• How moving together brings us together: when coordinated rhythmic movement affects cooperation

      Cross, Liam; Wilson, Andrew; Golonka, Sabrina (Frontiers Media, 2016-12-22)
      Although it is well established that rhythmically coordinating with a social partner can increase cooperation, it is as yet unclear when and why intentional coordination has such effects. We distinguish three dimensions along which explanations might vary. First, pro-social effects might require in-phase synchrony or simply coordination. Second, the effects of rhythmic movements on cooperation might be direct or mediated by an intervening variable. Third, the pro-social effects might occur in proportion to the quality of the coordination, or occur once some threshold amount of coordination has occurred. We report an experiment and two follow-ups which sought to identify which classes of models are required to account for the positive effects of coordinated rhythmic movement on cooperation. Across the studies, we found evidence (1) that coordination, and not just synchrony, can have pro-social consequences (so long as the social nature of the task is perceived), (2) that the effects of intentional coordination are direct, not mediated, and (3) that the degree of the coordination did not predict the degree of cooperation. The fact of inter-personal coordination (moving together in time and in a social context) is all that's required for pro-social effects. We suggest that future research should use the kind of carefully controllable experimental task used here to continue to develop explanations for when and why coordination affects pro-social behaviors.
    • Childhood maltreatment and social functioning in adults with sub-clinical psychosis

      Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle (Elsevier, 2015-01-30)
      Studies now acknowledge a robust association between childhood maltreatment and psychosis development in adulthood. Research shows that maltreatment not only influences the child׳s psychological wellbeing but also inhibits domains of social development. These social impairments have been found to predate the onset of psychosis and may crucially represent an intervening factor which triggers the decline towards psychosis. To examine social functioning as a potential mediating pathway between early maltreatment and sub-clinical psychosis. The study utilised data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=7403). Psychotic-like experiences were assessed using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) along with measures designed to capture childhood maltreatment and social impairment. Results revealed that maltreatment was associated with both social functioning deficits as well as psychotic symptomology. Furthermore, social functioning was found to mediate the relationship between maltreatment and psychosis. The results align with literature linking maltreatment to both social functioning deficits and psychosis. Crucially, the study bridges these research areas by presenting functional decline as possible risk indicator and intervening factor between maltreatment and psychosis. Intervention strategies should therefore seek to capitalise on treatments which boost social aptitude as a means of averting further decline towards psychopathology.
    • Challenges of maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria

      Ekpenyong, Mandu Stephen; Bond, Carol; Matheson, David (Insight Medical Publishing, 2019-02-27)
      Background and aim: Evidence in the literature indicates that maternal health care by a skilled birth attendant is one of the key strategies for maternal survival. However, the rate of maternity care utilization and reduction of maternal death is very low in Nigeria. This study was designed to explored factors influencing women utilization of maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria. Hence, the need to understand factors that serves as barriers to accessing maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM). Methods: A mixed method was employed for this study. Data collection used questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to 330 respondents of which 318 of them were retrieved and qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted for 6 participants. The study was conducted in one of the tertiary health facilities in Nigeria, amongst mothers aged 15-45 years. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the quantitative data whilst a qualitative content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Results: The study established that education, income level, costs associated with seeking care, distance and time taken to travel were significantly associated with maternity health care services utilization. The study concludes that; costs of treatment, distance and time, income level, staff attitude and women’s autonomy were critical in determining women utilization of maternity care services.
    • Meeting the communication support needs of children and young people with intellectual disabilities in the Bolivian Andes

      Buell, Susan; Chadwick, Darren (Sage, 2017-08-16)
      Services available for people with disabilities in Bolivia tend to be fragmented and costly. Children and adults with intellectual disabilities are more likely to have a related communication disability and are thus both literally and metaphorically excluded from having a voice. The following research aimed to explore the experiences of accessing services by people with communication disabilities in Bolivia through semi-structured interviews and one focus group carried out with family members, professionals, service providers, educators and policymakers. It aimed to establish the nature of current services in Bolivia where knowledge, information and resources are scarce. Findings indicated the need to consider an alternative to a medical model approach through a focus on empowering other stakeholders to participate more fully in meeting communication support needs. Conclusions plot ideas for future service delivery and emphasize the central power of sharing practical and expert knowledge.
    • Training support staff to modify fluids to appropriate safe consistencies for adults with intellectual disabilities and dysphagia: an efficacy study

      Chadwick, D D; Stubbs, J; Fovargue, S; Anderson, D; Stacey, G; Tye, S (Blackwell, 2013-12-09)
      Modifying the consistency of food and drink is a strategy commonly used in the management of dysphagia for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). People with ID often depend on others for the preparation of food and drink and therefore depend on those caregivers achieving the correct consistency to keep them safe and avoid discomfort during mealtimes. Clinical experience and prior research have demonstrated that although training can improve modification, carers often find modification difficult and potentially stressful and recommend additional support for carers. Fluid consistency is often modified through the addition of powdered thickener. This study investigates the efficacy of typical training and use of consistency guides, the Thickness Indicator Model (TIM) tubes, in helping carers to modify fluids accurately. A 3 × 3 pre-post experimental design with a control group was employed to compare the observed accuracy of modification across three groups and at three time points (pre-intervention baseline, immediately post-training intervention and 3-10 months post-training). Sixty-two paid carers who supported people with ID were recruited to participate in the study and each was randomly allocated to one of the three groups: a control group given written guidance only, a group who received typical training and written guidance and a group who received training, written guidance and the TIM tubes. Typical training resulted in significantly greater carer accuracy in modifying fluid consistencies when compared with written guidance alone. Use of the TIM tubes also significantly improved accuracy in the modification of drinks compared with the group who modified with the aid of written guidance alone. At 3-10-month follow-up only the group who received typical training alongside the TIM tubes were significantly more accurate than the Written Guidance group. Further research is warranted to ascertain the effectiveness of the training and the utility of the TIM tubes in improving accuracy over a longer time scale and in individuals' usual living environments.
    • Investigating humor in social interaction in people with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review of the literature

      Chadwick, Darren David; Platt, Tracey (Frontiers Media S.A., 2018-09-21)
      Humor, both producing and appreciating, underpins positive social interactions. It acts as a facilitator of communication. There are clear links to wellbeing that go along with this form of social engagement. However, humor appears to be a seldom studied, cross-disciplinary area of investigation when applied to people with an intellectual disability. This review collates the current state of knowledge regarding the role of humor behavior in the social interactions of people with intellectual disabilities and their carers.
    • Speech and language therapists' approaches to communication intervention with children and adults with profound and multiple learning disability

      Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan (Wiley, 2014-06-12)
      People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the decisions to use specific interventions and the extent to which the rationales underpinning these decisions related to the components of evidence based practice (EBP), namely empirical evidence, clinical experience and client/carer views and values. A questionnaire on communication assessment and intervention for people with PMLD was sent to SLTs in the UK to elicit information on: the communication intervention approaches they used; their rationales for their intervention choices; their use of published evidence to inform decision making. Intensive interaction and objects of reference were the communication interventions most often used with people with PMLD, with some differences between children and adults evident. Rationales provided conformed somewhat to the EBP framework though extension of the existing framework and addition of practical and organizational considerations led to a revised typology of rationale for decision making. Rationales most frequently related to the empowerment, development and behavioural preferences of the person with PMLD.
    • Animal faux pas: two legs good four legs bad for theory of mind, but not in the broad autism spectrum

      Atherton, Gray; Cross, Liam (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Research shows that the general population varies with regards to both autistic traits and theory of mind (ToM) ability. Other work has shown that autistic individuals may not under-perform on ToM tests when the agent of evaluation is anthropomorphic rather than typically human. Two studies examined the relation between ToM and autistic trait profiles in over 650 adults using either the standard Faux Pas Recognition Test (FPT) or an anthropomorphised version (FPTa). Results showed that autistic trait profiles were related to faux pas detection ability in the FPT but not the FPTa. Furthermore, while those with the broad autism phenotype scored significantly worse than those who were typically developed on the FPT, scores did not significantly differ on the FPTa. These findings add to a growing body of work suggesting that ToM ability is not at a global deficit in those on the autistic spectrum, but may relate to the mindreading of specifically human agents.
    • A narrative review of family members’ experience of organ donation request after brain death in the critical care setting

      Kentish-Barnes, N.; Siminoff, L.A.; Walker, Wendy; Urbanski, M.; Charpentier, J.; Thuong, M.; Sarti, A.; Shemie, S.D.; Azoulay, E. (Springer, 2019-03-06)
      Introduction Family members of critically ill patients suffer from high levels of anxiety and depression in the ICU, and are at risk of developing post-ICU syndrome following ICU discharge. In the case of brain death, and potential organ donation, the family is at the center of the decision process: within a limited time frame, the family will be informed that the patient is brain-dead and will be approached about potential organ donation. Materials and methods Family experience with organ donation has been the topic of several research papers allowing one to gain knowledge about family members’ experience of organ donation, emphasizing specific needs, adequate support, and pointing out gaps in current delivery of family-centered care. In this narrative review, experts, clinicians, and researchers present the various legal systems regarding family implication in organ donation decisions; describe factors that influence the decision-making process; highlight family perspectives of care and respect for potential donors in the ICU environment; describe the impact of organ donation discussions and decisions on post-ICU syndrome; and suggest communication skills and support to be developed in the future. A research agenda for the next decade is also encouraged. Conclusion Overall, challenges remain and concern all persons involved in the process, ICU doctors and nurses, the organ procurement organization, family members, and, in some cases, the patients themselves. Looking at the big picture will provide opportunities for further improvements.
    • Indigenous Languages of Scotland: culture and the classroom

      Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Matheson, David (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Scotland’s indigenous languages were, for very many years, under attack. The Gaelic of the Highlands and Western Isles, arguably one of the earliest written European languages, after Greek and Latin, had a brief apotheosis around 1000CE when it was the language of the Scottish Royal Court. Scots, spoken by the mass of the people, was the language of the renowned Mediaeval poets known as the Makars. Gaelic was effectively ignored but for attempts, by the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, to engender transient bilingualism in order to have the Gaelic diminished and then forgotten. Following the accession of the James VI of Scotland to the throne of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland, the Authorised Edition of the Bible was commissioned and published but only in English, no Scots version being deemed necessary. After the Union of the Parliaments in 1707, what prestige remained to the Scots language diminished rapidly and henceforth almost the entire written output from Scotland has been in English. Exceptions have included Hugh MacDiarmid’s poetry, Liz Lochhead’s translation into Scots of Molière’s Tartuffe (1664/1986), which toured urban working-class areas in the 1980s and to great acclaim, and Trainspotting.
    • Cross-cultural comparisons of aerobic and muscular fitness in Tanzanian and English youth: An allometric approach

      Ndabi, Joyce; Nevill, Alan M.; Sandercock, Gavin (PLOS, 2019-02-15)
      Comparisons of physical fitness measures between children or within group measures over time are potentially confounded by differences in body size. We compared measures of strength (handgrip) and aerobic fitness (running-speed [20m shuttle-run]) of 10.0–15.9 year-olds from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (n = 977) with schoolchildren from England (n = 1014) matched for age and sex. Differences in fitness were analyzed using general linear models, with allometric scaling for body size (mass and stature) and further adjustments for physical activity. Mean handgrip of Tanzanians was lower than English youth (F = 165.0, P<0.001, ηp2 = .079). The difference became trivial when run-speed was scaled for body size (ηp2 = .008). Running-speed of the English children was higher than in Tanzanians (F = 16.0, P<0.001, ηp2 = .014). Allometric scaling for accentuated this between-county difference in running-speed (ηp2 = .019) but when adjusted for physical activity between-country differences in running-speed were trivial (ηp2 = .008). These data contradict those studies showing poor muscular fitness in African youth and highlight the need for appropriate scaling techniques to avoid confounding by differences in body size. In contrast to those from rural areas, our sample of contemporary urban Tanzanians were less aerobically fit than European youth. Differences were independent of body size. Lower aerobic fitness of urban Tanzanian youth may be due to reported physical activity levels lower than those of English youth and lower still than previously reported in rural Tanzania.
    • Altruism advertises cooperativeness

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2019-02-09)
      Altruism is defined as a behaviour that is beneficial to a receiver, but costly to the altruist (Trivers, 1971). Altruism is a phenomenon which causes evolutionary theorists trouble when tying it into the overall play of evolution. Why be altruistic to someone you do not know?
    • Between the post and the com-post: Examining the postdigital ‘work’ of a prefix

      Sinclair, Christine; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      In examining the work of the prefix ‘post’, we aim to contribute to the current postdigital dialogue. Our paper does not provide a rationale for the use of ‘postdigital’ in the title of this journal: that has been thoroughly explored elsewhere. We want instead to consider the work the prefix might do. We look at ‘post’, as it appears to ‘act’ in the terms of ‘postmodernism’ and ‘posthumanism’, suggesting that modernism and humanism are in need of questioning and reworking. We also examine what gets ‘post-ed’, or sometimes ‘com-posted’. (Com- is another interesting prefix, meaning ‘with’.) We then consider how these inquiries inform our understanding of a ‘postdigital reality’ that humans now inhabit. We understand this as a space of learning, struggle, and hope, where ‘old’ and ‘new’ media are now ‘cohabiting artefacts’ that enmesh with the economy, politics and culture. In entering this postdigital age, there really is no turning back from a convergence of the traditional and the digital. However, this is not simply a debate about technological and non-technological media. The postdigital throws up new challenges and possibilities across all aspects of social life. We believe this opens up new avenues too, for considering ways that discourse (language-in-use) shapes how we experience the postdigital.
    • Exercise, or exercise and diet for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Kite, Chris; Lahart, Ian M; Afzal, Islam; Broom, David R; Randeva, Harpal; Kyrou, Ioannis; Brown, James E (BMC, 2019-02-12)
      Typically, management of PCOS focuses on lifestyle changes (exercise and diet), aiming to alleviate symptoms, and lower the associated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to analyse evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in the management of PCOS, when compared to (i) usual care, (ii) diet alone, and (iii) exercise combined with diet, and also exercise combined with diet, compared to (i) control or usual care and (ii) diet alone. Relevant databases were searched (June 2017) with no time limit for trial inclusion. Eligible trials employed a randomised or quasi-randomised design to measure the chronic effects of exercise, or exercise and diet in women with PCOS. Searches returned 2390 articles; of those, 27 papers from 18 trials were included. Results are presented as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Compared with control, exercise had a statistical effect on change from baseline fasting insulin (MD - 2.44 μIU/mL, 95% CIs - 4.24 to - 0.64; very low-quality evidence), HOMA-IR (- 0.57, - 0.99 to - 0.14; very low-quality evidence), total cholesterol (- 5.88 mg/dL, - 9.92 to - 1.83; low-quality evidence), LDL cholesterol (- 7.39 mg/dL, - 9.83 to - 4.95; low-quality evidence), and triglycerides (- 4.78 mg/dL, - 7.52 to - 2.05; low-quality evidence). Exercise also improved VO Statistically beneficial effects of exercise were found for a range of metabolic, anthropometric, and cardiorespiratory fitness-related outcomes. However, caution should be adopted when interpreting these findings since many outcomes present modest effects and wide CIs, and statistical effects in many analyses are sensitive to the addition/removal of individual trials. Future work should focus on rigorously designed, well-reported trials that make comparisons involving both exercise and diet.
    • Identifying the best body-weight-status index associated with metabolic risk in youth

      Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Nevill, Alan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pereira, Sara; Dos Santos, Marcos Moura; Buranarugsa, Rojapon; Dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Souza, Michele; Chaves, Raquel; Maia, José (Wiley, 2018-06-23)
      This study investigated the association of six different anthropometric markers with metabolic syndrome to find the most suited to predict children at risk. Sample comprises 1324 Portuguese youth (701 girls, 623 boys), aged 10‐17 years. Six anthropometric markers were included: body mass index (BMI), BMI z‐score, tri‐ponderal index (TPI), waist circumference (WC), WC/height ratio (WC/H), and WC/H adjusted ratio (WC/Hadj). A standardized metabolic risk score (zMR) was computed by summing of standardized values for fasting glucose, triglycerides, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and mean arterial blood pressure. The associations between zMR and anthropometric markers were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the optimal values that best predict metabolic risk of each anthropometric marker. Among the studied predictors, BMI z‐score, followed by BMI and WC, was most highly associated with zMR, while WC/Hadj was the weakest predictor. ROC analyses showed significant AUCs for all markers, yet the discrimination was poor (AUCs from 0.60 to 0.68), with sensitivity ranging from 45.5% to 67.5% and specificity from 72.6% to 81.9%. The optimal cut‐off values to predict metabolic risk were 1.62, 23.1 kg/m2, 71.0 cm, 18.0 kg/m3, 0.47, and 0.50, for BMI z‐score, BMI, WC, TPI, WC/H, and WC/Hadj, respectively. BMI z‐score, followed by BMI and WC, were the most relevant anthropometric markers to predict metabolic risk in youth, while WC/Hadj was the worst predictor. Results suggest that anthropometric markers should continue to be used as clinical tools to identify youth at risk.
    • Effects of playing position, pitch location, opposition ability and team ability on the technical performance of elite soccer players in different score line states

      Redwood-Brown, Athalie J; O'Donoghue, Peter G; Nevill, Alan M; Saward, Chris; Sunderland, Caroline (PLOS, 2019-02-05)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on technical performance variables (pass, cross, corner, free kick accuracy) of English Premier League Soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack) was used to code player actions in real time for passing accuracy, cross accuracy, corner accuracy and free kick accuracy. In total 376 of the 380 games played during the 2011-12 English premier League season were recorded, resulting in activity profiles of 570 players and over 35'000 rows of data. These data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed a "u" shaped association between passing accuracy and goal difference (GD) with greater accuracy occurring at extremes of GD e.g., when the score was either positive or negative. The same pattern was seen for corner accuracy away from home e.g., corner accuracy was lowest when the score was close with the lowest accuracy at extremes of GD. Although free kicks were not associated with GD, team ability, playing position and pitch location were found to predict accuracy. No temporal variables were found to predict cross accuracy. A number of score line effects were present across the temporal factors which should be considered by coaches and managers when preparing and selecting teams in order to maximise performance. The current study highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.
    • Mobile learning — trends and practices

      Uther, Maria (MDPI, 2019-02-05)
      Mobile learning has become one of the more influential aspects in the field of educational technology given the ubiquity of modern mobile devices and proliferation of educational applications or ‘apps’ for mobile devices. Within this special issue, there are a range of studies and reviews which cover a breadth of current topics in the field, namely user motivations for using mobile learning, issues in evaluation and domain-specific considerations (e.g., use within language learning or audio-based applications). Together these studies represent the synthesis of a range of methods, approaches and applications that highlight benefits and areas of future growth of mobile technologies.
    • Breaking down boundaries? Exploring mutuality through art-making in an open studio mental health setting

      Lewis, Lydia; Spandler, Helen (Intellect Ltd, 2019-12-31)
      Community-based participatory arts projects have been shown to promote well-being and mental health recovery. One reason for this is because they provide opportunities for mutuality – connectedness to others and different kinds of sharing and reciprocity. Yet research into mental health arts projects has not focused on shared creative practice between participants/members and practitioners. This article reports on qualitative research in an arts and mental health organization employing an open studio approach in which art therapists made art alongside members. It explores the possibilities for, and tensions associated with, generating mutuality between studio managers and members through this approach. Conducted from a critically engaged, feminist sociological perspective, the study encompassed an analytical focus on power, especially gender relations. Findings are presented along three themes: (de)constructing and obscuring relational asymmetries; mutual acceptance and its limits; and maintaining, working with and challenging ‘boundaries’. Implications for applied arts and mental health practice are highlighted.
    • Supporting the mental health needs of young people: The spatial practices of school nurses

      Sherwin, Sarah (Emerald, 2019-01-31)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of an understanding of how school nurses work in multiple spaces, supporting young people in relation to promoting and protecting their emotional and mental health and wellbeing. It is argued that young people’s emotional health needs are still as prevalent today as they were over 150 years ago, when Charles Dickens wrote about them in the novel Nicholas Nickleby. Design/methodology/approach Soja’s (1996) typology of spatial practice is applied to school nursing practice in an attempt to explore how different types of space influence how support is given to young people. Findings Examples are provided from previous research (Sherwin, 2016) of how Soja’s theory of Firstspace, Secondspace and Thirdspace can be identified within school nurses’ practice, thereby providing an understanding of how school nurses provide support to young people on an everyday basis. It is proposed that in an addition Fourthspace also exists and a new conceptual model of spatial practice is proposed. Originality/value School nurses have the potential to make a significant impact on preventing and protecting young people’s mental health. They provide valuable support to young people to enable them to cope with the complexities of their lives, yet relatively little is known about their everyday practice as this is an under-reported area of nursing. A new conceptual model is proposed to help provide an understanding of their practice.
    • The role of subjective quality judgements in user preferences for mobile learning apps

      Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari (MDPI, 2018-12-24)
      This study investigated whether subjective quality judgements on sound and picture quality across three devices (iPhone, iPad, and iPad mini) affected user preferences for learning applications. We tested 20 native Finnish-speaking users trialing generic audio clips, video clips, and two kinds of learning apps that were heavily reliant on sound. It was found that there was a main effect of the device on perceived sound quality, replicating earlier findings. However, these judgements did not impact on the users’ preferences for different devices nor on their preferences for different applications. The results are interpreted as indicating that perceived quality and affordances are less important for users in these contexts than other considerations (e.g., convenience, mobility, etc.).