• Effective early learning: a praxeological and participatory approach to evaluating and improving quality in early childhood education

      Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony (Revista da FAEEBA, 2018-04-30)
      This paper acknowledges the importance of providing high quality early education to young children if positive long term child outcomes and social mobility for the less advantaged are to be achieved. It offers a strategy to improve pedagogical quality in early childhood settings worldwide where quality remains low for many children and sets out an alternative praxeological model of quality assessment and improvement that is democratic, participatory, inclusive and culturally sensitive rather than universalised and metricised. The Effective Early Learning (EEL) quality evaluation and improvement programme embodies this participatory approach and has been successfully implemented across UK, Portugal and the Netherlands, where evidence has shown its impact in enhancing child wellbeing, child involvement and child dispositions to learn through improving the quality of pedagogical processes and the enabling educative context in which these occur.
    • The treatment of informal care as a social risk in England: Conceptual and methodological innovations in undertaking comparative care policy analysis

      Morgan, Fiona (European Network for Social Policy Analysis (Espanet), 2016-09-15)
      The combined challenges of population ageing and the reliance on informal carers to meet the care needs of older people is requiring post-industrial welfare states to address these demands through the implementation of a diverse array of care policies. These policy interventions seemingly demonstrate that states are increasingly recognising and treating the informal care of older people as a social risk. This paper argues that it is essential to undertake detailed comparative analysis at a national level to assess the effectiveness of current care policies in providing adequate social protection against the care-related risks experienced by different types of care relationships. The paper focuses on discussing the design of a policy simulation tool, ‘the model care relationship matrix’, used to analyse and compare the statutory entitlements of different care relationship types across policy areas, localities, and practitioners, in England. Using this innovative methodological and conceptual approach exposed that the English state does not treat informal care as a social risk on account of the inconsistent and inadequate statutory protection provided to different care relationships, and how the care policy system itself can generate secondary risks for care relationships.
    • Young children as beings, becomings, having beens: an integrated approach to role-play

      Kingdon, Zenna (Taylor & Francis, 2018-09-26)
      The new paradigm of early childhood allows for the construction of the child as active agents able to comment on their own lives. Historically children have been constructed using divergent discourses as either beings or becomings. More recently they have been seen as complementary and a further temporal state of having been allows for a richer description of the child. In play and role-play, the three temporal states can be observed and appear to inform the children’s understanding of complex world structures. This paper reports the research that was conducted in two Early Childhood Education and Care settings in England. The research was concerned with young children’s experiences of play and role-play in their early childhood setting. Observations and conferences demonstrate the ways in which the temporal states are established in their play.
    • Modern foreign language learning: The impact of parental orientations on student motivation

      Martin, Christopher (The International Academic Forum (IAFOR), 2019-09-27)
      This study investigates the possible relationships between parental orientations towards language learning and their child’s motivation to learn a foreign language at school. Data were collected from 495 students and 107 parents in four secondary schools in the wider West Midlands conurbation of England. A mixed-methods research design encompassing both quantitative and qualitative data collection was adopted with the aim of gaining a multidimensional view. Questionnaires were given to both parents and students, measuring six motivational constructs: general motivation; sense of achievement in modern foreign language (MFL) learning, internal/external attribution of performance in MFL learning, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. The mean values for parents and students for each construct were correlated to see if there was a relationship between them. The findings indicate that, for four of the five constructs, there are moderate to strong positive relationships that were statistically significant. Furthermore, the data suggest that parents are less motivated when it comes to MFL learning than their children. This study is part of a wider doctoral research project, the next stage of which involves the collection of qualitative data through semistructured interviews in order to explore the nature of the relationships found in the quantitative analysis.
    • Aggression and related stressful life events among Chinese adolescents living in rural areas: A cross-sectional study

      Huang, Juan; Tang, Jie; Tang, Lina; Chang, Hong Juan; Ma, Yuqiao; Yan, Qiuge; Yu, Yizhen (Elsevier BV, 2017-0104)
    • Paradoxical paradigm proposals

      Traxler, John; Read, Timothy; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Barcena, Elena (Federación Argentina de Asociaciones de Profesores de Inglés, 2019-12-31)
      The concept of paradigms gives us the capacity to look analytically at historical scientific and intellectual episodes in a broader framework. It does however potentially also give us the capacity to look more analytically at contemporary scientific and intellectual activity and make conjectures and predictions. This paper looks at various contemporary pedagogic paradigms, including language learning and mobile learning, and suggests both their failings and then their replacement by an over-arching pedagogic paradigm more suited to societies permeated by personal digital technologies. This might be called the mobility, learning and language paradigm. The paper uses these examples as a way of exploiting paradigmatic thinking in order to catalyse intellectual progress.
    • Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users

      Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji (Elsevier BV, 2013-12-18)
      Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N = 755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.
    • Indirect aggression and parental attachment in early adolescence: Examining the role of perspective taking and empathetic concern

      Li, Xiaofang; Bian, Chenyang; Chen, Yanlin; Huang, Juan; Ma, Yuqiao; Tang, Lina; Yan, Qiuge; Ye, Xiaozhou; Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen (Elsevier BV, 2015-07-25)
      This study examined the unique and interactive roles of parental attachment and empathy in indirect aggression during early adolescence. A sample of 6301 early adolescents (49.2% boys and 50.8% girls) in urban China, aged from 11 to 14 years, completed self-administrated measures of parent-adolescent attachment, empathy, and indirect aggression. Results indicated that perspective taking was negatively associated with indirect aggression, and empathetic concern was not related to indirect aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that perspective taking moderated the association between empathetic concern and boys' indirect aggression. The findings highlighted that empathetic concern might not be a sufficient protective factor of indirect aggression for boys with low levels of perspective taking during early adolescence.
    • Prevalence of and risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury in rural China: Results from a nationwide survey in China

      Tang, Jie; Li, Guowei; Chen, Baoxin; Huang, Zhijie; Zhang, Yanmei; Chang, Hongjuan; Wu, Chunxia; Ma, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jiaji; Yu, Yizhen (Elsevier BV, 2017-09-28)
      Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent and serious public health problem among adolescents worldwide. However, to date there were no studies assessing the prevalence of NSSI defined by suggested DSM-5 criteria among Chinese adolescents. We aimed to conduct a nationwide survey to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for NSSI among school-based adolescents in rural China. Methods A total sample of 15,623 adolescents in rural China were enrolled by using a multistage sampling method. Data was collected by self-report questionnaires including demographic characteristics, neglect, maltreatment, loneliness, resilience, social support and emotional management ability. NSSI was defined by suggested DSM-5 criteria, according to which the engagement in self-injury took place more than 5 times a year. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between risk factors and NSSI. Results There were 12.2% of adolescents (n = 1908) met the suggested DSM-5 criteria. Approximately 29% reported a history of NSSI at least once during the last year. Significant differences were found in several demographic factors including gender, ethnicity, grade, and family structure between adolescents with and without experiencing NSSI. The top three NSSI behaviors among adolescents with NSSI experience were hitting self, pinching, and pulling hair, with a prevalence rate of 16.7%, 14.1% and 11.2%, respectively. Female, Han ethnicity, fathers’ education level, neglect, maltreatment, loneliness, social support, suicidal behaviors and emotional management ability were significantly associated with NSSI by multivariate analysis. No significant relationship was found between resilience and risk of NSSI. Limitation The DSM-5 has proposed 6 groups of criteria for NSSI, we only used criteria on frequency given its more accepted feasibility and pragmatic application. Consequently, it may different from other prevalence that estimated by other criteria. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting prevalence of NSSI defined by suggested DSM-5 criteria among adolescent in rural China. In comparison to finding from the similar samples of adolescents, Chinese rural adolescents seem to have a relative higher prevalence. The potential risk factors for NSSI include female, father's education, Han ethnicity, psychosocial factors and suicide behaviors. More evidence for further understanding of context of the occurrence, improving access to health care utilization, and identifying the role of psychosocial factors and family relationship, is needed for the prevention and management of NSSI.
    • Determinants of fish consumption in older people: a community-based cohort study

      Bakre, Aishat; Song, Yiqing; Clifford, Angela; Chen, Anthony; Smith, Tina; Wan, Yuhui; Devlin, Linda; Tang, James; Zhou, Weiju; Danat, Isaac M; et al. (Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice, 2018-11-19)
      Objectives: Habitual fish consumption and its determinants in older people have not been well investigated. We addressed these issues through a population-based cohort study. Methods: In 2001-2003 we interviewed a random sample of 3336 residents aged ≥60 years in China, documenting socioeconomic status (SES) and disease risk factors. In 2007-2009 we re-interviewed 1757 survivors, additionally surveying average self-reported intake of fish over the past two years. Results: Of 1757 participants, 1697 responded to the fish consumption questionnaire; 23.0% of whom had “never eat” fish, 43.4% “once a week”, 26.9% “more than twice a week”, and 6.7% “≥once a day”. There was an inverse association of fish consumption with older age (multivariate adjusted odds ratio 0.64 [95% CI 0.45-0.92] and 0.35 [0.24-0.52] at ages of 75-79, and ≥80 years), female gender (0.63, 0.47-0.84), smoking (0.65, 0.48-0.88), living in a rural area (0.10, 0.07-0.15), having educational level of ≤primary school (0.10, 0.05-0.19), occupation of peasant (0.08, 0.05-0.14), low income (0.11, 0.07-0.18), financial difficulties (0.25, 0.18-0.34), being never married/divorced (0.48, 0.28-0.81), having undetected hypertension (0.71, 0.55-0.91), depression (0.50, 0.29-0.84) and dementia (0.64, 0.41-0.98). However, participants with central obesity and heart disease at baseline had increased odds of fish consumption. Separate data analysis for different levels of fish consumption showed a dose-response trend for these associations. Conclusion: In older Chinese, there are large socioeconomic inequalities, and certain lifestyle, psychosocial factors and health-related conditions are strong determinants of fish consumption. Such information is important for future development or refinement of effective dietary interventions targeting older adults.
    • Direct comparative effectiveness and safety between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

      Li, Guowei; Lip, Gregory YH; Holbrook, Anne; Chang, Yaping; Larsen, Torben B; Sun, Xin; Tang, Jie; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Witt, Daniel M; Crowther, Mark; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-06-08)
      The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been increasingly prescribed in clinical practice for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Direct comparisons between NOACs in trials are lacking, leaving an important clinical decision-making gap. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence of observational studies for direct comparative effectiveness and safety amongst NOACs in patients with AF. Conference proceedings and electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PUBMED were systematically searched. We included observational studies directly comparing individual NOACs in patients with nonvalvular AF who were aged ≥ 18 years for stroke prevention. Primary outcome included effectiveness outcome (stroke or systemic embolism) and safety outcome (major bleeding). Data were extracted in duplicated by two reviewers independently. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the data from included observational studies. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to rate the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. Fifteen studies were included for qualitative synthesis, twelve studies for meta-analyses. It was found that rivaroxaban and dabigatran were similar with regard to risk of stroke or systemic embolism (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.00, 95% CI 0.91–1.10; evidence quality: low), but rivaroxaban was associated with higher risk of major bleeding (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.50; evidence quality: moderate). Compared with apixaban, a significantly higher risk of major bleeding was observed with rivaroxaban (HR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.51–1.94; evidence quality: low). Apixaban was associated with lower risk of major bleeding, in comparison with dabigatran (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.95; evidence quality: low). No differences in risk of stroke or systemic embolism was observed between rivaroxaban versus apixaban, and apixaban versus dabigatran. In this study, apixaban was found to have the most favorable safety profile amongst the three NOACs. No significant difference was observed in risk of stroke or systemic embolism between the NOACs. Such findings may provide some decision-making support for physicians regarding their choices amongst NOACs in patients with AF.
    • Aspiring to higher education? Choice, complexity and confidence in secondary students’ decision-making

      Brown-Williams, Zeta; Rhoades, Gavin; Smith, Matthew; Thompson, David (BESA, 2019-09-10)
      This article reports on a programme designed to encourage young people who are currently in secondary school (age range 11-18) to apply to university. Explore University is a collaborative outreach programme provided by a small group of Higher Education Institutions in the West Midlands and Staffordshire areas of the UK. Participants were 46 high school students aged 14-16 years old. There has been increasing importance placed on the value of appropriate Information, Advice and Guidance (IAG) for students considering attending university in the UK (Diamond et al., 2014). A wide range of diverse factors, contexts and behaviours impact on how IAG is accessed and consumed, and how decisions about progression to higher education are made (Moogan & Baron, 2003). Q-methodology (Q) was used in this study as it was believed that this approach could find communalities in participants’ perspectives that may not have been apparent had more traditional data collection methods been used. Four factors were produced that represented a range of different perspectives on attending university. The findings were associated with young people’s self-perception as learners and the influence these perceptions had on their strength of commitment to attend university. These findings are relevant to any consideration of both IAG at secondary school and widening participation in higher education at a time when there are increasing financial pressures on university recruitment, and smaller pools of diverse potential applicants being targeted.
    • Experimental manipulation of breakfast in normal and overweight/obese participants is associated with changes to nutrient and energy intake consumption patterns

      Reeves, Sue; Huber, Jörg W; Halsey, Lewis G; Horabady-Farahani, Yasmin; Ijadi, Mehrnaz; Smith, Tina (Elsevier BV, 2014-05-24)
      The effect of breakfast and breakfast omission on daily food intake in normal and overweight participants was investigated. 37 participants were recruited for this experimental study and assigned to one of four groups on the basis of their body mass index (BMI) (normal weight BMI < 25 kg/m2 or overweight/obese BMI > 25 kg/m2) and breakfast habits (breakfast eater or breakfast omitter). All participants were requested to eat breakfast for an entire week, and then following a washout period, omit breakfast for an entire week, or vice versa. Seven-day food diaries reporting what was consumed and the timing of consumption were completed for each breakfast condition. Overall more energy was consumed during the breakfast than the no breakfast week. The present study revealed significant effects of timing on energy intakes; more energy was consumed during the afternoon in the no breakfast week compared to the breakfast week. Overweight participants consumed greater amounts of energy than normal weight participants in the early evening. Breakfast omitters consumed more than did breakfast eaters later in the evening. All groups consumed significantly less energy, carbohydrate and fibre in the no breakfast week; however, overweight participants increased their sugar intakes. Consumption of the micronutrients iron and folate was reduced in the no breakfast week. The findings highlight that the timing of food intake and habitual breakfast eating behaviour are important factors when investigating why breakfast consumption may be associated with BMI.
    • A cross-over experiment to investigate possible mechanisms for lower BMIs in people who habitually eat breakfast

      Reeves, S; Huber, JW; Halsey, LG; Villegas-Montes, M; Elgumati, J; Smith, T; Department of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, London, UK. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2015-01-07)
      © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. The body mass index (BMI) of breakfast eaters is frequently reported to be lower compared with that of breakfast skippers. This is not explained by differences in energy intakes, indicating there may be other mechanisms serving to drive this paradoxical association between breakfast and BMI. This study aimed to investigate the effect of eating breakfast versus morning fasting on measures predominantly of metabolism in lean and overweight participants who habitually eat or skip breakfast.Subjects/Methods:Participants (n=37) were recruited into four groups on the basis of BMI (lean and overweight) and breakfast habit (breakfast eater and breakfast skipper). Participants were randomly assigned to a breakfast experimental condition, breakfast eating or no breakfast, for 7 days and then completed the alternative condition. At the end of each breakfast experimental condition, measurements were made before and after a high carbohydrate breakfast of 2274±777 kJ or a rest period. Resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food (TEF), blood glucose, insulin and leptin levels were recorded. Hunger and 'morningness' were assessed and pedometers worn.Results:Lean participants had lower fasting insulin levels (P=0.045) and higher insulin concentrations following breakfast (P=0.001). BMI and breakfast habit did not interact with the experimental breakfast condition, with the exception of hunger ratings; breakfast eaters were hungrier in the mornings compared with breakfast skippers in the no breakfast condition (P=0.001).Conclusions:There is little evidence from this study for a metabolic-based mechanism to explain lower BMIs in breakfast eaters.
    • Three-dimensional analysis of a lofted instep kick by male and female footballers

      Smith, Tina; Gilleard, Wendy; a School of Health and Human Sciences , Southern Cross University , Lismore , NSW , Australia. (Informa UK Limited, 2015-01-06)
      There is a paucity of data describing the lofted instep kick and little information on the kinematic differences between male and female footballers. This study provides a preliminary investigation into the differences in motion patterns between the sexes. A four-camera motion analysis system videoed 13 amateur footballers (7 female and 6 male) attempting a standardised task that represented a lofted instep kick of approximately 35 m. Footballers performed 20 kicks, with the three trials categorised closest to the standardised distance retained for statistical analysis. Three-dimensional motion patterns for kicks of 35 m illustrated that female footballers produced greater fluctuation in movement patterns for pelvic, hip joint and thoracolumbar spine motion in the frontal plane; thorax and hip joint transverse rotation; and ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion motion. Peak hip extension (P = 0.018), impact hip abduction (P = 0.032), impact ankle plantar flexion (P = 0.030) and resultant ball velocity (P = 0.004) differed significantly between sexes. Principle component analysis highlighted associations between kinematic variables related to ball velocity and sex including a reduced hip abduction and increased internal rotation approaching impact, and greater peak knee flexion, respectively. In summary, increased variation in direction of segment motion, increased backswing and formation of a tension arc by females compared to males, may be related to anthropometric, strength and muscle activation differences. Specifically, this exploratory study indicates future research would benefit from exploring trunk, pelvis and hip kinematics and kinetics, and whether training the trunk, pelvis and hip musculature assists female footballers.
    • Association between anemia and blood transfusion with long-term mortality after cardiac surgery

      Padmanabhan, Hari; Brookes, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan M; Luckraz, Heyman; Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. Electronic address: hari.padmanabhan@nhs.net. (Elsevier BV, 2019-06-04)
      BACKGROUND:Preoperative anemia and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion are both associated with in-hospital mortality after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between preoperative anemia and RBC transfusion and their effect on the long-term survival of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS:Between 2005 and 2012, 1170 patients with anemia who underwent elective or urgent cardiac surgery were included. A matched group of 1170 nonanemic patients was used as a control group. A binary logistic regression model was used. RESULTS:The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 0-127). Anemic patients had higher mortality (45%, n = 526) than nonanemic patients (32%, n = 374; P < .001). Preoperative anemia was independently associated with long-term mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.1; P < .001), with both moderate (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.72-2.99; P < .001) and mild anemia (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.13-1.71; P = .002) contributing significantly. RBC transfusion was not associated with long-term mortality (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88-1.31; P = .49). There was no interaction between preoperative anemia and RBC transfusion (P = .947). CONCLUSIONS:Long-term mortality is significantly high in patients who are anemic, regardless of their transfusion status. Preoperative anemia is a strong, independent predictor of mortality and therefore should be managed before cardiac surgery.
    • The development and validation of the feedback in learning scale

      Jellicoe, Mark; Forsythe, Alexandra (Frontiers, 2019-08-14)
      Research attention has shifted from feedback delivery mechanisms to supporting learners to receive feedback well (Winstone et al., 2017a). Recognizing feedback and the action necessary to take the next steps are vital to self-regulated performance (Zimmerman, 2000; Panadero, 2017). Evaluative judgments supporting such mechanisms are vital forces that promote academic endeavor and lifelong learning (Ajjawi et al., 2018). Measuring such mechanisms is well-developed in occupational settings (Boudrias et al., 2014). Understanding how these relate to self-regulated learning gains in Higher Education (HE) is less well-understood (Forsythe and Jellicoe, 2018). Here we refined a measure of feedback integration from the occupational research domain (Boudrias et al., 2014) and investigate its application to HE. Two groups of psychology undergraduates endorsed perspectives associated with feedback. The measure examines characteristics associated with feedback including message valence, source credibility, interventions that provide challenge, feedback acceptance, awareness, motivational intentions, and the desire to make behavioral changes and undertake development activities following feedback. Of these suggested characteristics, exploratory factor analysis revealed that undergraduate learners endorsed credible source challenge, acceptance of feedback, awareness from feedback, motivational intentions and the desire to take behavioral changes and participate in development activities formed a single factor. The structure of the instrument and hypothesized paths between derived factors was confirmed using latent variable structural equation modeling. Both models achieved mostly good, and at least acceptable fit, endorsing the robustness of the measure in HE learners. These finding increase understanding of HE learner's relationship with feedback. Here, acceptance of feedback predicts the extent to which learners found the source of feedback credible. Credible source challenge in turn predicts awareness resulting from feedback. Subsequently, awareness predicts motivations to act. These promising results, whilst cross-sectional, also have implications for programmes. Further research employing this instrument is necessary to understand changes in learner attitudes in developing beneficial self-regulated skills that support both programmes of study and graduates in their careers.
    • Digital vs. Hard Copy? A Preliminary Study of Reading Style in Children Using Touch Screen and Paper Books

      Uther, M; Ross, K; Randell, J; Pye, R (Springer International Publishing, 2019-07-04)
      © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The use of touch screen storybooks for children allows reading to be transformed into an interactive multimedia experience, in which text is augmented by animations, sound effects, and games. The present study is a follow-up to an earlier study [1] which found that touch screen storybooks negatively affected child readers’ comprehension but resulted in more emotional engagement. Ross et al.’s earlier study used visual observations to determine the level of emotional engagement. The current study extends those findings to examine the acoustic and prosodic indices of speech whilst children are reading. It was hypothesized that if touch screens were more emotionally engaging, this may express itself in greater pitch variability in the read speech. Also, if reading were more task-focused, then this might express in more careful (and hence more disfluent) paper-based material. Very preliminary analysis on a small selection of speech samples from 5 participants aged 6–7 years in the Ross et al. [1] study show greater pitch range variability with paper-based storybooks as compared to touch-screen interactive versions. On the other hand, there appeared to be less variation in speech and articulation rate in the paper-based books compared to touch screen books. This was also coupled by a tendency for greater overall phonation rate and an increased speech and articulation rate in the paper-based condition, which may reflect a more fluid style for paper-based book reading. Discussion of these preliminary findings focuses on the future lines of enquiry and reflections on children’s reading style using different mediums.
    • The dialectics of change in social work education

      Simpson, Graeme; Murr, Ani (Whiting and Birch, 2015-01-31)
      The aim of this paper is to explore the dialectics of change in social work education. Beginning with a brief outline of the dialectic, it acknowledges the contested nature of social work, and identifies historical tensions between major stakeholders (government, regulators, employers, academics and educators). It examines inherent contradictions in the understanding of ‘good’ social work in the conflict over the social work curriculum, and in approaches to the assessment of practice at institutional and individual levels. Significant disconnections between stakeholders identified through the social work degree are described and the potential for reconnection through the reform process in England is recognized. The paper concludes by questioning whether such reconnection (synthesis) is possible in the context of divisive historical tensions (thesis and anti-thesis) and suggesting where new forms of connectivity may emerge.
    • Dancers’ heart: Cardiac screening in elite dancers

      Metsios, George; Wyon, Matthew; Patel, Kiran; Allen, Nick; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-24)
      Using electrocardiography and echocardiography, we screened elite men and women ballet dancers for abnormal cardiovascular conditions using an observation design with blinded clinical analysis of cardiac function tests. Fifty-eight (females n=33) elite professional ballet dancers (age: 26.0±5.7 years, body mass index: 19.9±2.2 kg/m2) with no past or present history of cardio vascular disease volunteered. Participants were assessed via a 12-lead electrocardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography for cardiac function. Electrocardiography revealed that 83% of our dancers demonstrated normal axis, while 31% had incomplete right bundle branch block and 17% had sinus bradycardia; none showed any abnormal findings. Findings from the echocardiography were also normal for all participants and comparable to their counterparts in other sports. Significant differences (p<0.05) were detected in almost all studied echocardiographic parameters between males and females. In conclusion, heart function and structure seem to be normal in elite ballet dancers, placing them at low risk for sudden cardiac death and performance-related cardiovascular complications. Larger samples are required to confirm these findings.