Recent Submissions

  • What am I thinking? Perspective-taking from the perspective of adolescents with autism

    Atherton, Gray; Lummis, Ben; Day, Susan X.; Cross, Liam (Sage, 2018-10-11)
    Autistic people are often described as being impaired with regard to theory of mind, though more recent literature finds flaws in the theory of mind deficit paradigm. In addition, the predominant methods for examining theory of mind often rely on “observational” modes of assessment and do not adequately reflect the dynamic process of real-life perspective taking. Thus, it is imperative that researchers continue to test the autistic theory of mind deficit paradigm and explore theory of mind experiences through more naturalistic approaches. This study qualitatively examined theory of mind in 12 autistic adolescents through a series of semi-structured interviews. Interpretive phenomenological analysis of the data revealed four core themes in participants’ theory of mind experiences and strategies, all of which highlighted how a more accurate representation of autistic theory of mind is one of difference rather than deficit. For instance, data showed that autistic heightened perceptual abilities may contribute to mentalizing strengths and that honesty in autism may be less dependent on systemizing rather than personal experience and choice. Such findings suggest that future research should reexamine autistic characteristics in light of their ability to enhance theory of mind processing. Understanding how an autistic theory of mind is uniquely functional is an imperative step toward both destigmatizing the condition and advocating for neurodiversity.
  • The use of in-class debates as a teaching strategy in increasing students’ critical thinking and collaborative learning skills in higher education.

    Brown, Zeta (BESA, 2015-01-01)
    This paper will explore the use of debates as an in-class teaching strategy that has the potential to heighten students’ critical thinking and collaborative learning skills. Students undertaking a childhood studies degree had weekly debates that linked media represented topics to theoretical content from their current module. This module covered a range of theoretical and practical perspectives in relation to the child, family and society. Therefore, the topics of weekly debates included the changing nature of childhood, the diversity of family relationships, childhood obesity and the differing ways in which children are socialised. Data was collected using a card-sort and in-class structured interview questions. The study focused on accessing students’ perspectives on the use of these weekly debates. The study found most students held differing, complex perspectives on either the benefit of enhancing collaborative learning or critical thinking skills. The findings suggest that fourteen of the sixteen students in this study did not prefer the use of debates in comparison to other teaching strategies. This is because some students sought more structure in the use of in-class debates to enhance their theoretical understanding. This paper concludes by considering recommendations for the module that include the possibility of using peer-assessment to ensure full student participation.
  • Addition of Docetaxel to First-line Long-term Hormone Therapy in Prostate Cancer (STAMPEDE): Modelling to Estimate Long-term Survival, Quality-adjusted Survival, and Cost-effectiveness

    Woods, Beth S.; Sideris, Eleftherios; Sydes, Matthew R.; Gannon, Melissa R.; Parmar, Mahesh K.B.; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Attard, Gerhardt; Birtle, Alison J.; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir R.; Cook, Audrey; Cross, William R.; Dearnaley, David P.; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D.; Hughes, Robert; Jones, Rob J.; Laing, Robert; Mason, Malcolm D.; Matheson, David; McLaren, Duncan B.; Millman, Robin; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Parikh, Omi; Parker, Christopher C.; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Ritchie, Alastair W.S.; Robinson, Angus; Russell, J. Martin; Simms, Matthew S.; Srihari, Narayanan N.; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John N.; Sundar, Santhanam; Thalmann, George N.; Tolan, Shaun; Tran, Anna T.H.; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; James, Nicholas D.; Sculpher, Mark J. (Elsevier, 2018-09-14)
    Background Results from large randomised controlled trials have shown that adding docetaxel to the standard of care (SOC) for men initiating hormone therapy for prostate cancer (PC) prolongs survival for those with metastatic disease and prolongs failure-free survival for those without. To date there has been no formal assessment of whether funding docetaxel in this setting represents an appropriate use of UK National Health Service (NHS) resources. Objective To assess whether administering docetaxel to men with PC starting long-term hormone therapy is cost-effective in a UK setting. Design, setting, and participants We modelled health outcomes and costs in the UK NHS using data collected within the STAMPEDE trial, which enrolled men with high-risk, locally advanced metastatic or recurrent PC starting first-line hormone therapy. Intervention SOC was hormone therapy for ≥2 yr and radiotherapy in some patients. Docetaxel (75 mg/m2) was administered alongside SOC for six three-weekly cycles. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The model generated lifetime predictions of costs, changes in survival duration, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results and limitations The model predicted that docetaxel would extend survival (discounted quality-adjusted survival) by 0.89 yr (0.51) for metastatic PC and 0.78 yr (0.39) for nonmetastatic PC, and would be cost-effective in metastatic PC (ICER £5514/QALY vs SOC) and nonmetastatic PC (higher QALYs, lower costs vs SOC). Docetaxel remained cost-effective in nonmetastatic PC when the assumption of no survival advantage was modelled. Conclusions Docetaxel is cost-effective among patients with nonmetastatic and metastatic PC in a UK setting. Clinicians should consider whether the evidence is now sufficiently compelling to support docetaxel use in patients with nonmetastatic PC, as the opportunity to offer docetaxel at hormone therapy initiation will be missed for some patients by the time more mature survival data are available. Patient summary Starting docetaxel chemotherapy alongside hormone therapy represents a good use of UK National Health Service resources for patients with prostate cancer that is high risk or has spread to other parts of the body.
  • Short-Term Mating

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Hughes, Sara (Springer, 2017-03-01)
  • Is there a need for placement evaluations for specialist practice students? A proposal

    Sturge, Sally (CPHVA, 2014-10-30)
    This paper outlines a recent proposal justifying the initiation of standardised placement evaluations across specialist community public health nursing and specialist community nursing students while they undertake their educational programme. Within one approved education institute (AEI) it was identified that there was no standardised tool currently being used across the West Midlands, making the process of quality assurance extremely difficult. A clear rationale is provided for the use of such a tool, including supporting evidence from professional, statutory and regulatory bodies, health and education policies and quality assurance agencies. Placement evaluations are critical to students' learning, ensuring a safe and conducive environment, while providing a continuous cyclical process in conjunction with educational audits to allow the opportunity of regular assessment of the learning environment conforming to the Nursing Midwifery Council's risk-based approach. In light of the recent recommendations from the Francis report, it is pivotal that organisations such as the NHS and AEIs engage proactively together, fostering an open and transparent relationship to ensure standards of care are of the highest quality. Aspects of leadership theory are also discussed to enable the planned change to be successful.
  • Education, study of

    Matheson, David (Sage, 2018)
  • Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: The need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms

    Beedie, Christopher; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Barbiani, Diletta; Camerone, Eleanora; Cohen, Emma; Coleman, Damian; Davis, Arran; Edelsten, Charlotte; Flowers, Elliott; Foad, Abby; Harvey, Simon; Hettinga, Florentina; Hurst, Philip; Lane, Andrew; Lindheimer, Jacob; Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Szabo, Attila (Taylor and Francis, 2018-08-16)
    In June 2017 a group of experts in anthropology, biology, kinesiology, neuroscience, physiology, and psychology convened in Canterbury, UK, to address questions relating to the placebo effect in sport and exercise. The event was supported exclusively by Quality Related (QR) funding from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The funder did not influence the content or conclusions of the group. No competing interests were declared by any delegate. During the meeting and in follow-up correspondence, all delegates agreed the need to communicate the outcomes of the meeting via a brief consensus statement. The two specific aims of this statement are to encourage researchers in sport and exercise science to 1. Where possible, adopt research methods that more effectively elucidate the role of the brain in mediating the effects of treatments and interventions. 2. Where possible, adopt methods that factor for and/or quantify placebo effects that could explain a percentage of inter-individual variability in response to treatments and intervention.
  • Governing through Trust: Community-based link workers and parental engagement in education

    Fretwell, Nathan; Osgood, Jayne; O'Tool, Gill; Tsouroufli, Maria (Wiley online library, 2018-09-28)
    This article seeks to further understandings of contemporary patterns of parental government. It explores the politicisation of family life by examining a pilot programme tasked with enhancing parental engagement in education amongst ‘hard-to-reach’ families within the white British community of a large inner-London borough. Focusing on the programme’s signature device – the deployment of community-based ‘link workers’ to bridge home and school – ‘governmentality’ (Foucault, 2009) is used as a theoretical lens through which to foreground the link workers’ role in governing parents. We draw on qualitative data collected from link workers, parents, and school leaders, to argue that link workers represent a mode of governmentality that privileges the instrumental use of trust to achieve strategic objectives, rather than coercive authority. The aim being to produce responsible, self-disciplined parents who act freely in accordance with normative expectations as to what constitutes ‘good’ parenting and effective parental support. As such, the article highlights the link workers’ role in (re)producing the ideal, neoliberal parent. However, governing through trust comes at the cost of being unable to firmly secure desired outcomes. We thereby conclude that this gentle art of parental government affords parents some latitude in resisting institutional agendas.
  • Approaches to communication assessment with children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    Goldbart, Juliet; Buell, Susan; Chadwick, Darren (Wiley, 2018)
    Communication assessment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) has seldom been investigated. Here we explore approaches and decision making in undertaking communication assessments in this group of people. A questionnaire was sent to UK practitioners. The questionnaire elicited information about assessment approaches used and rationales for assessment choices. Fifty-five speech and language therapists (SLTs) responded. Findings revealed that the Preverbal Communication Schedule, the Affective Communication Assessment and the Checklist of Communication Competence were the most frequently used published assessments. Both published and unpublished assessments were often used. Rationales for assessment choice related to assessment utility, sensitivity to detail and change and their applicability to people with PIMD. Underpinning evidence for assessments was seldom mentioned demonstrating the need for more empirical support for assessments used. Variability in practice and the eclectic use of a range of assessments was evident, underpinned by practice-focused evidence based on tacit knowledge.
  • Radiotherapy to the primary tumour for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a randomised controlled phase 3 trial

    Parker, Christopher C; James, Nicholas D; Brawley, Christopher D; Clarke, Noel W; Hoyle, Alex P; Ali, Adnan; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Attard, Gerhardt; Chowdhury, Simon; Cross, William; Dearnaley, David P; Gillessen, Silke; Gilson, Clare; Jones, Robert J; Langley, Ruth E; Malik, Zafar I; Mason, Malcolm D; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Russell, J Martin; Thalmann, George N; Amos, Claire L; Alonzi, Roberto; Bahl, Amit; Birtle, Alison; Din, Omar; Douis, Hassan; Eswar, Chinnamani; Gale, Joanna; Gannon, Melissa R; Jonnada, Sai; Khaksar, Sara; Lester, Jason F; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi A; Pedley, Ian D; Pudney, Delia M; Sheehan, Denise J; Srihari, Narayanan Nair; Tran, Anna T H; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sydes, Matthew R (The Lancet, 2018-10-21)
    Background Based on previous findings, we hypothesised that radiotherapy to the prostate would improve overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and that the benefit would be greatest in patients with a low metastatic burden. We aimed to compare standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer, with and without radiotherapy. Methods We did a randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 117 hospitals in Switzerland and the UK. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. We randomly allocated patients open-label in a 1:1 ratio to standard of care (control group) or standard of care and radiotherapy (radiotherapy group). Randomisation was stratified by hospital, age at randomisation, nodal involvement, WHO performance status, planned androgen deprivation therapy, planned docetaxel use (from December, 2015), and regular aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Standard of care was lifelong androgen deprivation therapy, with up-front docetaxel permitted from December, 2015. Men allocated radiotherapy received either a daily (55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks) or weekly (36 Gy in six fractions over 6 weeks) schedule that was nominated before randomisation. The primary outcome was overall survival, measured as the number of deaths; this analysis had 90% power with a one-sided α of 2·5% for a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·75. Secondary outcomes were failure-free survival, progression-free survival, metastatic progression-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and symptomatic local event-free survival. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric models, adjusted for stratification factors. The primary outcome analysis was by intention to treat. Two prespecified subgroup analyses tested the effects of prostate radiotherapy by baseline metastatic burden and radiotherapy schedule. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00268476. Findings Between Jan 22, 2013, and Sept 2, 2016, 2061 men underwent randomisation, 1029 were allocated the control and 1032 radiotherapy. Allocated groups were balanced, with a median age of 68 years (IQR 63–73) and median amount of prostate-specific antigen of 97 ng/mL (33–315). 367 (18%) patients received early docetaxel. 1082 (52%) participants nominated the daily radiotherapy schedule before randomisation and 979 (48%) the weekly schedule. 819 (40%) men had a low metastatic burden, 1120 (54%) had a high metastatic burden, and the metastatic burden was unknown for 122 (6%). Radiotherapy improved failure-free survival (HR 0·76, 95% CI 0·68–0·84; p<0·0001) but not overall survival (0·92, 0·80–1·06; p=0·266). Radiotherapy was well tolerated, with 48 (5%) adverse events (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3–4) reported during radiotherapy and 37 (4%) after radiotherapy. The proportion reporting at least one severe adverse event (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 or worse) was similar by treatment group in the safety population (398 [38%] with control and 380 [39%] with radiotherapy). Interpretation Radiotherapy to the prostate did not improve overall survival for unselected patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer.
  • User perceptions of sound quality: implications for the design and use of audio-based mobile applications

    Uther, Maria (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-22)
    This study sought to investigate the effect that contextual cues (in particular, device type and content type) have on the perception of sound quality. A sample of 49 participants were tested on different mobile devices sizes (small – iPhone, medium – iPad Mini, and large – iPad) which had identical sound output characteristics within in different usage contexts (generic content vs. musical training app contexts). Results showed that the users’ perception of generic sound types was affected by device type, with iPhones appearing to have better sound quality compared to larger devices. On the other hand, within application contexts, the application type seemed to affect user perceptions more, with the rhythm training application rating poorer on sound quality, picture quality, and likelihood of future use as compared to the pitch training application (although this may be due to the perceived increased difficulty). Together, these findings demonstrate the influence of device and content cues (when actual physical qualities are controlled) on user sound perception. Interestingly, differences in perceived sound quality was not accompanied by an overriding preference for that device as compared to other devices. Instead, considerations such as ease of use seemed to drive considerations for uptake of applications.
  • Perspectives on the standards agenda: exploring the agenda's impact on primary teachers' professional identities

    Brown, Zeta; Manktelow, Ken (Taylor and Francis, 2015-09-30)
    This study aimed to investigate teachers' perspectives on the practical implementation of the standards agenda and its impact on their professional identities. Q-methodology was used alongside semi-structured interviews with UK primary school teachers. The study explored the views of 25 teachers in six schools, selected through purposive sampling to give a range of individual and institutional demographics. Teachers in this research commented on the impact the standards agenda has had on parental and societal judgements that affect their identity as professionals. Teachers held differing positions on whether they experienced constraint or flexibility when implementing standards objectives. These differing positions were mainly influenced by whether they taught above or below Year 3. Teachers who found flexibility in the agenda's objectives had less occupational stress and increased ownership of their own actions and the standards agenda. Teachers' positions were complex and changed according to situational influences at a classroom level.
  • Amotz Zahavi

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2019-05-14)
  • Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid (γ-PGA)-based encapsulation of Adenovirus to evade neutralizing antibodies.

    Khalil, Ibrahim R; Khechara, Martin P; Kurusamy, Sathishkumar; Armesilla, Angel L; Gupta, Abhishek; Mendrek, Barbara; Khalaf, Tamara; Scandola, Mariastella; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Kowalczuk, Marek; Radecka, Iza (MDPI, 2018-10-08)
    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in oncolytic adenoviral vectors as an alternative anticancer therapy. The induction of an immune response can be considered as a major limitation of this kind of application. Significant research efforts have been focused on the development of biodegradable polymer poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based nanoparticles used as a vector for effective and safe anticancer therapy, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. This study aimed to introduce a specific destructive and antibody blind polymer-coated viral vector into cancer cells using γ-PGA and chitosan (CH). Adenovirus was successfully encapsulated into the biopolymer particles with an encapsulation efficiency of 92% and particle size of 485 nm using the ionic gelation method. Therapeutic agents or nanoparticles (NPs) that carry therapeutics can be directed specifically to cancerous cells by decorating their surfaces using targeting ligands. Moreover, in vitro neutralizing antibody response against viral capsid proteins can be somewhat reduced by encapsulating adenovirus into γ-PGA-CH NPs, as only 3.1% of the encapsulated adenovirus was detected by anti-adenovirus antibodies in the presented work compared to naked adenoviruses. The results obtained and the unique characteristics of the polymer established in this research could provide a reference for the coating and controlled release of viral vectors used in anticancer therapy.
  • Inclusive practice in early childhood

    Brown, Zeta; Palaiologou, Ioanna (Routledge, 2016-05-13)
    In the last two decades, the field of early childhood education and care in England has been transformed and is still witnessing changes. Central to all the changes in the field was the creation of ‘joined- up’ thinking where a varied range of services such as nurseries, pre- schools, child minders and social workers aimed to work in a multi- agency, multi- departmental way in order to allow all children and their families to get the best start in life. There was also an attempt to ensure that all the changes in the field at policy and curriculum level were aimed at achieving equality of opportunity for all children and their families as well as ensuring anti- discriminatory practice so that all children are included and supported. In that sense, Nutbrown’s quote reflects the core element in early childhood education and care for an inclusive provision. However, Nutbrown importantly stated that only at its best is early years inclusive practice possible. This is because inclusive practice is complex: it cannot simply be considered ideologically and instead tensions need to be considered that may exist in practically implementing inclusion in the early childhood.
  • The Challenges in Researching the Relationship Between Physical Attractiveness and Altruism Using Economic Games

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-01-31)
    This case study is based on a portion of my PhD research exploring the relationship between physical attractiveness and altruistic behavior. Much of the previous literature exploring these variables has been conducted via computer simulations, using facial images and vignettes. I conducted three studies exploring the relationship between physical attractiveness and altruistic behavior among real people in a laboratory setting using economic games. It was hypothesized that people would be more altruistic toward those they considered attractive. The findings yielded consistent null results. This case study reports the factors that influenced my findings and the decisions made when designing each study.
  • A Research Note on the Influence of Relationship Length and Sex on Preferences for Altruistic and Cooperative Mates

    Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-04-04)
    Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one’s character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss’s Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate. We also found that although women placed greater importance on cooperativeness in a mate compared to men, this preference was not influenced by whether they were seeking a short-term or a long-term mate. We successfully replicate previous literature exploring the role of altruism in mate choice.
  • Perpetrating Cyber Dating Abuse: A Brief Report on the Role of Aggression, Romantic Jealousy and Gender

    Deans, Heather; Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2017-10-25)
    There is increasing evidence that the use of elec-tronic communication technology (ECT) is being integrated into romantic relationships, which can be used as a medium to control a romantic partner. Most research focuses on the vic-tims of cyber dating abuse, however, we focused on the factors that predict perpetration of cyber dating abuse. We explored whether aggression (verbal aggression, physical aggression, anger and hostility), romantic jealousy (emotional, cognitive and behavioral jealousy), and gender predicted perpetration of cyber dating abuse (n = 189). We found that hostility, behav-ioral jealousy and gender significantly predicted perpetration of cyber dating abuse. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the psychological factors that drive cyber dating abuse in romantic relationships.

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