that discourse (language-in-use) shapes how we experience the postdigital.
    • Amotz Zahavi

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2019-05-14)
    • A narrative review of family members’ experience of organ donation request after brain death in the critical care setting

      Kentish-Barnes, N.; Siminoff, L.A.; Walker, Wendy; Urbanski, M.; Charpentier, J.; Thuong, M.; Sarti, A.; Shemie, S.D.; Azoulay, E. (Springer, 2019-03-06)
      Introduction Family members of critically ill patients suffer from high levels of anxiety and depression in the ICU, and are at risk of developing post-ICU syndrome following ICU discharge. In the case of brain death, and potential organ donation, the family is at the center of the decision process: within a limited time frame, the family will be informed that the patient is brain-dead and will be approached about potential organ donation. Materials and methods Family experience with organ donation has been the topic of several research papers allowing one to gain knowledge about family members’ experience of organ donation, emphasizing specific needs, adequate support, and pointing out gaps in current delivery of family-centered care. In this narrative review, experts, clinicians, and researchers present the various legal systems regarding family implication in organ donation decisions; describe factors that influence the decision-making process; highlight family perspectives of care and respect for potential donors in the ICU environment; describe the impact of organ donation discussions and decisions on post-ICU syndrome; and suggest communication skills and support to be developed in the future. A research agenda for the next decade is also encouraged. Conclusion Overall, challenges remain and concern all persons involved in the process, ICU doctors and nurses, the organ procurement organization, family members, and, in some cases, the patients themselves. Looking at the big picture will provide opportunities for further improvements.
    • Challenges of maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria

      Ekpenyong, Mandu Stephen; Bond, Carol; Matheson, David (Insight Medical Publishing, 2019-02-27)
      Background and aim: Evidence in the literature indicates that maternal health care by a skilled birth attendant is one of the key strategies for maternal survival. However, the rate of maternity care utilization and reduction of maternal death is very low in Nigeria. This study was designed to explored factors influencing women utilization of maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria. Hence, the need to understand factors that serves as barriers to accessing maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM). Methods: A mixed method was employed for this study. Data collection used questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to 330 respondents of which 318 of them were retrieved and qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted for 6 participants. The study was conducted in one of the tertiary health facilities in Nigeria, amongst mothers aged 15-45 years. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the quantitative data whilst a qualitative content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Results: The study established that education, income level, costs associated with seeking care, distance and time taken to travel were significantly associated with maternity health care services utilization. The study concludes that; costs of treatment, distance and time, income level, staff attitude and women’s autonomy were critical in determining women utilization of maternity care services.
    • The postdigital challenge of redefining academic publishing from the margins

      Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-27)
      This paper explores relationships between knowledge production and academic publication and shows that the current political economy of mainstream academic publishing has resulted from a complex interplay between large academic publishers, academics, and hacker-activists. The process of publishing is a form of ‘social production’ that takes place across the economy, politics and culture, all of which are in turn accommodating both old and new technology in our postdigital age. Technologies such as software cannot be separated from human labour, academic centres cannot be looked at in isolation from their margins, and the necessity of transdisciplinary approaches does not imply the disappearance of traditional disciplines. In the postdigital age, the concept of the margins has not disappeared, but it has become somewhat marginal in its own right. We need to develop a new language of describing what we mean by ‘marginal voices’ in the social relations between knowledge production and academic publication. Universities require new strategies for cohabitation of, and collaboration between, various socio-technological actors, and new postdigital politics and practice of knowledge production and academic publishing.
    • Radical actions to address UK organ shortage, enacting Iran’s paid donation programme: A discussion paper

      Timmins, Rebecca; Sque, Magi (Sage, 2019-02-21)
      Globally there is a shortage of organs available for transplant resulting in thousands of lives lost as a result. Last year in the United Kingdom (UK) 457 people died as a result of organ shortage1. NHS Blood and Transplant suggest national debates to test public attitudes to radical actions to increase organ donation should be considered in addressing organ shortage. The selling of organs for transplant in the UK is prohibited under the Human Tissue Act 2004. This discussion paper considers five ethical objections raised in the UK to paid donation, and discusses how these objections are managed within the only legal and regulated paid living unrelated renal donation programme in the world in Iran, where its kidney transplant list was eliminated within two years of its commencement. This paper discusses whether paid living unrelated donation in Iran increases riskier donations, and reduced altruistic donation as opponents of paid donation claim. The paper debates whether objections to paid donation based upon commodification arguments only oppose enabling financial ends, even if these ends enable beneficent acts. Discussions in relation to whether valid consent can be given by the donor will take place, and will also debate the objection that donors will be coerced and exploited by a paid model. This paper suggests that exploitation of the paid donor within the Iranian model exists within the legally permitted framework. However paid living kidney donation should be discussed further and other models of paid donation considered in the UK as a radical means of increasing donation.
    • Cross-cultural comparisons of aerobic and muscular fitness in Tanzanian and English youth: An allometric approach

      Ndabi, Joyce; Nevill, Alan M.; Sandercock, Gavin (PLOS, 2019-02-15)
      Comparisons of physical fitness measures between children or within group measures over time are potentially confounded by differences in body size. We compared measures of strength (handgrip) and aerobic fitness (running-speed [20m shuttle-run]) of 10.0–15.9 year-olds from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (n = 977) with schoolchildren from England (n = 1014) matched for age and sex. Differences in fitness were analyzed using general linear models, with allometric scaling for body size (mass and stature) and further adjustments for physical activity. Mean handgrip of Tanzanians was lower than English youth (F = 165.0, P<0.001, ηp2 = .079). The difference became trivial when run-speed was scaled for body size (ηp2 = .008). Running-speed of the English children was higher than in Tanzanians (F = 16.0, P<0.001, ηp2 = .014). Allometric scaling for accentuated this between-county difference in running-speed (ηp2 = .019) but when adjusted for physical activity between-country differences in running-speed were trivial (ηp2 = .008). These data contradict those studies showing poor muscular fitness in African youth and highlight the need for appropriate scaling techniques to avoid confounding by differences in body size. In contrast to those from rural areas, our sample of contemporary urban Tanzanians were less aerobically fit than European youth. Differences were independent of body size. Lower aerobic fitness of urban Tanzanian youth may be due to reported physical activity levels lower than those of English youth and lower still than previously reported in rural Tanzania.
    • Locus of control and involvement in videogaming

      Lloyd, Joanne; Frost, Sally; Kuliesius, Ignas; Jones, Claire (Sage, 2019-02-13)
      Abstract An external locus of control (feeling low personal control over one’s life) has been linked with excessive/addictive behaviours, including problematic videogaming. The current study sought to determine whether this is driven by the opportunity for greater control over one’s environment within a videogame. Participants (n = 252, 59% males) completed a traditional locus of control scale, alongside a modified version assessing in-game feelings of control. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that feeling less under the control of powerful others in-game than in the real world was a significant predictor of gaming frequency (standardised β = .31, p < .0005), while feeling comparatively more internal control in-game than in real life significantly predicted problematic gaming (standardised β = .17, p = .02). This demonstrates that locus of control in-game can diverge from that experienced in the real world, and the degree of divergence could be a risk factor for frequent and/or problematic gaming in some individuals.
    • Exercise, or exercise and diet for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Kite, Chris; Lahart, Ian M; Afzal, Islam; Broom, David R; Randeva, Harpal; Kyrou, Ioannis; Brown, James E (BMC, 2019-02-12)
      Typically, management of PCOS focuses on lifestyle changes (exercise and diet), aiming to alleviate symptoms, and lower the associated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to analyse evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in the management of PCOS, when compared to (i) usual care, (ii) diet alone, and (iii) exercise combined with diet, and also exercise combined with diet, compared to (i) control or usual care and (ii) diet alone. Relevant databases were searched (June 2017) with no time limit for trial inclusion. Eligible trials employed a randomised or quasi-randomised design to measure the chronic effects of exercise, or exercise and diet in women with PCOS. Searches returned 2390 articles; of those, 27 papers from 18 trials were included. Results are presented as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Compared with control, exercise had a statistical effect on change from baseline fasting insulin (MD - 2.44 μIU/mL, 95% CIs - 4.24 to - 0.64; very low-quality evidence), HOMA-IR (- 0.57, - 0.99 to - 0.14; very low-quality evidence), total cholesterol (- 5.88 mg/dL, - 9.92 to - 1.83; low-quality evidence), LDL cholesterol (- 7.39 mg/dL, - 9.83 to - 4.95; low-quality evidence), and triglycerides (- 4.78 mg/dL, - 7.52 to - 2.05; low-quality evidence). Exercise also improved VO Statistically beneficial effects of exercise were found for a range of metabolic, anthropometric, and cardiorespiratory fitness-related outcomes. However, caution should be adopted when interpreting these findings since many outcomes present modest effects and wide CIs, and statistical effects in many analyses are sensitive to the addition/removal of individual trials. Future work should focus on rigorously designed, well-reported trials that make comparisons involving both exercise and diet.
    • Altruism advertises cooperativeness

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2019-02-09)
      Altruism is defined as a behaviour that is beneficial to a receiver, but costly to the altruist (Trivers, 1971). Altruism is a phenomenon which causes evolutionary theorists trouble when tying it into the overall play of evolution. Why be altruistic to someone you do not know?
    • Effects of playing position, pitch location, opposition ability and team ability on the technical performance of elite soccer players in different score line states

      Redwood-Brown, Athalie J; O'Donoghue, Peter G; Nevill, Alan M; Saward, Chris; Sunderland, Caroline (PLOS, 2019-02-05)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on technical performance variables (pass, cross, corner, free kick accuracy) of English Premier League Soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack) was used to code player actions in real time for passing accuracy, cross accuracy, corner accuracy and free kick accuracy. In total 376 of the 380 games played during the 2011-12 English premier League season were recorded, resulting in activity profiles of 570 players and over 35'000 rows of data. These data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed a "u" shaped association between passing accuracy and goal difference (GD) with greater accuracy occurring at extremes of GD e.g., when the score was either positive or negative. The same pattern was seen for corner accuracy away from home e.g., corner accuracy was lowest when the score was close with the lowest accuracy at extremes of GD. Although free kicks were not associated with GD, team ability, playing position and pitch location were found to predict accuracy. No temporal variables were found to predict cross accuracy. A number of score line effects were present across the temporal factors which should be considered by coaches and managers when preparing and selecting teams in order to maximise performance. The current study highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.
    • Mobile learning — trends and practices

      Uther, Maria (MDPI, 2019-02-05)
      Mobile learning has become one of the more influential aspects in the field of educational technology given the ubiquity of modern mobile devices and proliferation of educational applications or ‘apps’ for mobile devices. Within this special issue, there are a range of studies and reviews which cover a breadth of current topics in the field, namely user motivations for using mobile learning, issues in evaluation and domain-specific considerations (e.g., use within language learning or audio-based applications). Together these studies represent the synthesis of a range of methods, approaches and applications that highlight benefits and areas of future growth of mobile technologies.
    • Supporting the mental health needs of young people: The spatial practices of school nurses

      Sherwin, Sarah (Emerald, 2019-01-31)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of an understanding of how school nurses work in multiple spaces, supporting young people in relation to promoting and protecting their emotional and mental health and wellbeing. It is argued that young people’s emotional health needs are still as prevalent today as they were over 150 years ago, when Charles Dickens wrote about them in the novel Nicholas Nickleby. Design/methodology/approach Soja’s (1996) typology of spatial practice is applied to school nursing practice in an attempt to explore how different types of space influence how support is given to young people. Findings Examples are provided from previous research (Sherwin, 2016) of how Soja’s theory of Firstspace, Secondspace and Thirdspace can be identified within school nurses’ practice, thereby providing an understanding of how school nurses provide support to young people on an everyday basis. It is proposed that in an addition Fourthspace also exists and a new conceptual model of spatial practice is proposed. Originality/value School nurses have the potential to make a significant impact on preventing and protecting young people’s mental health. They provide valuable support to young people to enable them to cope with the complexities of their lives, yet relatively little is known about their everyday practice as this is an under-reported area of nursing. A new conceptual model is proposed to help provide an understanding of their practice.
    • Identifying the optimal body shape and composition associated with strength outcomes in children and adolescent according to place of residence: an allometric approach

      Lovecchio, Nicola; Giuriato, Matteo; Zago, Matteo; Nevill, Alan M. (Routledge, 2019-01-29)
      The purpose of the study was to identify the optimal body shape and composition associated with physical fitness levels of children living in urban and rural areas of Italy. A total of 7102 children (11–14 years) were assessed for weight, height, percentage body fat (FM%), sit-and-reach flexibility (SAR), standing broad jump (SBJ) and sit-ups (SUP). A multiplicative allometric model, Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 ·ε, was used to predict the physical outcome variables Y = SBJ and SUP. The model was expanded to incorporate FM% and SAR as follows Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 · FM%k3 · exp(b· FM% + c· SAR) ·ε. Note that FM% was incorporated as a “gamma function” that allows an initial growth, and subsequent decline in Y as FM% increases in size. Although having an ectomorph body shape appears advantageous, being too thin appears detrimental to the strength outcomes. Being flexible would also benefit physical fitness levels. Finally, our results indicate that ursban children aged 11–14 have superior strength outcomes compared with rural children, having controlled for differences in body shape and composition, a finding that may be associated with rural environments having fewer exercise facilities compared with urban conurbations.
    • The labour of words in Higher Education is it time to reoccupy policy?

      Hayes, Sarah (Brill, 2019-01-28)
      As Higher Education has come to be valued for its direct contribution to the global economy, university policy discourse has reinforced this rationale. In The Labour of Words in Higher Education: Is it Time to Reoccupy Policy? two globes are depicted. One is a beautiful, but complete artefact, that markets a UK university. The second sits on a European city street and is continually inscribed with the markings of passers-by. A distinction is drawn between the rhetoric of university McPolicy, as a discourse that appears to no longer require input from humans, and a more authentic approach to writing policy, that acknowledges the academic labour of staff and students, in effecting change. Inspired by the work of George Ritzer on the McDonaldisation of Society, the term McPolicy is adopted by the author, to describe a rational method of writing policy, now widespread across UK universities. Recent strategies on ‘the student experience’, ‘technology enhanced learning’, ‘student engagement’ and ‘employability’ are explored through a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Findings are humourously compared to the marketing of consumer goods, where commodities like cars are invested with human qualities, such as ‘ambition’. Similarly, McPolicy credits non-human strategies, technologies and a range of socially constructed buzz phrases, with the human qualities and labour activities that would normally be enacted by staff and students. This book is written for anyone with an interest in the future of universities. It concludes with suggestions of ways we might all reoccupy McPolicy.