• Prevalence and socio-economic correlates of insomnia among older people in Anhui, China

      Ma, Ying; Hu, Zhi; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Zhou, Yanfei (AJA.Inc, 2018-09-03)
      Objective To measure the prevalence of insomnia and identify the socio‐economic correlates of insomnia among older people of Anhui Province of China. Methods A cross‐sectional study was conducted among 3045 randomly selected consenting residents aged 60 and older from Anhui Province during 2013. Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Data collected included: (i) demographics; (ii) socio‐economic status; (iii) social support; (iv) social contact; and (v) social capital. Results Overall, 24% were found to have insomnia and 9% were found to have suspected insomnia according to the AIS score. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants having no fixed income, less social contact, less social capital and living alone were more likely to suffer from insomnia. Conclusions A high prevalence of insomnia was found among older people in Anhui Province of China. Socio‐economic determinants should be addressed in devising policies aimed at improving sleep quality for older people in this region.
    • Effects of berberine on blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic Literature review and a meta-analysis

      Liang, Yaping; Xu, Xiaojia; Yin, Mingjuan; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Lingfeng; Chen, Ruoling; Ni, Jindong (The Japan Endocrine Society, 2018-11-03)
      We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of Berberine on glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify potential factors may modifying the hypoglycemic effect. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database to identify randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of Berberine. We calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Twenty-eight studies were identified for analysis, with a total of 2,313 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The pool data showed that Berberine treatment was associated with a better reduction on FPG (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.77 to –0.30), PPG (WMD = –0.94 mmol/L, 95% CI: –1.27 to –0.61), and HbA1c (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.93 to –‍0.15) than control groups. Subgroup-analyses indicated that effects of Berberine on blood glucose became unremarkable as the treatment lasted more than 90 days, the daily dosage more than 2 g/d and patients aged more than 60 years. The efficiency of Berberine combined with hypoglycaemics is better than either Berberine or hypoglycaemic alone. The dosage and treatment duration of Berberine and patients’ age may modify the effect.
    • Associations of adverse childhood experiences and social support with self-injurious behaviour and suicidality in adolescents: are there any gender differences?

      Wana, Yuhui; Chen, Ruoling; Ma, Shuangshuang; McFeeters, Danielle; Sun, Ying; Haoa, Jiahu; Taoa, Fangbiao (Cambridge University Press, 2018-11-27)
      Background There is little investigation on the interaction effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in community adolescent populations, or gender differences in these effects. Aims To examine the individual and interaction effects of ACEs and social support on NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents, and explore gender differences. Method A school-based health survey was conducted in three provinces in China between 2013–2014. A total of 14 820 students aged 10–20 years completed standard questionnaires, to record details of ACEs, social support, NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Results Of included participants, 89.4% reported one or more category of ACEs. The 12-month prevalence of NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 26.1%, 17.5% and 4.4%, respectively; all were significantly associated with increased ACEs and lower social support. The multiple adjusted odds ratio of NSSI in low versus high social support was 2.27 (95% CI 1.85–2.67) for girls and 1.81 (95% CI 1.53–2.14) for boys, and their ratio (Ratio of two odds ratios, ROR) was 1.25 (P = 0.037). Girls with high ACEs scores (5–6) and moderate or low social support also had a higher risk of suicide attempt than boys (RORs: 2.34, 1.84 and 2.02, respectively; all P < 0.05). Conclusions ACEs and low social support are associated with increased risk of NSSI and suicidality in Chinese adolescents. Strategies to improve social support, particularly among female adolescents with a high number of ACEs, should be an integral component of targeted mental health interventions. Declaration of interest None.
    • Minding the gap - From disparity to beyond

      Cureton, Debra; Cousins, Glynis (SRHE Annual Research Conference, 2013-12-11)
      The sector wide differences in the attainment of students categorised as Black Minority Ethnic (BME) and as white increases, despite the good degrees gained by students categorised as BME rising year on year (ECU, 2012). In this research staff and student perceptions of the attainment gap are explored and initiatives to reduce the gap are implemented. The research identified four areas that are crucial to student success and contribute to gap:  the quality of learning relationships  pedagogic factors: i.e. the clarity of assignment briefs  psychosocial barriers: i.e. student expectation, belongingness, aspiration raising and fear of stereotype threats  social capital: i.e. understanding the HE rules of engagement and degree classifications On conclusion of the programme the University saw a 2% decrease in its attainment gap. This work continues through the What Works Change Programme and considers how assessment practices can impact of student retention, progression, success and sense of belongingness.
    • Peer mentoring for staff development in a changing work environment

      Cureton, Debra; Green, P.; Meakin, L. (The International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 2010-06-30)
      This paper details the impact of a formalised staff mentoring scheme on people working in a University in the United Kingdom. It considers aspects of a changing political agenda on the working lives of employees and considers how mentoring can mediate its negative effects. Evaluation data indicates that the scheme provides developmental opportunities, contact with others, emotional support and the opportunity for reflection. It is suggested that these findings are transferable to other large, changing, organisational environments where a variety of occupational groups are employed.
    • Factors of success for formal mentoring in Higher Education: Exploration through autoethnography

      Cureton, Debra (EMCC, 2010-07-31)
      An auto-ethnographical methodology was used to collect field notes and reflective data over a three year period, which focused on the implementation of a formal staff mentoring scheme within a Higher Education setting. Through the analysis of collected data, observations about the implementation, process and outcomes have been made. Suggestions about the interactional nature of time invested into a mentoring relationship, the nature of the mentoring relationship, personal and organisational investment and the benefits of mentoring have also been proposed.
    • Supporting students’ learning: The power of the student–teacher relationship

      Cureton, Debra; Gravestock, Phil (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-07-06)
      The learning relationship between students and those who teach them is intrinsic to student success (Thomas, Building student engagement and belonging at a time of change in higher education. London: Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 2012). Moreover, one of the factors that can lead to differential outcomes in student success is believed to stem from differences in the perceived and experienced learning relationships between students and their lecturers (Cousin and Cureton, Disparities in student attainment (DiSA). York: Higher Education Academy, 2012). This chapter considers the components of the student and teacher learning relationship that encourage students to be successful, and the multi-layered and multifaceted factors that can affect such relationships. The chapter will draw on the wider literature around learning relationships, whilst providing illustrative case studies from two research programmes: Disparities in Student Attainment (DiSA) and phase two of the What Works? project.
    • The student psychological contract

      Cureton, Debra; Cousins, Glynis (HE Academy, 2012-10-31)
    • The Impact of Mentoring on Stress in Higher Education

      Cureton, Debra; Jones, Jennifer; Foster, William (The International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching, 2011-06-01)
      The aim of this research is to understand the association between stress and involvement in a mentoring relationship within a higher education context. Three studies were carried out, within the same large UK University targeting both mentees and mentors involvement in one particular mentoring scheme, for their views and perceptions about mentoring and stress. The keys findings within this case study are that mentoring does allow both mentors and mentees to feel supported, particularly in times of pressure and stress. Mentoring helps to raise self-awareness, confidence levels and helps further develop professional relationships for both parties. Through engaging in ongoing reflection together, mentors and mentees feel that mentoring has had a positive impact on their work-related stress and has provided them with coping strategies. Ultimately, the suggestion is that involvement in mentoring provides strategies for coping with situations, the opportunity to reflect and leads to feeling valued.
    • Disparities in student attainment: The University of Wolverhampton final report

      Cousins, Glynis; Cureton, Debra (HE Academy, 2012-10-31)
      This project was the result of a the National Teaching Fellowship Scheme (NTFS) project fund initiative funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and managed by the Higher Education Academy (HEA). The research discussed in this document has been carried out across two Higher Education Institutions in the Midlands: Coventry University and the University of Wolverhampton.
    • What works? The University of Wolverhampton final report

      Cureton, Debra (Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 2016-07-31)
    • Key somatic variables in young backstroke swimmers

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Helmi, Chaabene; Hachana, Younes (Routledge, 2018-11-15)
      The purpose of this study was to estimate the optimal body size, limb-segment length, girth or breadth ratios for 100-m backstroke mean speed performance in young swimmers. Sixty-three young swimmers (boys [n = 30; age: 13.98 ± 0.58 years]; girls [n = 33; age: 13.02 ± 1.20 years]) participated in this study. To identify the optimal body size and body composition components associated with 100-m backstroke speed performance, we adopted a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. The multiplicative allometric model exploring the association between 100-m backstroke mean speed performance and the different somatic measurements estimated that biological age, sitting height, leg length for the lower-limbs, and two girths (forearm and arm relaxed girth) are the key predictors. Stature and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. In fact, it is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the abovementioned ratios could have been derived. These findings highlighted the importance of considering somatic characteristics of young backstroke swimmers and can help swimming coaches to classify their swimmers and enable them to suggest what might be the swimmers’ most appropriate stroke (talent identification).
    • The confidence delusion: A sociological exploration of participants' confidence in sport-for-development

      Scott, David S. (Sage, 2018-11-25)
      Although sport is widely utilised as a tool for personal development, capacity building, and fostering peace, there are still numerous theoretical gaps in our knowledge about how sport influences individuals’ identities, and how this translates into their everyday lives. Within the academic literature there has been seemingly little focus placed upon participants’ emotional and embodied accounts of their sport-for-development (SfD) experiences. This paper uses phenomenologically-inspired theory to explore individuals’ lived experiences of a SfD course, and their descriptions of the social interactions and feelings of confidence they encountered, in order to address this lack of experiential data. An ethnographic methodology was used to collect data through four sports leadership course observations, and cyclical interviews over 4–10 months with eleven course attendees, plus individual interviews with five tutors. Participants’ understandings of their course experiences and the subsequent influence these understandings had on their lives were described through their use of the term confidence. A further phenomenological and sociological interrogation of this term enabled confidence to be seen as being experienced as a ‘frame’ and ‘through the body’ by participants. This study provides original conceptualisations of confidence in relation to participants’ SfD experiences, as well as important discussions regarding the role of emotions and embodiment in understanding the impact of SfD on participants’ everyday lives.
    • A brief report on the associations amongst social media use, gender, and body esteem in a UK student sample

      Ormsby, Hollie; Owen, Alison; Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2018-12-06)
      Research into the effects of social media on personal wellbeing have been controversial in recent years, with recent research highlighting links between social media use and body esteem. This conceptual replication study aimed to explore relationships amongst social media use, body esteem and gender amongst UK university students (n=100). Participants completed measures of social media use and body image esteem. It was hypothesised that social media intensity and usage would negatively predict body esteem, with high social media intensity relating to lower body esteem. We find that gender was the only significant predictor of body esteem, with women having lower body esteem compared to men. We were unable to replicate previous findings, as our findings show no relationships amongst social media intensity, use, and body esteem.
    • The ability of adults of different size to egress through confined space apertures

      Stewart, Arthur; Nevill, Alan M.; Johnson, Christopher (Sage, 2018-12-31)
      Absolute body size is a strong predictor of minimum wall aperture transit in adults. Key anatomical dimensions scale to egress capability, but men and women exhibit subtle differences. Wherever clearance space is restricted, transit capability is likely to become increasingly limited by enlarged body size associated with increased obesity prevalence.
    • The influence of mate choice motivation on non-financial altruism

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Bartlett, James; Farrelly, Daniel (Springer, 2018-11-19)
      Several studies have found that individuals are more altruistic towards potential mates than others, suggesting altruistic behavior may be a mating signal. Much of the literature focuses on financial altruism using economic games, however altruism can also comprise of non-financial acts, which this experiment examined in an attempt to replicate and refine previous findings. A study was conducted with 199 participants, who viewed both high attractive and low attractive opposite-sex images and were asked how likely they would be to altruistically share their research credits with the person in the image, whilst controlling for self-rated attractiveness. The findings suggest that both men and women were more altruistic towards pictures of high attractive than low attractive potential mating partners (Cohen’s d = 0.37). This study therefore partially replicates previous research examining the role of mate choice effects when exploring non-financial altruism.
    • How to retrieve a patient’s hat – learning about mental health nursing by exploring our history

      Gillam, Tony; Cawley, Tim (Mental Health Nursing Association, 2018-10-31)
      Tracing your family history can be likened to connecting the seemingly random pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. In an educational context, historical artefacts can help to connect us with past systems of mental health care and can serve to acquaint mental health nursing students with their nursing ancestors. In this article, we examine two such resources – a rather unusual book and a short documentary film – both of which have been used in sessions on the history of mental health nursing at the University of Wolverhampton.