• What is needed to obtain informed consent and monitor capacity for a successful study involving people with mild dementia? Our experience in a multi-centre study

      Lim, Jennifer; Almedia, Rosa; Holthoff-Detto, Vjera; Ludden, Geke; Smith, Tina; Niedderer, Kristina; the MinD consortium (TU, Dresden, 2019-11-13)
      Strategies on informed consent process and capacity monitoring for mild dementia research are at developing state. We reflected on our experience and found that the successful collection of informed consent and full participation of PwD required the involvement of familiar healthcare professionals/care workers/staff at the recruitment and data collection stages and this needs to occur in an active support environment. Time is another important factor affecting the success of the study.
    • Book review: Austerity and the remaking of European education

      Tuckett, Alan (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-28)
      Whilst the primary focus of this impressive edited volume is on the ‘long moment of crisis’ arising from the 2008 financial crash and the consequences arising from the decision of national and European Union leaders to respond to it with measures of austerity, Anna Traianou, Ken Jones and their collaborators trace the evolution of education policy making in Europe from the post-war period in which education was a long way from the labour market to its current role across Europe as handmaiden to the market.
    • Back to school Post Covid-19: Rebuilding a better future for all children

      Lalli, Gurpinder; Defeyter, Greta; Shinwell, Jackie; von Hippel, Paul; Henderson, Emily; Brownlee, Iain; Pepper, Gillian; Stretesky, Paul; Long, Michael; McKenna, Jim; et al. (Education Committee, UK Parliament, 2020-06-10)
      This paper provides a summary of the key academic papers for the following areas: learning loss and academic attainment; EdTech interventions and home schooling; physical activity, food insecurity and obesity; and mental health and wellbeing. For each area, the findings from peer-reviewed academic papers are summarised and discussed in terms of relevance to the current Covid-19 pandemic. The latter half of the paper provides, for each area, a range of research informed short-, mid- and long-term school based strategies, policies and interventions to advise the UK government for pupils returning to school. The early adoption of these proposals will support teachers, parents and children and provide positive messaging to pupils and hence, increase public confidence. Finally, the authors appeal to the concept of human capital, and discuss how schools provide an excellent platform to narrow mid-to-long term health and educational inequalities. The suggestions in this paper converge with action at the international level; with many key agencies (UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank and World Food Programme) making the case for the key role of school food in supporting the back to school movement.
    • Body size and shape characteristics for Cooper's 12 minutes run test in 11-13 years old Caucasian children: An allometric approach

      Giuriato, M; Nevill, A; Kawczynski, A; Lovecchio, N; University School of Physical Education, Faculty of Sport Science, Wroklaw, Poland - matteogiuriato1@gmail.com. (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2020-03-20)
      © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA. BACKGROUND: The Cooper Test, is a field test, simple and useful in the school context. The aim of this research was the definition of the trend in Cooper endurance test along with the growth. In particular, through the scaling method (allometric). METHODS: Atotal of 556 of European sedentary children aged 11-13 years (282 boys; 274 girls) were involved. All subjects were evaluated through the Endurance Cooper test (12 min run test). To identify the most appropriate body size and shape characteristics as well as any categorical differences (sex, age) associated with the measure of the Cooper test, a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components was applied. RESULTS: The multiplicative model relating to the Cooper test and the body-size components was: Cooper test = a mass-0.325 · height0.878 with the mass and height exponents being k1=-0.325 (SEE=0.40) and k2= 0.878 (SEE=0.141), respectively. The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj R2) was 32.3%, with a log-transformed error ratio of 0.136 or 14.5% having taken antilogs. Significant differences in the constant 'a' parameter were identified by sex (P<0.001) and age (P<0.001) while the interaction of sex per age was not significant (P=0.761). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the scaling method identified the optimal height-to-body mass ratios associated with Cooper endurance test corresponding to ectomorph body shape. Furthermore, growth fluctuations become important to avoid alarming judgment in case children will be poorly evaluated.
    • The dose–response association between V̇O<inf>2peak</inf> and self-reported physical activity in children

      Nevill, AM; Duncan, MJ; Sandercock, G; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton , Walsall, UK. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-05-13)
      © 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Background: Previous research into the association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children is equivocal. However, previous research has always assumed that such an association was linear. This study sought to characterize the dose–response association between physical activity and aerobic fitness and to assess whether this association is linear or curvilinear and varies by sex, age and weight status. Methods: Physical activity (assess using the Physical Activity Questionnaire), aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle-run), BMI, screen-time and socio-demographic data were collected at ages 12, 14 and 16 years in (n = 1422) volunteers from 9 English schools. Multilevel-regression modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal data. Results: The analysis identified a significant inverted “u-shaped” association between VO2max and PAQ. This relationship remained having controlling for the influences of sex, age and weight status. Daily screen time >4 hours and deprivation were also associated with being less fit (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This longitudinal study suggests that the dose–response relationship between PA and aerobic fitness in children is curvilinear. The health benefits of PA are greater in less active children and that sedentary and less active children should be encouraged to engage in PA rather than more active children to increase existing levels of PA.
    • Teaching in the age of Covid-19

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2020-12-31)
    • Exercise and inflammation

      Metsios, GS; Moe, RH; Kitas, GD (Elsevier, 2020-04-02)
      © 2020 Based on current knowledge deriving from studies in animals and humans (the general population and patients with non-communicable diseases), there is biological plausibility that exercise may have anti-inflammatory effects. This may be particularly important for patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). The present review discusses the current state-of-the-art on exercise and inflammation, explores how exercise can moderate inflammation-dependent RMD outcomes and the most prevalent systemic manifestations and addresses the relationship between the dosage (particularly the intensity) of exercise and inflammation. We conclude that present data support potential beneficial effects of exercise on inflammation, however, the evidence specifically in RMDs is limited and inconclusive. More targeted research is required to elucidate the effects of exercise on inflammation in the context of RMDs.
    • Applying data correction to strap mounted accelerometers

      Smith, Tina; Baker, Michael; Foster, Richard (International Society of Biomechanics, 2017-07-23)
      The tissue underlying skin mounted accelerometers introduces errors to the data they collect [1]. As a consequence various data correction attempts have been made to minimise the effect of local tissue-accelerometer vibration [1,2]. However, accelerometers are not always mounted directly onto the skin. It is often impractical to do so for studies that measure activities during day-to-day living where strap mounting may be a more common attachment method. Therefore an understanding of the response of strap mounted accelerometers is also necessary. As the straps surround irregular shaped body segments strap mounted accelerometers may suffer from poor coupling when compared to skin mounted accelerometers, as well as additional vibration of the strap and pre-loading effects of tissue due to strap tension. This can be especially prevalent for straps around the waist, mounting accelerometers to measure motion at the spine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the damped frequency (fd) and the logarithmic decrement (δ) of the local system (accelerometer, strap and local tissue) can be estimated so that the Smeathers’ method of data correction [2] can be applied to strap mounted accelerometers at the lumbar spine.
    • Osteogenic potential of external mechanical loading during walking in sedentary and non-sedentary adults

      Smith, Tina; Luo, Jin; Metsios, George (International Society of Biomechanics, 2017-07-23)
      Sedentary behaviour is generally regarded as having deleterious effects on cardiometabolic health, although little is known about its specific association with bone health. Impact forces generated as the foot contacts the ground during activity have the potential to act as a stimulus for bone maintenance and development. Therefore, increased sedentary behaviour may reduce the time available to gain osteogenic benefits from impact-based activity. Peak ground reaction force is commonly used as an estimate of loading intensity when determining the osteogenic potential of activity [1]. Dynamic, high impact, high frequency activities have been shown to be most effective at applying an osteogenic stimulus [1], although low level impacts have been shown to beneficially modify bone geometry [2]. Therefore, differences in the characteristics of low impact activity have potential to influence bone health. As impact forces are attenuated as they travel up the body, exploration of mechanical loading at regions such as the spine, require further investigation. External force due to impact is related to acceleration; therefore an accelerometer attached to the spine can provide an estimation of the mechanical loading. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate associations between sedentary and nonsedentary behavior on the osteogenic potential of walking, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine.
    • Attitudes to suicide among the West Midlands Police Service: Feedback report

      Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Dhingra, Katie; Fernandes Aguilera, Milea (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-07)
      There is a significant degree and a moderate-high regularity of work-related exposure to suicide among the West Midlands police staff. • Exposure to suicide in a professional capacity is often accompanied by some degree of distress. • Many police staff who have had professional encounters of suicide have also had personal experiences with suicide. • There is a large perceived need for suicide specific training across all police ranks. • Perceived competence to intervene following a suicide attempt is lower among Police constables and Sergeants than higher ranking officers. • Attitudes towards suicide are largely tolerant, compassionate and informed although there are some enduring misconceptions surrounding suicide which may be addressed through tailored training programmes.
    • The mental health of doctors during the COVID-19 pandemic

      Galbraith, Niall; Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Hassan, Tariq; Department of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, UK. (Royal College of Psychiatrists/Cambridge University Press, 2020-04-28)
      Doctors experience high levels of work stress even under normal circumstances, but many would be reluctant to disclose mental health difficulties or seek help for them, with stigma an often-cited reason. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis places additional pressure on doctors and on the healthcare system in general and research shows that such pressure brings a greater risk of psychological distress for doctors. For this reason, we argue that the authorities and healthcare executives must show strong leadership and support for doctors and their families during the COVID-19 outbreak and call for efforts to reduce mental health stigma in clinical workplaces. This can be facilitated by deliberately adding ‘healthcare staff mental health support process’ as an ongoing agenda item to high-level management planning meetings.
    • Extracting nudge test parameters from noisy skin mounted accelerometer data

      Smith, Tina; Foster, Richard; Baker, Michael (International Society of Biomechanics, 2019-07-31)
      To correct for soft tissue artefacts in skin mounted accelerometers a transmissibility function can be applied to the data. This function is quantified by analysis of the acceleration-time data from the response to a nudge test; however this data can often be noisy. An application of Fourier analysis can be used to filter the acceleration-time data of the nudge test response. This allows accurate recreation of the signal to determine the required transmissibility function.
    • Associations between bone loading due to daily activity and hip bone mass and structure

      Smith, Tina; Metsios, George; Baker, Michael; Foster, Richard; Luo, Jin (International Society of Biomechanics, 2019-07-31)
      Bone loading due to daily physical activity over one week, was quantified from accelerometer data. Moderate-to-vigorous loading was positively associated with bone health of the left proximal femur. Adopting this level of activity in daily living may have sustained benefits for healthy ageing of bone.
    • What’s good what’s bad? Conceptualising teaching and learning methods as technologies using actor network theory in the context of Palestinian higher education

      Royle, Karl (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-27)
      This paper analyses problem-based learning (PBL) as part of an Actor Network within the (2016–2019) Erasmus Plus Project ‘Modernization of Teaching Methodologies in Higher Education: EU experience for Jordan and Palestinian Territory’ (METHODS). This project introduced a range of learning modalities into formal learning contexts in higher education settings in Jordan (4 universities) and Palestine (4 universities). The project was jointly led by the University of Jordan and the University of Birzeit, Palestine, and there were six European partner universities. The paper focuses on the positioning of PBL approaches as a socio-intellectual technology within an Actor Network through which the impacts of the project might be analysed. PBL is conceptualised as an actant in a heterogenous network of human and non-human actors that reframes the participants’ relationships with each other and the network within which they are located. Equally, through this reframing, the paper considers whether greater realisations of self-organisation and agency are enacted or evidenced within the findings of semi-structured group interviews with students and corresponding staff across a range of undergraduate courses in the arts and sciences within the Palestinian context. If a dancer stops dancing, the show is finished, no inertia will carry us forward. (Latour 2008: 37)
    • Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research

      Gale, NK; Heath, G; Cameron, E; Rashid, S; Redwood, S; Health Services Management Centre, University of Birmingham, Park House, 40 Edgbaston Park Road, Birmingham B15 2RT, UK. n.gale@bham.ac.uk. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2013-09-18)
      Background: The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion. The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary. Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research. © 2013 Gale et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • “A confident parent breeds a confident child.” Understanding the experience and needs of parents whose children will transition from paediatric to adult care

      Heath, Gemma; Shaw, Karen; Baldwin, Lydia (SAGE, 2020-12-01)
      Transitional care for young people with long-term conditions emphasises the importance of supporting parents, particularly in relation to promoting adolescent healthcare autonomy. Yet little practical guidance is provided and transitional care remains suboptimal for many families. This study aimed to examine how parents understand and experience their care-giving role during their child’s transition to adult services, to identify parents’ needs and inform service improvements. Focus groups were undertaken with parents of young people with Brittle Asthma, Osteogenesis Imperfecta or Epilepsy. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Participants (n=13) described how their parenting roles extended beyond what they consider usual in adolescence. These roles were presented as time-consuming, stressful and unrelenting, but necessary to protect children from harm in the face of multiple risks and uncertainties. Such protective strategies were also perceived to hinder adolescent development, family functioning and their own development as mid-life adults. Finding a balance between protecting immediate health and long-term wellbeing was a major theme. Participants called for improved support, including improved service organisation. Recommendations are provided for working with parents and young people to manage the risks and uncertainties associated with their condition, as part of routine transitional care.
    • Writing the history of the present

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2020-12-31)
      Teaching in The Age of Covid-19 ‘Teaching in The Age of Covid-19’ (Jandrić et al. 2020) presents 80 textual testimonies and 79 home workspace photographs submitted by 83 authors from 19 countries. Collected between 18 March and 5 May 2020, the testimonies and photographs describe uncanny feelings, daily experiences and challenges, and emergency solutions, developed by worldwide academics at the very beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Supplemented with one editor’s introduction at the beginning, and another editor’s reflections at the end, these messy and unpredictable texts and images have now obtained the form of a ‘proper’ piece of academic writing. Yet appearance deceives; as we found out early into the project, this collection can be read in many different ways. At a time when local and global surveys are contributing insights on how the move to online learning and teaching is being experienced (Watermeyer et al. 2020), we explain why this particular collection is both different, but also complementary, to other studies. Each contribution to ‘Teaching in The Age of Covid-19’ (Jandrić et al. 2020) is a standalone authored work, that is both distinct and diverse. Some texts and images are small artistic masterpieces; others more focused to the ‘scientific’ side of things; and many contributions, neither particularly artistic nor very scholarly, provide a wealth of insights into the everyday life and practice of teachers and students during the very beginning of lockdown. We have a lot of appreciation for great arts, and new ideas are the bread and butter of academic inquiry. Yet ‘Teaching in The Age of Covid-19’ is not primarily about beautiful storytelling and / or novel ideas.
    • Reactions to unsolicited violent, and sexual, explicit media content shared over social media: Gender differences and links with prior exposure

      Nicklin, Laura; Swain, Emma; Lloyd, Joanne (MDPI, 2020-06-16)
      While there has been extensive research into consumption of “traditional” forms of explicit sexual and violent media (within pornography, videogames and movies), the informal exchange and viewing of explicit real-world violent and sexual content via social media is an under-investigated and potentially problematic behaviour. The current study used an online survey (n= 225: 169f, 55m, 1x, mean age 30.61 (SD 12.03)) to explore self-reported reactions to unsolicited explicit violent and sexual content that participants had received from friends or contacts. In line with our predictions based on previous studies of fictional explicit content, we found effects of both gender and prior exposure on these reactions. Specifically, females rated both sexual and violent explicit content as significantly less funny and exciting and more disturbing than males did. Amongst males, those with high previous exposure rated violent content as more exciting than those with lower or no prior experience. Regardless of gender, participants with higher exposure to sexual content rated it as funnier than those with mild or no exposure, and those with higher exposure to violent content rated it as more amusing and more exciting. However, contrary to what desensitization theories would predict, prior exposure did not attenuate how disturbing explicit content (of either a sexual or a violent nature) was rated. Multiple avenues for further investigation emerged from this preliminary cross-sectional study, and we suggest priorities for further qualitative or longitudinal work on this novel topic.
    • COVID-19: A commentary on implications for academy football players athletic identity and wellbeing

      Devonport, Tracey; Maurice, James (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-05-19)
      On March 23rd, 2020, the UK government instituted a full-scale lockdown in response to the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. People would only be permitted to leave their homes for the following purposes: 1. Shopping for basic necessities, as infrequently as possible; 2. One form of exercise a day – for example a run, walk, or cycle – alone or with members of your household; 3. Any medical need, to provide care or to help a vulnerable person; 4. Travelling to and from work, but only where absolutely necessary and where work cannot be completed from home. In the days prior to the start of the lockdown, I left a role at one professional football academy based in the North of England and relocated to start a PhD undertaken in conjunction with another professional football academy based in the Midlands. Through doing so, I have had a unique insight into the response of two English football academies to this unprecedented situation. The present article offers a brief commentary on the potential implications of the COVID-19 lockdown for academy players athletic identity and wellbeing. Observations will be presented along with reference to relevant literature in order to draw lessons from the COVID-19 lockdown in the UK for athletic identity, and prepare for future eventualities which share the characteristics of: i) people staying at home; ii) social distancing; and iii) the closure of places of work; in this instance football academies.
    • Emotional eating: Implications for research and practice in elite sports contexts

      Devonport, Tracey; Nicholls, Wendy; Chen-Wilson, Jo (Routledge, 2020-08-31)