• The association between training load indices and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in elite soccer players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Comyns, Thomas; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (SAGE, 2021-06-17)
      This study aimed to investigate the association between training load indices and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) across different lag periods in elite soccer players. Internal training load was collected from 15 elite soccer players over one full season (40 weeks). Acute, chronic, Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR), Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages (EWMA) ACWR, 2, 3 and 4-week cumulative load, training strain and training monotony were calculated on a rolling weekly basis. Players completed a daily illness log, documenting any signs and symptoms, to help determine an URTI. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between training load indices and URTIs across different lag periods (1 to 7-days). The results found a significant association between 2-week cumulative load and an increased likelihood of a player contracting an URTI 3 days later (Odds Ratio, 95% Confidence Interval: OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 0.026-1.431). Additionally, a significant association was found between 3-week cumulative load and a players’ increased risk of contracting an URTI 4 days later (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.013–1.006). These results indicate that accumulated periods of high training load (2- and 3-week) associated with an increased risk of a player contracting an URTI, which may lead to performance decrements, missed training sessions or even competitions.
    • The roles of motivational interviewing and self-efficacy on outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-based exercise intervention for inactive mid-older aged adults

      Rose, Catherine; Galbraith, Niall; Rose, Peter (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Increasing physical activity (PA) among inactive middle-older aged adults in rural communities is challenging. This study investigates the efficacy of a PA intervention supporting inactive adults in rural/ semi-rural communities. Inactive participants enrolled on either a single signposting session (n=427), or multi-session pathway combining signposting with motivational interviewing (MI) (n=478). Pre-post outcomes data assessed activity levels (IPAQ-S; SISEM), self-efficacy (NGSE) and well-being (WHO-5). Measures were repeated at longitudinal time points (26, 52 weeks) for the MI pathway. Outcomes were contrasted with results from an unmatched comparison group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Cost-utility (QALY-ICER) and return on investment (NHS-ROI; QALY-ROI) were estimated for short (5 years), medium (10 years) and long (25 years) time horizons. Both pathways significantly increased participants’ PA. The MI pathway resulted in significantly greater increases in PA than signposting-only and TAU. Improvements in psychological outcomes (NGSE; WHO-5) were significantly greater in the MI pathway than TAU. Longitudinal results indicated MI pathway participants sustained increases in light-intensity PA at 52 weeks (p<.001; ηp2=.16). Regression analyses found baseline self-efficacy predicted increased PA at 52 weeks, while baseline wellbeing did not. The relationship between self-efficacy and PA increased successively across time points. However, the magnitude of participants’ increased self-efficacy did not predict PA at any time point. Both pathways were cost-effective and costsaving for participants aged ≥ 61 years from the short time horizon, with the MI pathway having greater return on investment estimates. Overall, MI increased efficacy of a signposting PA intervention, and was cost-saving for older adults.
    • Loot boxes, problem gambling, and problem video gaming: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

      Spicer, Stuart G; Nicklin, Laura L; Uther, Maria; Lloyd, Joanne; Lloyd, Helen; Close, James (SAGE, 2021)
      Loot boxes are video game-related purchases with a chance-based outcome. Due to similarities with gambling, they have come under increasing scrutiny from media, academics and policymakers alike. Initial evidence suggested that loot box (LB) engagement might be associated with both problem gambling (PG) and problem video gaming (PVG). We therefore conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between LB purchasing, PG and PVG. For LB/PG, 12 of 13 publications reported a positive relationship, with a moderately sized mean effect of r = 0.27. For LB/PVG, the mean effect was r = 0.40, although this finding was drawn from only six surveys in total. For PG/PVG, the mean effect was r = 0.21, with only 11 of 20 studies reporting significant effects. Whilst further evidence is required to determine direction of causality, the strength of relationships suggests that policy action on loot boxes may have benefits for harm minimisation.
    • It is like ‘judging a book by its cover’: An exploration of the lived experiences of Black African mental health nurses in England

      Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2021-06-14)
      The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of perceived prejudices faced in England by Black African mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used to identify five nurses from sub-Saharan Africa. They were interviewed using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings were reported under two superordinate themes: Judging a book by its cover and opportunities. The findings showed that Black African nurses experience deep-rooted discrimination and marginalisation. Aside from that, because of their ethnicity and the fact that they speak English as a second language, they face discrimination and have difficulty achieving leadership roles. These findings provide key stakeholders, such as nursing trade unions and professional associations, as well as NHS employers, with the opportunity to act to counter hegemony in the NHS and recognise that discriminatory and racially related barriers hinder Black African nurses from reaching their full professional potential.
    • A person-centered evaluation of subjective well-being using a latent profile analysis: Associations with negative life events, distress, and emotion regulation strategies

      Lazić, Milica; Jovanović, Veljko; Gavrilov-Jerković, Vesna; Boyda, David; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia. (Wiley, 2021-04-25)
      The present study examined the structure of subjective well-being (SWB) using a person-centered approach, and tested whether SWB profiles differed in a number of self-reported negative life events, emotional distress, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. The sample included a total of 945 undergraduate students from Serbia (78% female, M<sub>age</sub>  = 20.14 years). A 3-step latent profile analysis with partial conditional independence revealed four profiles, which have been tentatively labeled: low SWB (a combination of low life satisfaction, low positive affect, and high negative affect), mixed SWB (moderate to high life satisfaction, moderate to low positive affect, high negative affect), moderately low SWB (low life satisfaction, moderate to low positive affect, moderate negative affect), high SWB (high life satisfaction, high positive affect, low negative affect). A comparison of SWB profiles applied to symptoms of emotional distress, along with the number of self-reported negative life events and emotion regulation strategies, offered support to the validity of four SWB profiles. Our findings suggest that a person-centered perspective might be a valuable tool for understanding the structure of SWB.
    • EHCP implementation in the early years: constrictions and possibilities

      Richards, Hazel (Wiley/NASEN, 2021-04-13)
      In England, Education and Health Care Plans (EHCPs) created changes for SENCOs, including those working in private, voluntary and independent (PVI) early years settings. Such SENCOs hold, as a minimum, a relevant Level-3 qualification, with subsequent training and support being optional, varied and sometimes difficult to access. This situation has implications for EHCP implementation and for the roles and responsibilities of SENCOs because effective realisation of the joint working, early identification and intervention prioritised in EHCPS require power, knowledge and skills. SENCOs from one Local Authority in England participated in this mixed-methods research. Identity theory and Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological theory were applied to analyse the macro through to micro level influences. This revealed seven key influences: information and resources; ethos and support; quality of evidence; relationships; knowledge and skills; purpose and outcomes. This paper presents the manifestation of these in the experience of eight Early Years SENCOs working PVI settings.
    • Comparing individual and population differences in VE/VCO2 slopes using centile growth curves and log-linear allometry

      Nevill, Alan M; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross; Myers, Tony D (European Respiratory Society, 2021-05-27)
      Identifying vulnerable groups and/or individuals’ cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important challenge for clinicians/researchers alike. To quantify CRF accurately, the assessment of several variables is now standard practice including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and ventilatory efficiency, the latter assessed using the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope. Recently, reference values (centiles) for VE/VCO2 slopes for men and women aged 20 to 80 have been published, using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) data (treadmill protocol) from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). In the current observational study we provide centile curves for the FRIEND Registry VE/VCO2 slopes, fitted using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), to provide individuals with a more precise estimate of where their VE/VCO2 slopes fall within the population. We also confirm that by adopting allometric models (incorporating a log-transformation), the resulting ANCOVAs provided more normal and homoscedastic residuals, with superior goodness-of-fit using the Akaike information criterion AIC=14 671 (compared with traditional ANCOVA's AIC=15 008) that confirms allometric models are vastly superior to traditional ANCOVA models. In conclusion, providing sex-by-age centile curves rather than referring to reference tables for ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slopes) will provide more accurate estimates of where an individual's particular VE/VCO2 slope falls within the population. Also, by adopting allometric models researchers are more likely to identify real and valid inferences when analysing population/group differences in VE/VCO2 slopes.
    • Outcomes of ondansetron use in children with gastroenteritis in the emergency department: a literature review

      Lloyd-Martin, Elizabeth (RCN Publishing, 2021-03-23)
      In the UK, the use of antiemetics in children with gastroenteritis is not standardised. The antiemetic ondansetron is often administered, in clinical practice, to children presenting with gastroenteritis. However, it is not listed in the British National Formulary for Children for use in gastroenteritis and it is not included in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence algorithm for the management of gastroenteritis in children under 5 years. This article discusses the findings of a literature review of the outcomes of ondansetron use in children with gastroenteritis in the emergency department. The article concludes that ondansetron appears to be a beneficial and useful adjunct to the treatment of gastroenteritis in children.
    • Response to the Comment by Armstrong and Welsman on ‘Developing a new curvilinear allometric model to improve the fit and validity of the 20-m shuttle run test as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults and youth’

      Nevill, Alan M; Ramsbottom, Roger; Sandercock, Gavin; Bocachica-González, Carlos Eduardo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tomkinson, Grant (Springer, 2021-05-20)
    • The free school meal voucher scheme & children’s access to food during the Covid-19 crisis

      Lalli, Gurpinder (British Educational Research Association, 2021-05-13)
    • Speed agility trends in children according to growth

      Giuriato, Matteo; Codella, Roberto; Lovecchio, Nicola; Carnevale Pellino, Vittoria; Vandoni, Matteo; Nevill, Alan M (Taylor & Francis, 2021-05-11)
      Background Speed agility is considered as the whole assessment of speed of movement, agility and coordination. The 10x4m test has been broadly used to evaluate physical fitness and overall health in children of developmental ages. A myriad of studies have investigated the ecology of speed agility (SA). However, body dimensions are rarely appraised, and this is a weakness because body shapes are affected by growth. Aim This study aimed to model SA-specific allometric equations, and develop an approach objectively predictive for performance while controlling for maturity through age at peak height velocity (agePHV). Subjects and methods A total of 7317 (3627 girls) children aged 8–11 years were SA-tested. Multiplicative models with allometric body-size components, agePHV, and categorical differences, were implemented to evaluate SA performance. Results Model 1 accounted for body-size and shape only, whereas Model 2 included agePHV and Model 3 considered standing broad jump (SBJ) as a surrogate marker for explosive strength. An ectomorphic dominance was revealed across all the models. Conclusion The explosive strength resulted in influencing SA per height-to-weight ratio. Further, positive exponent of agePHV suggested that the late maturers were likely to show better SA performances. Predictive equations modelled on developmental factors are fundamental to scrutinise performances as valuable health and fitness outcomes in childhood.
    • “It’s the attraction of winning that draws you in” – A qualitative investigation of reasons and facilitators for videogame loot box engagement in UK gamers

      Nicklin, Laura; Spicer, Stuart Gordon; Close, James; Parke, Jonathan; Smith, Oliver; Raymen, Thomas; Lloyd, Helen; Lloyd, Joanne (MDPI, 2021-05-13)
      Excessive engagement with (increasingly prevalent) loot boxes within games has consist ently been linked with disordered gambling and/or gaming. The importance of recognising and managing potential risks associated with loot box involvement means understanding contributing factors is a pressing research priority. Given that motivations for gaming and gambling have been informative in understanding risky engagement with those behaviours, this qualitative study investigated motivations for buying loot boxes, through in-depth interviews with 28 gamers from across the UK. A reflexive thematic analysis categorized reasons for buying into seven ‘themes’; opening experience; value of box contents; game-related elements; social influences; emotive/impulsive influences; fear of missing out; and triggers/facilitators. These themes are described in detail and discussed in relation to the existing literature and motivation theories. This study contributes to understanding ways in which digital items within loot boxes can be highly valued by purchasers, informing the debate around parallels with gambling. Findings that certain motivations were disproportionately endorsed by participants with symptoms of problematic gambling has potential implications for policy and warrants further study.
    • Toward improved triadic functioning: Exploring the interactions and adaptations of coaches, parents and athletes in professional academy soccer through the adversity of COVID-19

      Maurice, James; Devonport, Tracey J.; Knight, Camilla J. (Frontiers Media, 2021-05-19)
      On March 23rd, 2020, elite soccer academies in the UK closed in compliance with the government enforced lockdown intended to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. This forced parents, players, and coaches to reconsider how they interacted with, and supported, one another. The aims of the present study were (a) to explore the perceptions of players, parents, and coaches (i.e., the athletic triangle) regarding how they interacted and collaborated with one another during the COVID-19 pandemic to support wellbeing and performance, and; (b) to identify opportunities to enhance workings of those within the athletic triangle resulting from adaptions made following enforced lockdown. Using an interpretive description methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five coaches, six players, and six parents from an English elite academy soccer club. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings highlighted (a) the importance of support and the different means of communication used between members of the athletic triangle to facilitate such support; (b) the increased understanding of each member of the athletic triangle, leading to enhanced relationships, and; (c) how members of the athletic triangle adapted practice to facilitate relationship development during the pandemic and beyond. The identification of these considerations has implications for coach and parent education initiatives to allow for optimal functioning of the athletic triangle as elite academy soccer clubs return from lockdown. These include (a) the importance of continued communication between coach, athlete and parent; (b) increasing understanding of each individual within the athletic triangle; and (c) utilising key interpersonal and technological skills learnt during the lockdown to further facilitate engagement within the athletic triangle.
    • Associations of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose and body mass index among pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes with offspring being large for gestational age and preterm birth: a cohort study in China

      Tang, J; Chen, R; Yu, Y; Bao, W; Tiemeier, H; Rodney, A; Zhu, X; Li, M; Huang, D; Zhao, Q; et al. (BMJ, 2021-02-10)
      Introduction Associations of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and body mass index (BMI) with large for gestational age (LGA) and preterm birth (PTB) have been poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal BMI, separately and together with pre-pregnancy IFG, with LGA and PTB in Chinese population. We also aimed to quantify these associations by maternal age. Research design and methods This was a retrospective cohort study of women from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project with singleton birth from 121 counties/districts in 21 cities of Guangdong Province, China, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2017. Women were included if they did not have pre-existing chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, etc). Participants were divided into eight groups according to their BMI (underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m 2), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2), overweight (24.0-27.9 kg/m 2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m 2)) and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status (normoglycemia (fasting glucose concentration <6.1 mmol/L) and IFG (6.1-7.0 mmol/L)). Adjusted incidence risk ratios (aIRRs) and 95% CIs of LGA, severe LGA, PTB and early PTB were estimated. Results We included 634 030 women. The incidences of LGA, severe LGA, PTB and early PTB for the study population were 7.1%, 2.5%, 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively. Compared with normal weight mothers with normoglycemia, overweight and obese mothers irrespective of IFG had a higher risk of LGA (eg, obesity with IFG aIRR 1.85 (1.60-2.14)) and severe LGA (eg, obesity with IFG 2.19 (1.73-2.79)). The associations of BMI and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status with LGA were similar found among women of all age groups. Underweight with normoglycemia had 6.0% higher risk of PTB (1.06 (1.03-1.09)) and 8.0% higher risk of early PTB (1.08 (1.02-1.17)), underweight with IFG had 14.0% higher risk of PTB (1.14 (1.02-1.27)), and obese mothers with IFG had 45.0% higher risk of PTB (1.45 (1.18-1.78)). The associations of BMI and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status with PTB differed by maternal age. Conclusion Overweight and obesity regardless of IFG were associated with an increased risk of LGA, and these associations were similarly observed among mothers of all age groups. Underweight regardless of IFG, and obesity with IFG were associated with an increased risk of PTB, but the associations differed by maternal age. Findings from this study may have implications for risk assessment and counselling before pregnancy.
    • The value of pro-environmental behaviour in mate choice

      Daniel, Farrelly; Bhogal, Manpal (Elsevier, 2021-05-03)
      Previous research shows that prosocial behaviour such as altruism is important in mate choice. A plethora of research shows that people are attracted to prosocial mates, and in turn, display prosocial behaviours towards those they find attractive. However, most of this research has focused on everyday forms of prosociality. Here, we apply this theoretical framework to pro-environmental behaviours, which are important prosocial behaviours, considering there is a time cost involved in engaging in such behaviours. In addition, encouraging people to engage in pro-environmental behaviours has great implications for the protection of our planet. Here, across two experiments, we successfully show that engaging in pro-environmental behaviours can increase one’s desirability in the mating market (experiment 1, n = 157) and that people display a motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviours in the presence of attractive, opposite sex targets (experiment 2, n = 307). We therefore show that it could be possible to increase pro-environmental behaviours via mate choice motivation and also demonstrate their positive role in mate evaluation. These findings have implications for marketing and increasing environmental behaviour through the lens of evolutionary theory. Note: data and materials for both experiments are available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/g42bd/?view_only=916a807650ab4f77ae66b3fc56021752).
    • Are early or late maturers likely to be fitter in the general population?

      Nevill, AM; Negra, Y; Myers, TD; Duncan, MJ; Chaabene, H; Granacher, U; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. (MDPI, 2021-01-09)
      The present study aims to identify the optimal body-size/shape and maturity characteristics associated with superior fitness test performances having controlled for body-size, sex, and chronological-age differences. The sample consisted of 597 Tunisian children (396 boys and 201 girls) aged 8 to 15 years. Three sprint speeds recorded at 10, 20 and 30 m; two vertical and two horizontal jump tests; a change-of-direction and a handgrip-strength tests, were assessed during physical-education classes. Allometric modelling was used to identify the benefit of being an early or late maturer. Findings showed that being tall and light is the ideal shape to be successful at most physical fitness tests, but the height-to-weight “shape” ratio seems to be test-dependent. Having controlled for body-size/shape, sex, and chronological age, the model identified maturity-offset as an additional predictor. Boys who go earlier/younger through peak-height-velocity (PHV) outperform those who go at a later/older age. However, most of the girls’ physical-fitness tests peaked at the age at PHV and decline thereafter. Girls whose age at PHV was near the middle of the age range would appear to have an advantage compared to early or late maturers. These findings have important implications for talent scouts and coaches wishing to recruit children into their sports/athletic clubs.
    • Choose where you live carefully: built environment differences in children’s cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk

      Nevill, AM; Reuter, CP; Brand, C; Gaya, AR; Mota, J; Renner, JDP; Duncan, MJ; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3EZ, UK. (MDPI, 2021-02-21)
      Information regarding urban-rural differences in health indicators are scarce in Brazil. This study sought to identify rural-urban differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and car-diometabolic risk (CMR) in Brazilian children and adolescents whilst controlling for the important confounding variables including social economic status (SES). This is a cross-sectional study developed with children and adolescents (n = 2250, age 11.54 ± 2.76) selected from a city in the south of Brazil. CRF was estimated using a 6-minute run/walk test. CMR scores were calculated by summing different cardiometabolic risk indicators. CRF was analysed assuming a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components. CMR differences in residential locations was assessed using Analysis of caovariance (ANCOVA) adopting SES, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), age and fitness as covariates. Results indicated a main effect of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the highest CRF, and children living in the periphery of towns having the lowest. Analysis also revealed significant main effects of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the lowest CMR and children living in the centre of towns having the highest. Therefore, Brazilian children living in a rural environment appear to have superior health benefits.
    • The influence of anthropometric variables, body composition, propulsive force and maturation on 50m freestyle swimming performance in junior swimmers: An allometric approach

      dos Santos, Marcos AM; Henrique, Rafael S; Salvina, Marlene; Silva, Artur Henrique Oliveira; Junior, Marco Aurelio de VC; Queiroz, Daniel R; Duncan, Michael J; Maia, Jose AR; Nevill, Alan M; Department of Physical Education, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-03-04)
      The purpose of the current article was to use allometric models to identify the best body size descriptors and other anthropometric variables, body composition, and offset maturity that might be associated with the youngsters' 50m personal-best (PB) swim speeds (m·s<sup>-1</sup>). Eighty-five competitive swimmers (male, n=50; 13.5±1.8 y; female, n=35; 12.6±1.8 y) participated in this study. Height, body mass, sitting height, arm span, skinfolds, arm muscle area (AMA), and maturity offset were assessed. Swimming performance was taken as the PB time recorded in competition, and the propulsive force of their arm (PFA) was assessed by the tied swimming test. The multiplicative allometric model relating 50m PB swim speeds (m·s<sup>-1</sup>) to all the predictor variables found percentage body fat as a negative [(BF%) β= -.121±.036;<i> P</i>=0.001], and PFA (PFA β=.108±.033;<i> P</i>=0.001) and the girl's arm span (β=.850±.301;<i> P</i>=0.006), all log-transformed, as positive significant predictors of log-transformed swim speed. The adjusted coefficient of determination, R<sub>adj</sub><sup>2</sup> was 54.8% with the log-transformed error ratio being 0.094 or 9.8%, having taken antilogs. The study revealed, using an allometric approach, that body fatness and PFA were significant contributors to 50m freestyle swim performance in young swimmers.