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  • The role of distance and transportation in decision‐making to seek emergency obstetric care among women of reproductive age in South‐South Nigeria: A mixed methods study

    Ekpenyong, Mandu Stephen; Matheson, David; Serrant, Laura (Wiley, 2022-01-19)
    Objective to explore the role of transportation in seeking emergency obstetric care among women with obstetric complications. Methods A mixed-methods design. The population for the study were women aged 15-49 years who had experience direct obstetric complications and were attending the health facility for care at the time of this study. Three-hundred and eighteen (318) women completed the questionnaires, whilst in-depth interviews were held for six women who were conveniently selected from a large (318) quantitative respondent. Both questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used in collecting data for this study. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) using both inferential and bivariate analysis, whilst a qualitative content analysis was carried out on the qualitative data. Results Of the 318 respondents, 91.2% accessed health facilities by motorised transport with 8.8% on-foot. Mode of transportation was (p=0.003) related to regularity at antenatal care, with those who came on-foot being regular at ANC than those that came on motorised transport. Conclusions The study concludes that efficient and suitable transport system as well as distance are key factors influencing women role in decision-making to seek care.
  • Digital inclusion and participation of people with intellectual disabilities during COVID‐19: A rapid review and international bricolage

    Chadwick, Darren; Ågren, Kristin Alfredsson; Caton, Sue; Chiner, Esther; Danker, Joanne; Gómez‐Puerta, Marcos; Heitplatz, Vanessa; Johansson, Stefan; Normand, Claude L; Murphy, Esther; et al. (Wiley, 2022-01-14)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has meant a rapid transfer of everyday activities to the online world. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become more embedded than ever in people's lives. This investigation addresses how this change has affected the lives of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). A two-step design was used. A rapid review was conducted on empirical studies published between January 2019 and June 2021. Search terms related to ID, ICT use and COVID-19. A qualitative international bricolage was also conducted corresponding to author nationalities. Data gathered from the review and bricolage were analysed separately using thematic analysis and relationally synthesised. Digital solutions to provide access to COVID-19 information and guidance seemed inadequate but were seldom empirically studied. Digital poverty, literacy and exclusion remain significant issues for people with ID internationally. People and their carers experienced reduced and removed service provision, loneliness and impoverished daily lives during the pandemic; amelioration of which was facilitated by digital solutions. One solution often used was videoconferencing. Prior experience of digital participation, adequate finances, connection, support and digital literacy mentoring for both people with ID and those providing services and support facilitated digital inclusion. Digital exclusion during COVID-19 was exacerbated by sociopolitical, structural, individual and support-related barriers. Although awareness of digital exclusion appears to have been raised, the extent to which this has led to action and change remains unclear. Despite digital exclusion and digital participation benefitting continuation of life, social and emotional well-being and autonomy, COVID-19 has not provided the impetus to eradicate digital poverty for people with ID. Governmental support, digital education, creativity and problem solving are required to enable people with ID the human right to be included in the digital world at this essential time and into the future.
  • Magnitude and sources of proactive interference in visual memory

    Mercer, Tom; Fisher, Luke (Taylor & Francis, 2022-12-31)
    Proactive interference – the disruptive effect of old memories on new learning – is a long-established forgetting mechanism, yet there are doubts about its impact on visual working memory and uncertainty about the kinds of information that cause proactive interference. The present study aimed to assess these issues in three experiments using a modified recent probes task. Participants encoded four target images on each trial and determined whether a probe matched one of those targets. In Experiment 1, probes matching targets from trial N-1 or N-3 damaged responding in relation to a novel probe. Proactive interference was also produced by probes differing in state to a previously experienced target. This was further assessed in Experiments 2 and 3. Here, probes differing in colour to a previous target, or matching the general target category only, produced little proactive interference. Conversely, probes directly matching a prior target, or differing in state information, hindered task performance. This study found robust proactive interference in visual working memory that could endure over multiple trials, but it was also produced by stimuli closely resembling an old target. This challenges the notion that proactive interference is produced by an exact representation of a previously encoded image.
  • Impacts of depression subcase and case on all-cause mortality in older people: The findings from the multi-centre community-based cohort study in China

    Chen, R; Zhou, W; Ma, Y; Wan, Y; Qin, X; Rodney, A; Ni, J; Thomas, E; Gao, J; Spira, AP; et al. (Wiley, 2021-08-23)
    Objectives: It is unclear whether and to what extent depression subcases and cases in older age were associated with all-cause mortality. Little is known about gender differences in the associations. We assess these in older Chinese. Methods: We examined a random sample of 6124 participants aged ≥60 years across five provinces in China. They were interviewed using a standard method of the GMS-AGECAT to diagnose depression subcase and case and record sociodemographic and disease risk factors at baseline, and to follow up their vital status. We employed Cox regression models to determine all-cause mortality in relation to depression subcases and cases, with adjustment for important variables, including social support and co-morbidities. Results: Over the 10-year follow-up, 928 deaths occurred. Compared to those without depression at baseline, participants with depression subcase (n = 196) and case (n = 264) had increased risk of mortality; adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.46 (95% CI 1.07–2.00) and 1.45 (1.10–1.91). The adjusted HRs in men were 1.15 (0.72–1.81) and 1.85 (1.22–2.81), and in women 1.87 (1.22–2.87) and 1.22 (0.83–1.77) respectively. In participants aged ≥65 years, the adjusted HRs were 1.12 (0.68–1.84) and 1.99 (1.28–3.10) in men, and 2.06 (1.32–2.24) and 1.41 (0.94–2.10) in women. Increased HR in depression subcases was higher in women than man (ratio of HRs was 1.84, p = 0.034). Conclusions: Older people with depression subcase could have increased all-cause mortality to a similar extent to those with depression case. More attention should be paid to subcases of depression in women to tackle gender inequalities and improve survival.
  • Impact of air pollution exposure on the risk of Alzheimer's disease in China: A community-based cohort study

    He, F; Tang, J; Zhang, T; Lin, J; Li, F; Gu, X; Chen, A; Nevill, Alan M.; Chen, Ruoling; Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. (Elsevier, 2021-11-03)
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Impact of air pollution (AP) on the risk of AD is unclear. It is unknown which air pollutants are independently associated with AD and whether fish consumption mitigated the association. We carried out a community-based cohort of 6115 participants aged ≥60 years in China to examine the association of PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, SO2 and O3 exposure with AD, and differences in the association between people with low and high consumption of fish. The participants were randomly recruited from six counties in Zhejiang province for health survey to document socio-demographic and disease risk factors in 2014, and were followed up to diagnose AD in 2019. A total of 986 cohort members were diagnosed with AD. Based on the daily mean air pollutants monitored in 2013–2015 in the counties, participants were divided into low, middle and high AP exposure groups for subsequent analysis. The multiple adjusted odds ratio (OR) of AD in participants living with the middle and high levels of PM2.5 exposure versus the low exposure were 1.50 (95% CI 0.90–2.50) and 3.92 (2.09–7.37). The increased ORs were also with PM10 (1.74, 0.65–4.64; 3.00, 1.22–7.41) and CO (2.86, 1.32–6.20; 1.19, 0.45–3.18), but not with NO2 (0.63, 0.17–2.27; 0.95, 0.28–3.19), SO2 (0.44, 0.19–1.001; 1.21, 0.56–2.62), and O3 (0.38, 0.20–0.74; 0.50, 0.21–1.21). There were no significant interaction effects of AP with fish consumption on AD. However, participants with low consumption of fish appeared to have higher ORs in PM2.5 exposure (1.80, 1.39–2.33; 5.18, 3.93–6.82) than those high consumption (1.38, 0.78–2.47; 2.89, 1.50–5.59). Our findings of PM2.5, PM10 and CO exposure significantly increased the risk of AD and the potential mitigating effect of fish consumption on the association provide evidence for developing effective strategies for AD reduction and air pollution control.
  • Association of the labor migration of parents with nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality among their offspring in China

    Ma, Y; Guo, H; Guo, S; Jiao, T; Zhao, C; Ammerman, BA; Gazimbi, MM; Yu, Y; Chen, R; Wang, HHX; et al. (American Medical Association, 2021-11-09)
    Importance: The labor migration of parents in China often leaves children behind, which may be adversely associated with children's health. However, few studies have assessed the association of parental migration with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) or with suicidality among their offspring. Objective: To examine the associations of parental labor migration with NSSI and with suicidality as well as potential differential associations by sex among offspring left behind. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted from February to October 2015 among individuals aged 11 to 20 years from 45 public middle and high schools across 5 provinces of China. Data analysis was performed from November 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021. Exposures: Parental labor migration, including parental migration status (yes vs no), migration pattern (father, mother, or both), and the child's age at the initial parent-child separation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Less frequent (1-4 episodes) NSSI, more frequent (≥5 episodes) NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt in the past year were measured using validated questionnaires. Multinomial or binomial logistic regression analyses were used separately to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs of the associations between parental migration and NSSI, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempt. Potential covariates (demographic, family-level, and psychological characteristics) were adjusted for in 3 sequential models. Results: A total of 15312 participants (7904 male [51.6%] and 7408 female [48.4%]) aged 11 to 20 years (mean [SD] age, 15.1 [1.8] years) were included. Of those participants, 5963 (23.3%) experienced parental migration. The 12-month prevalence of less frequent NSSI was 17.2% (2635 of 15312), the 12-month prevalence of more frequent NSSI was 11.6% (1783 of 15312), the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation was 15.2% (2335 of 15312), and the 12-month prevalence of suicide attempt was 3.5% (535 of 15312). Parental migration was associated with less frequent NSSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24); no significant association of parental migration with more frequent NSSI (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13), suicidal ideation (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.90-1.10), or suicide attempt (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.90-1.33) was identified. Compared with children whose parents did not migrate, the aOR for less frequent NSSI for participants whose father migrated was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.06-1.31), and the aOR for less frequent NSSI for participants having both parents migrate was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.28). Compared with children whose parents did not migrate, participants who experienced initial separation from 1 or both parents at preschool age had an aOR for less frequent NSSI of 1.16 (95% CI, 1.03-1.31). No sex disparities were found in these associations except for participants who experienced initial separation from 1 or both migrant parents at preschool age, for which the aOR for more frequent NSSI was higher among male (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.04-1.55) than female (aOR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.77-1.19) participants. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that parental migration, mainly of the father or of both parents, or an initial separation of children at preschool age from 1 or both parents who migrated was associated with higher odds of experiencing 1 to 4 NSSI episodes in 1 year among offspring. Overall, the associations of parental migration with NSSI and suicidality were similar between male and female participants..
  • "Children are more than just a statistic. Education is more than government outlines": Primary teachers' perspectives on the standards agenda in England

    Williams-Brown, Zeta; Jopling, Michael (British Education Studies Association, 2022-01-05)
    This paper focuses on qualitative findings from a study that investigated primary teachers’ perspectives on the standards agenda in England. Q-methodology was used to investigate the complexity of their perspectives. The study’s Q-methodology findings are published in Education 3-13 (Williams-Brown and Jopling, 2021). This paper focuses on qualitative responses from this study that were completed after the Q-methodology card sort. It focuses on teachers’ overall perspectives on the standards agenda and statements from the card sort that were placed by five participants or more in the extreme columns of the distribution grid. Findings from the study evidence that teachers were not opposed to standards and accountability, but they voiced a variety of concerns that did not focus solely on SATs. These include concerns about perceptions of achievement, experiences of assessment and measures taken to hold teachers and schools accountable for their actions. Teachers did also emphasise concerns with SATs and discussed the need for objectives to be inclusive and consider the needs of children with SEND. The paper concludes by questioning whether this is the time to reconsider standards agenda objectives.
  • Abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with or without enzalutamide for high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of primary results from two randomised controlled phase 3 trials of the STAMPEDE platform protocol

    Attard, Gerhardt; Murphy, Laura; Clarke, Noel W; Cross, William; Jones, Robert J; Parker, Christopher C; Gillessen, Silke; Cook, Adrian; Brawley, Chris; Amos, Claire L; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-12-23)
    Background Men with high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer are treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for 3 years, often combined with radiotherapy. We analysed new data from two randomised controlled phase 3 trials done in a multiarm, multistage platform protocol to assess the efficacy of adding abiraterone and prednisolone alone or with enzalutamide to ADT in this patient population. Methods These open-label, phase 3 trials were done at 113 sites in the UK and Switzerland. Eligible patients (no age restrictions) had high-risk (defined as node positive or, if node negative, having at least two of the following: tumour stage T3 or T4, Gleason sum score of 8–10, and prostate-specific antigen [PSA] concentration ≥40 ng/mL) or relapsing with high-risk features (≤12 months of total ADT with an interval of ≥12 months without treatment and PSA concentration ≥4 ng/mL with a doubling time of <6 months, or a PSA concentration ≥20 ng/mL, or nodal relapse) non-metastatic prostate cancer, and a WHO performance status of 0–2. Local radiotherapy (as per local guidelines, 74 Gy in 37 fractions to the prostate and seminal vesicles or the equivalent using hypofractionated schedules) was mandated for node negative and encouraged for node positive disease. In both trials, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a computerised algorithm, to ADT alone (control group), which could include surgery and luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, or with oral abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and oral prednisolone (5 mg daily; combination-therapy group). In the second trial with no overlapping controls, the combination-therapy group also received enzalutamide (160 mg daily orally). ADT was given for 3 years and combination therapy for 2 years, except if local radiotherapy was omitted when treatment could be delivered until progression. In this primary analysis, we used meta-analysis methods to pool events from both trials. The primary endpoint of this meta-analysis was metastasis-free survival. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, biochemical failure-free survival, progression-free survival, and toxicity and adverse events. For 90% power and a one-sided type 1 error rate set to 1·25% to detect a target hazard ratio for improvement in metastasis-free survival of 0·75, approximately 315 metastasis-free survival events in the control groups was required. Efficacy was assessed in the intention-to-treat population and safety according to the treatment started within randomised allocation. STAMPEDE is registered with, NCT00268476, and with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN78818544. Findings Between Nov 15, 2011, and March 31, 2016, 1974 patients were randomly assigned to treatment. The first trial allocated 455 to the control group and 459 to combination therapy, and the second trial, which included enzalutamide, allocated 533 to the control group and 527 to combination therapy. Median age across all groups was 68 years (IQR 63–73) and median PSA 34 ng/ml (14·7–47); 774 (39%) of 1974 patients were node positive, and 1684 (85%) were planned to receive radiotherapy. With median follow-up of 72 months (60–84), there were 180 metastasis-free survival events in the combination-therapy groups and 306 in the control groups. Metastasis-free survival was significantly longer in the combination-therapy groups (median not reached, IQR not evaluable [NE]–NE) than in the control groups (not reached, 97–NE; hazard ratio [HR] 0·53, 95% CI 0·44–0·64, p<0·0001). 6-year metastasis-free survival was 82% (95% CI 79–85) in the combination-therapy group and 69% (66–72) in the control group. There was no evidence of a difference in metatasis-free survival when enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate were administered concurrently compared with abiraterone acetate alone (interaction HR 1·02, 0·70–1·50, p=0·91) and no evidence of between-trial heterogeneity (I2 p=0·90). Overall survival (median not reached [IQR NE–NE] in the combination-therapy groups vs not reached [103–NE] in the control groups; HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·48–0·73, p<0·0001), prostate cancer-specific survival (not reached [NE–NE] vs not reached [NE–NE]; 0·49, 0·37–0·65, p<0·0001), biochemical failure-free-survival (not reached [NE–NE] vs 86 months [83–NE]; 0·39, 0·33–0·47, p<0·0001), and progression-free-survival (not reached [NE–NE] vs not reached [103–NE]; 0·44, 0·36–0·54, p<0·0001) were also significantly longer in the combination-therapy groups than in the control groups. Adverse events grade 3 or higher during the first 24 months were, respectively, reported in 169 (37%) of 451 patients and 130 (29%) of 455 patients in the combination-therapy and control groups of the abiraterone trial, respectively, and 298 (58%) of 513 patients and 172 (32%) of 533 patients of the combination-therapy and control groups of the abiraterone and enzalutamide trial, respectively. The two most common events more frequent in the combination-therapy groups were hypertension (abiraterone trial: 23 (5%) in the combination-therapy group and six (1%) in control group; abiraterone and enzalutamide trial: 73 (14%) and eight (2%), respectively) and alanine transaminitis (abiraterone trial: 25 (6%) in the combination-therapy group and one (<1%) in control group; abiraterone and enzalutamide trial: 69 (13%) and four (1%), respectively). Seven grade 5 adverse events were reported: none in the control groups, three in the abiraterone acetate and prednisolone group (one event each of rectal adenocarcinoma, pulmonary haemorrhage, and a respiratory disorder), and four in the abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with enzalutamide group (two events each of septic shock and sudden death). Interpretation Among men with high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer, combination therapy is associated with significantly higher rates of metastasis-free survival compared with ADT alone. Abiraterone acetate with prednisolone should be considered a new standard treatment for this population.
  • Neuromuscular training in pre-professional ballet dancers: A feasibility randomised controlled trial

    Kolokythas, Nico; Metsios, George S.; Galloway, Shaun; Allen, Nick; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
    Introduction: It is well documented that there is high prevalence of injuries in preprofessional and professional ballet dancers. Current evidence from high in quality and quantity research on injury prevention in sport, indicates that interventions can reduce injury risks by 30 to 50%. Injury prevention research in dance, is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility (adherence, fidelity, and practicality) of a randomised controlled trial for the utilisation of neuromuscular training in pre-professional ballet dancers. Methods: A convenience sample of 22 pre-professional ballet dancers were randomised into the intervention and the control group. The intervention group took part in a neuromuscular based training workout, five times per week before the ballet class, for ten weeks. The intervention was an adaptation of the FIFA 11+, an injury prevention intervention and is called 11+ Dance. The intervention consisted of low intensity bodyweight exercises, lasted 20-30 minutes and was performed daily. Results: Intervention adherence was 38±8%, with higher participation at the beginning of the study. Attendance for the pre- and post testing was low 45% and 36% for the intervention and control group, respectively, mainly due to injury. There were no adverse effects reported, however, the participants reported delayed onset muscle soreness at the beginning of the intervention, indicating that there may be a potential training effect. Fear of muscle hypertrophy and fatigue were also reported as reasons for attrition. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically non-significant differences for the CMJ F(1,9)= 0.36, p = .564, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2 = .04, RSI F(1, 7)= 0.02, p= .885, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2= 0.003, and IMTP F(1, 12)= 0.002, p= 0.967, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2= .000. Conclusion: The results of the study, together with the feedback from the participants suggest that some protocol modifications are necessary, for the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial in a pre-professional setting. The current trial has produced valuable information for the intervention frequency and load prescription.
  • Development and validation of the RAFFLE; a measure of reasons and facilitators for loot box engagement

    Lloyd, J; Nicklin, LL; Spicer, SG; Fullwood, C; Uther, M; Hinton, DP; Parke, J; Lloyd, H; Close, J; School of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK. (MDPI, 2021-12-18)
    Qualitative studies have identified a diverse array of motivations for purchasing items within video games through chance-based mechanisms (i.e., “loot boxes”). Given that some individuals—particularly those at risk of disordered gaming and/or gambling—are prone to over-involvement with loot box purchasing, it is important to have a reliable, valid means of measuring the role of different motivations in driving purchasing behaviour. Building on prior qualitative re-search, this paper reports the development and validation of the “RAFFLE” scale, to measure the Reasons and Facilitators for Loot box Engagement. A 23-item, seven-factor scale was developed through cognitive interviews (n = 25) followed by two surveys of UK-based gamers who purchase loot boxes; analysed via exploratory (n = 503) and confirmatory (n = 1495) factor analysis, respectively. Subscales encompassed “enhancement’; “progression’; “social pressure’; “distraction/com-pulsion’; “altruism’; “fear of missing out’; and “resale”. The scale showed good criterion and con-struct validity (correlating well with measures of loot box engagement; the risky loot box index (r = 0.63) and monthly self-reported spend (r = 0.38)), and good internal validity (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84). Parallels with, and divergence from, motivations for related activities of gaming and gambling, and alignment with broader theoretical models of motivation, are discussed.
  • This is me: Evaluation of a boardgame to promote social engagement, wellbeing and agency in people with dementia through mindful life-storytelling

    Niedderer, Kristina; Holthoff-Detto, Vjera; van Rompay, Thomas JL; Karahanoğlu, Armağan; Ludden, Geke DS; Almeida, Rosa; Durán, Raquel Losada; Aguado, Yolanda Bueno; Lim, Jennifer NW; Smith, Tina; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-12-15)
    Receiving a dementia diagnosis is a difficult experience for most people and often affects their wellbeing negatively. To support people's wellbeing, in a therapeutic context, life-storytelling, reminiscence and mindfulness are used with people with dementia. In an everyday context, traditional games are used as a resource for stimulating memory, cognition and social activity. While an increasing number of creative strategies are available to support people with dementia, the area of board games design and their effect on wellbeing is underexplored. This paper reports on the evaluation of the This is Me (TIM) mindful life-storytelling board game by the European project MinD. Using a co-design methodology, TIM was developed with and for people with mild to moderate dementia to support their wellbeing by enhancing self-empowerment and social engagement. A focus group methodology was used to evaluate TIM with 50 people with dementia and 19 carers across four countries. TIM was evaluated with regard to the usability and experience of the design as well as people's emotional wellbeing, social engagement and agency. The thematic analysis demonstrated that the combination of life-storytelling and mindfulness allowed players to engage in meaningful social interaction and, as a result, they reported enjoyment, learning, more acceptance of the past and present situation, and that they perceived looking forward into the future together with others as helpful. The study demonstrates that design can be a useful means to support people with dementia in aspects of emotional wellbeing, social engagement and a sense of agency.
  • Bourdieu and teacher education

    Hayes, Sarah; Peters, Michael, A. (Springer, 2019-12-14)
  • Online surveys to capture health and social care data during a pandemic

    Morgan, Angela; Ahmad, Nahid; Tilly, Liz (Routledge, 2021-12-29)
  • Let's talk about the negative experiences of black mental health service users in England: now is the moment to consider watchful waiting to support their recovery

    Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2021-12-28)
    Watchful waiting is a concept that is traditionally not associated with severe and enduring mental illness. This paper, however, boldly argues that the concept could be used as a ground-breaking and accessible antidote to the perceived inequality experienced by black service users experiencing both mild and severe mental illnesses in England. The novel concepts proposed in this paper are not intended to be consensual, but rather uncompromising to provoke critical thinking in mental health practice. A conceptual framework for watchful waiting in mental health is suggested.
  • Female genital mutilation: Nigerian Igbo men’s low acceptance of the practice

    Hemuka, Ngozika Jane; Morgan, Angela; Bellingham-Young, Denise; Stonard, Karlie (Springer, 2022-01-09)
    Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) involves the cutting of the external female genital organs for non-medical purposes. It is a widespread public health problem in Nigeria as it affects the health of women and girls. The views of women about FGM are widely researched and known, however very little empirical research has been conducted to understand the views of men. Aim: This study therefore sought to examine men’s views regarding the continuation of FGM and its associated factors in a rural Igbo community in Nigeria. Subject and Method: This paper reports the results of a survey of 215 men aged 18 and above living in Isuikwuato Local Government Area, Uturu in Nigeria. Bivariate and binary logistic regression were performed on 215 completed and returned questionnaires (86% response rate) using Statistical Package for Social Science. This is the first study to investigate Nigerian Igbo men’s views of FGM. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed that almost two thirds of the sample (63.7%) thought FGM should be discontinued. Logistic regression found that owning a television and/or a radio and holding a Christian faith significantly predicted favouring the discontinuation of FGM. Conclusion: This study provides evidence to suggest that some Nigerian Igbo men’s attitudes about FGM appear to be generally less than favourable. The major implication of these findings is that policy makers must place greater emphasis on addressing the economic and social development of rural areas in Nigeria if the harmful practice of FGM is to be reduced.
  • Considerations of control groups: Comparing active-control with no treatment for examining the effects of brief intervention

    Lane, Andrew; Beedie, Chris J; Devonport, Tracey; Friesen, Andrew P.; Research Centre for Sport, Physical Activity (SPARC) School of Sport, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Walsall Campus, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. (MDPI, 2021-11-19)
    Background: A large-scale online study completed by this research team found that brief psychological interventions were associated with high-intensity pleasant emotions and predicted performance. The present study extends this work using data from participants (n = 3376) who completed all self-report data and engaged in a performance task but who did not engage with an intervention or control condition and therefore present as an opportunistic no-treatment group. Methods: 41,720 participants were selected from the process and outcome focus goals intervention groups, which were the successful interventions (n = 30,096), active-control (n = 3039), and no-treatment (n = 8585). Participants completed a competitive task four times: first as practice, second to establish a baseline, third following an opportunity to complete a brief psychological skills intervention, and lastly following an opportunity to repeat the intervention. Repeated measures MANOVA indicated that over four performance rounds, the intensity of positive emotions increased, performance improved, and the amount of effort participants exerted increased; however, these increases were significantly smaller in the no-treatment group. Conclusions: Findings suggest that not engaging in active training conditions had negative effects. We suggest that these findings have implications for the development and deployment of online interventions.
  • Development of the Dance Fitness Indicator©: A high intensity dance fitness test

    Rogan, Kate; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, 2022-06-30)
    The aim of this study was to develop a contemporary dance technique specific high intensity dance fitness test, and carry out preliminary testing into measuring the physiological intensity and reliability. The choreography of the Dance Fitness Indicator© (DFI©) is based upon Humphrey/Limón, Graham, and Cunningham techniques and includes dance elements that relate to fitness elements, that increase in intensity over four levels, designed to observe changes in heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as the DFI© progresses. Each level lasts for four minutes, 16 seconds, with a 1-minute rest in between each level; the full DFI lasts for 20 minutes and 22 seconds. Twelve contemporary dancers (F=9 age 24±6.86 years, M=3 age 20±0.58 years) were taught the DFI© in a familiarization session before undertaking two test trials, within a one-week period. Dependent variablesto measure intensity were heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa). Data for level 4 during test 1 and test 2 respectively were HR: 184 b.min-1 ±16.79 vs 187 b.min1 ±16.18; RPE: 17 ±2.43 vs 17 ±2.12; and BLa = 8.9 mmol.L-1 ±2.71 vs 9.1 mmol.L-1 ±2.41. Reliability was calculated by determining the coefficient of variation from paired samples t-tests between test 1 and test 2, which demonstrated consistency/good reliability (<5%) for end BLa (3.2%), HR (1.7%) and RPE (0.9%). These preliminary results suggest that the DFI© requires a high physiological intensity demand, through movement-specific contemporary dance technique, relating to dance performance intensity, and is a reliable testing mode within a dance studio environment. It could also be used to assess dancers’ physiological abilities to cope with high intensity intermittent cardiovascular and technical demands of dance performance, however further testing with greater numbers is recommended.
  • A status report on women and girls in Buckinghamshire

    Kanjilal, Mahuya (Heart of Bucks, 2019-04-10)
  • Buckinghamshire uncovered 2020 report

    Kanjilal, Mahuya; Pearson, Catherine (Heart of Bucks, 2020-06-10)
  • Public intellectuals in the age of viral modernity: An EPAT collective writing project

    Peters, Michael A; Jandrić, Petar; Fuller, Steve; Means, Alexander J; Rider, Sharon; Lăzăroiu, George; Hayes, Sarah; Misiaszek, Greg William; Tesar, Marek; McLaren, Peter; et al. (Routledge, 2021-12-07)

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