• Networked learning in 2021: a community definition

      Gourlay, Lesley; Rodríguez-Illera, José Luis; Barberà, Elena; Bali, Maha; Gachago, Daniela; Pallitt, Nicola; Jones, Chris; Bayne, Siân; Hansen, Stig Børsen; Hrastinski, Stefan; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-03-25)
    • Parental feeding, child eating and physical activity: differences in children living with and without asthma

      Heath, Gemma; Clarke, Rebecca; Nagakumar, Prasad; Pattison, Helen; Farrow, Claire (MDPI, 2021-03-26)
      This study aimed to establish the differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and activity, as well as child eating and activity levels, between families of children living with and without asthma. Parents of children and young people aged between 10 and 16 years living both with asthma (n = 310) and without asthma (n = 311) completed measures for parental feeding, parental attitudes toward child exercise, child eating, child activity level and asthma control. Children living with asthma had a significantly higher BMIz (BMI standardised for weight and age) score, were significantly more likely to emotionally overeat and desired to drink more than their peers without asthma. Parents of children with asthma reported greater use of food to regulate emotions, restriction of food for weight control, monitoring of child activity, pressure to exercise and control over child activity. When asthma symptoms were controlled, parental restriction of food for weight management predicted greater child BMIz scores, and higher child activity predicted lower child BMIz scores. These relationships were not found to be significant for children with inadequately controlled asthma. Differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and exercise, and child eating and exercise behaviors, between families may help to explain the increased obesity risk for children with asthma.
    • Successful strategies for including adults with an intellectual disability into a research study using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (RCN Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities are not regularly recruited as participants in health research which may be due to perceptions regarding their inability to participate meaningfully with or without significant support and anticipated difficulty in gaining ethical approval because of issues around consent and mental capacity. This means that the voices of people with an intellectual disability are often missing within health research and their experiences and views are unexplored. Aim: To share successful strategies for accessing, recruiting and collecting data from a purposive sample of adults with an intellectual disability using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Discussion: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was a person-centred, flexible and creative approach to adopt. Meaningful collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities, their families, carers, advocacy group managers, specialists within intellectual disability services and research supervisors was vital to the success of conducting this study. Practical strategies for including people with an intellectual disability in a study from the perspective of a novice researcher, an outsider to the field of intellectual disability, have been shared. A limitation is that participants were not included in all stages of the research process. Conclusion: Inclusion of participants with an intellectual disability in research studies is important and achievable for healthcare researchers. A framework to support researchers outside of the specialist field of intellectual disabilities has been presented. Implications for practice: Adults with intellectual disabilities often receive poor healthcare and have poorer outcomes which is perpetuated if their input into research is not facilitated. People with intellectual disabilities make valuable contributions to the evidence base; personal views and perceptions of healthcare are important if health services are to meet individual needs.
    • Physical fitness profile in elite beach handball players of different age categories

      Lemos, LF; Oliveira, VC; Duncan, MJ; Ortega, JP; Martins, CM; Ramirez-Campillo, R; Sanchez, JS; Nevill, AM; Nakamura, FY; Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil - luis.training75@gmail.com. (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2020-06-30)
      BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to compare anthropometric and fitness variables of high-level beach handball players across under-19 (u-19), under-21 (u-21) and senior male categories, and between male and female senior players; and to test the correlations among those measures. MeThodS: a total of 70 high-level players (53 male of different ages) were evaluated for 5-m acceleration, 15-m sprint, horizontal jump, handgrip strength, specific beach handball throwing velocities, and anthropometric variables. Differences between age groups were tested using anoVa. independent t-test was used to compare fitness variables between male and female elite athletes, and Pearson partial correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the fitness variables using BMI and age as covariates. SPSS Software was used, and the level of significance was set at 95%. reSulTS: The u-21 athletes better performed on horizontal jump and 6-m throw than the u-19 athletes. Senior athletes showed better performance on horizontal jump than U-19 athletes (P≤0.05). Positive correlation was seen for handgrip on dominant and non-dominant hands and 6-m throwing speed, and for handgrip on dominant hand and inflight velocity (P≤0.05). Negative correlations were observed between horizontal jump and 5-m acceleration, and 15-m sprint (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Male athletes better performed than women in all the fitness tests. The study, for the first time, showed physical fitness comparisons between beach handball elite male athletes of different ages and between genders. These are key steps for coaches and athletes and may support future beach handball studies and practice.
    • How does foreigner-directed speech differ from other forms of listener-directed clear speaking styles?

      Hazan, Valerie; Uther, Maria; Grunlund, Sonia (University of Glasgow, 2015-08-10)
      Forty talkers participated in problem-solving tasks with another talker in conditions differing in communication difficulty for the interlocutor. A linguistic barrier condition (L2 interlocutor) was compared to acoustic barrier conditions (native interlocutors hearing vocoded or noisy speech). Talkers made acoustic-phonetic enhancements in all barrier conditions compared to the no-barrier condition, but talkers reduced their articulation rate less and showed less increase in vowel hyperarticulation in foreigner-directed speech than in the acoustic barrier condition, even though communicative difficulty was greater in the L2 condition. Foreigner-directed speech was also perceived as less clear. This suggests that acoustic enhancements in clear speech are not simply a function of the level of communication difficulty.
    • The Clinical and legal management of parental alienation in the UK

      Morgan, Angela; Ahmad, Nahid; Webster, Marilyn (Parental Allienation Study Group, 2020-10-29)
    • The effect of HVP training in vowel perception on bilingual speech production

      Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria (Consentia Beam, 2021-03-10)
      Prior investigations (Giannakopoulou et al., 2013) have indicated high variability phonetic training intervention can help L2 English adult learners change the perception of vowels such that they shift their attention to primary cues (spectral features) rather than secondary cues (e.g. duration) to correctly identify vowels in L2. This experiment explores if high-variability training impacts on L2 adult learners’ production of L2 speech. Production samples from a prior experiment were used to conduct ratings of accuracy (Giannakopoulou, 2012). In the current experiment, the production samples were transcribed and rated for accuracy by twenty native English listeners. The intelligibility levels of L2 learners’ speech samples as indexed by higher accuracy in transcription were observed as having been rated higher following training than prior to training. The implications of the results are considered with regard to theories on the connection between speech production and perception, and Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model.
    • Socioeconomic factors and health status disparities associated with difficulty in ADLs and IADLs among long-lived populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

      Matheson, David; Santos, Silvana; Nobrega, JC; Medeiros, J; Alves, S; Freitas, J; Silva, J; Simões, R; Santos, T; Brito, A; et al. (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Objective: To evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors, health status, and Functional Capacity (FC) in the oldest senior citizens in a metropolis and a poor rural region of Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study of 417 seniors aged ≥80 years, data collected through Brazil’s Health, Well-being and Aging survey. FC assessed by self-reporting of difficulties in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using “R” statistical software. Results: Socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in Brazil can influence FC in seniors aged 80 years and older. Comparatively, urban long-lived people had a higher prevalence of difficulties for ADLs and rural ones showed more difficulties for IADLs. Among urban oldest seniors, female gender and lower-income were correlated with difficulties for IADLs. Among rural oldest seniors, female gender, stroke, joint disease, and inadequate weight independently were correlated with difficulties for ADLs, while the number of chronic diseases was associated with difficulties for IADLs. Conclusion: Financial constraints may favor the development of functional limitations among older seniors in large urban centers. In poor rural areas, inadequate nutritional status and chronic diseases may increase their susceptibility to functional decline.
    • Developing a consensus-based scoring rubric to enhance practice-based assessment of student nurses' clinical competence: A Delphi study

      Almalkawi, Ibraheim; Jester, Rebecca; Terry, Louise (Elsevier, 2021-03-08)
      Background Concerns about reliability and validity of practice-based assessment of professional competencies are frequently reported in the literature. Difficulty in understanding competency statements or distinguishing different achievement levels has been found to be a major factor. Objectives To develop a consensus-based scoring rubric based on stakeholders' interpretations of level descriptors for student nurses' professional values competencies. Design Two rounds of Classic e-Delphi. Settings This study was conducted in a London based university using Bristol Online Survey website as a host. Participants 100 stakeholders with vested interests in undergraduate pre-registration nurse education were purposefully invited to participate. Method Round one collected free-text interpretations of the United Kingdom Nursing and Midwifery Council professional values competency statements. Round two used a Likert scale questionnaire to measure the level of agreement to the level descriptor statements generated through round one. Responses were analysed through content analysis in round one and consensus measure in round two. A threshold of 70% agreement to determine consensus was set in advance. Results In round one, 47 participants provided their interpretations of the competency statements. In round two, 51 participants completed the questionnaire. All 24 items achieved a strong consensus with 86%–100% of participants agreeing or strongly agreeing with the statements. Conclusions A Delphi study was successfully used to develop a consensus-based scoring rubric with clearly stated descriptors for professional values competency statements. This scoring rubric holds the potential to enhance practice-based assessment across all healthcare professional disciplines.
    • The role of mating-relevant factors in the perpetration of digital dating abuse

      Bhogal, Manpal; Tudor, Courtney; Hira, Simran (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Previous research has explored offline intimate partner violence from an evolutionary perspective, primarily focusing on the role of individual differences inperpetration and victimisation. However, a current form of intimate partner violence is digital dating abuse, which involves abuse towards a romantic partner, occuring online through the use of electronic communication technology. This form of abuse differs from offline abuse, in that physical proximity is not required. Although research has focused on the effects digital dating abuse has on victims, little research has focused on the perpetration of digital dating abuse. This is important, as research focused on perpetration can inform a wide range of initiatives geared towards understanding the factors which drive this behaviour. Recent research has focused on evolutionary mating-relevant factors that drive the perpetration of digital dating abuse. Here, we extended and replicated previous work by reporting two studies (study 1, n = 114; study 2, n = 162) which explored the roles of mate value discrepancy, intrasexual competition, and relationship-contingent self-esteem in the perpetration of digital dating abuse. We found that mate value discrepancy (study 1 and 2) and intrasexual competition (study 2) positively predicted the perpetration of digital dating abuse. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to provide support that those who report high intrasexual competition, engage in greater levels of digital dating abuse, thus furthering theoretical advancements in this field by showing digital dating abuse is a mate retention tactic. Our findings further our understanding of online behaviour in romantic relationships through an evolutionary psychological lens.
    • Predicting cardiorespiratory fitness using the 20-m shuttle run test

      Nevill, Alan M; de Menezes-Junior, Francisco José; de Jesus, Íncare Correa; de Fatima Aguiar Lopes, Maria; Corazza, Patricia Ribeiro Paes; Tadiotto, Maiara Cristina; Mota, Jorge; Leite, Neiva (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2021-02-12)
      PURPOSE Recently, doubts have been raised concerning the validity of the 20-m shuttle run test (20mSRT) to predict cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth. Despite these doubts, authors continue to provide powerful evidence that CRF can be predicted reliably using the 20mSRT albeit using contrasting models. Therefore, we aimed to compare a new linear model with an alternative allometric model to predict CRF (peak oxygen uptake, V˙O2peak) using 20mSRT. METHODS The study included 148 adolescents (43% girls), aged 13.37 ± 1.84 years. Adolescents were randomly assigned to validation (n = 91) and cross-validation (n = 57) groups. V˙O2peak was measured using a gas analyser in both maximal exercise tests in the laboratory as well as 20mSRT. Multiple linear regression methods were applied to develop the linear models using 20mSRT (laps), BMI and body fat percentage. Alternative allometric models were also proposed/fitted using 20mSRT (laps), height and body mass. RESULTS The criterion validity of both the linear and the allomeric models were found to be acceptable R2=82.5% and 82.7% respectively, providing reassuring evidence that the 20mSRT can be used with confidence to predict CRF. However, the allometric model identified a height-to-mass ratio, not dissimilar to the inverse BMI (known to be a measure of leanness), to be associated with CRF. The allometric model also revealed that the rise in energy cost (V˙O2peak) with increasing laps was exponential. This will more accurately reflect the non-linear rise in energy demand of shuttle running as the test progresses to exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS These observations provided powerful evidence that allometric models are more than satisfactory in terms of both criterion AND construct validity when predicting CRF (V˙O2peak) using the 20mSRT.
    • A systematic scoping review and textual narrative synthesis of undergraduate pediatric nursing simulations: what, why, and how?

      Cleaver, Karen; Essex, Ryan; Malamateniou, Christina; Narramore, Naomi; Shekede, Heather; Vargo, Elisabeth; Weldon, Sharon Marie (Elsevier, 2021-02-16)
      Background Simulation is increasingly being used to train health care professionals; however, there is limited knowledge on how pediatric simulation is being used to train undergraduate nurses. This article systematically scopes the literature on the types of undergraduate pediatric nursing simulations taking place, their value, the research methods used, and areas of research focused on. Methods A systematic scoping literature review, combined descriptive synthesis, and textual narrative synthesis were conducted. Results A total of 139 articles were identified by the search strategy. Of these, 32 articles were included for appraisal and synthesis. Seventeen articles were quantitative, five articles were qualitative, and eight articles were mixed-methods. The research took place in six different geographical locations. The total participant sample was 2,039. Articles were categorized according to their aims and objectives and simulation types. Conclusions This review revealed the heterogeneity of studies on this subject. Ultimately, studies were small and confined to single institutions or geographical locations. Studies that described or explored simulation as an intervention provided more interesting insights than those that evaluated or tested effectiveness. The variety of simulation types was wide, and the fidelity of the simulations being described was frequently noted; however, no reference was made as to how this was determined. Future studies would benefit from detailing the low, medium, or high technological, psychological, or environmental aspects of simulation.
    • The relationship between obesity and primary total knee replacement: A scoping review of the literature

      Jester, Rebecca; Rodney, Amanda (Elsevier, 2021-02-16)
      Background Primary Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is one of the most commonly performed elective orthopaedic procedures globally. Many of the patients undergoing this type of surgery are overweight or obese. In the UK clinical commissioning groups have imposed arbitrary Body Mass Index (BMI) thresholds for TKR surgery. Many obese patients undergoing TKR believe they will lose weight following the procedure because of increased mobility. Aim This paper aims to present the findings of a scoping literature review about the relationship between obesity and primary TKR and to make recommendations for clinical practice, education and policy Methods A scoping literature review investigated the impact of BMI/body weight on the need for TKR, the impact of body weight and or BMI on patient outcomes following TKR; weight loss/gain following TKR and the implications of obesity on cost of TKR. Findings Seventy-one papers were included in the review. Seven studies reported statistically significant associations between increased BMI/obesity with the need for TKR. Thirty of the studies reported worse outcomes for obese patients compared to non-obese comparators. Forty of the studies reported no difference between obese and non-obese participants including some where outcomes of obese patients were better than non-obese comparators. Eight studies reported on changes to weight before and after TKR, 3 of the studies reporting a higher percentage losing weight than gaining weight and 4 studies reported obese patients gained weight. The 8th study reported morbidly obese patients largely returned to their baseline BMI postoperatively. Conclusion The findings of the review challenge the legitimacy of setting BMI thresholds to control access to TKR surgery. There is an urgent need to develop evidence based approaches to support weight loss and weight management for this group of patients. Obese patients undergoing TKR should receive specific information regarding potential additional risk of complications and poorer outcomes. There is a need for health promotion regarding the association of being overweight/ obese in young adulthood and developing osteoarthritis of the knee joints requiring TKR in middle and older age.
    • A review of the English school meal: ‘Progress or a recipe for disaster?'

      Lalli, Gurpinder (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      This paper examines the discourse on school meals as evidence suggests that political agendas feed into policy making. The paper fills a void by proposing new insights into how school meals could be reformed following reflections from a doctoral study and a review of the changing narrative on school food in England. Recommendations include rethinking the coverage on school meals by taking into account this multifaceted area of inquiry by recognising the importance of the physical context of the meals and the subjects of school mealtime.
    • Revisiting the concept of the edited collection: Bioinformational philosophy and postdigital knowledge ecologies

      Peters, Michael A; Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-02-11)
    • A qualitative study of gambling, deprivation and monetary motivations

      Lloyd, Joanne; Nicklin, Laura; Rhodes, Stephanie; Hurst, Gemma (Routledge, 2021-02-09)
      The link between gambling and deprivation is well recognized both in the UK and internationally; and manipulating perceptions of relative deprivation can encourage people to gamble. The current study sought to learn more about whether individuals who gamble consciously perceive themselves to be motivated by feelings of deprivation, and how this is contextualized alongside monetary factors more broadly. Thematic analysis was conducted on 25 in-depth qualitative interviews with UK residents who gamble regularly; most of whom resided in areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Monetary themes relating to financial circumstances, the meaning and value of money, and the perception of gambling as a way to make money, all had strong relevance for deprivation, though people did not often endorse the idea that relative deprivation was important to them, per se. We conclude that gambling motivations are complex and heterogeneous, and that it is pertinent for prevention and intervention strategies for problem gambling to consider individuals’ financial circumstances and how they perceive them, along with how this intersects with their gambling motives.
    • Secondary analysis of loot box data: are high-spending “whales” wealthy gamers or problem gamblers?

      Close, James; Gordon Spicer, Stuart; Louise Nicklin, Laura; Uther, Maria; Lloyd, Joanne; Lloyd, Helen (Elsevier, 2021-02-03)
      Introduction Loot boxes are purchasable randomised reward mechanisms in video games. Due to structural and psychological similarities with gambling, there are fears that loot box purchasing may be associated with problematic gambling. Whilst monthly expenditure is typically modest (i.e. < $20), the distribution is highly skewed, with a small number of high-level spenders, sometimes referred to as “whales”. It is not known what proportion of industry profits are derived from such players, and whether they are typically wealthy individuals and/or problem gamblers. Methods We used structured literature searches to identify surveys of gamers with open-access loot box data. The resulting datasets were aggregated, and correlations between loot box expenditure, problem gambling and earnings investigated using Spearman’s rho correlations. Results The combined open-access data comprised 7,767 loot box purchasers (5,933 with self-report earnings). Secondary analysis of this self-report data confirmed that disproportionate revenue appears to be generated from high-level spenders: the top 5% of spenders (> $100/month) represent half of loot box revenue. Previously reported correlations between problem gambling and loot box expenditure were confirmed, with an aggregate correlation of ρ = 0.34, p < .001. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between loot box spend and earnings ρ = 0.02, p = .10. Conclusion Our secondary analysis suggests that games developers (unwittingly or not) are disproportionately profiting from moderate and high-risk gamblers, rather than high earning customers. Such patterns of spending mirror those observed with gambling revenues, and have implications for harm minimisation and ongoing policy debates around loot boxes.
    • An analysis of the impact of suicide prevention messages and memorials on motorway bridges

      O'Neill, Siobhan; Potts, Courtney; Bond, Raymond; Mulvenna, Maurice; Ennis, Edel; McFeeters, Danielle; Boyda, David; Morrissey, Jacqui; Scowcroft, Elizabeth; Isaksen, Mette; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-12)
      Recently there has been activity at public locations where people have died by suicide, including the erection of suicide prevention messages and memorials (decorations). This research looks at the impact of these decorations and associated media coverage of the decorations on suicidal behaviour at bridges. Incidents (n=160) of suicidal behaviour on 26 bridges across motorways in England were analysed. Overall, there was no significant difference in the proportion of incidents pre-decoration versus post-decoration (p-value=0.55). The incident rates were not significantly different pre- and post-decoration (p=0.46). Only one bridge had statistically significantly more incidents post-decoration and media reporting (p=0.03). However, following correction for multiple testing there was no significant difference in pre and post-incident rates at any of the bridges. In total, 58% of bridges had a greater frequency of incidents when decorations were absent, however this proportion was not statistically significant (p=0.41). Further research is required to establish how suicide prevention messages are perceived. There does not appear to be any benefit, but it often generates media coverage which has been shown to increase risk. Therefore, a precautionary approach is recommended on the use of suicide prevention messages as an intervention at bridges.