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  • The technical and vocational provision in England: A comparative study with the Austrian secondary system

    Starr, Sean; Bartram, Brendan (Routledge, 2017-08-07)
    This chapter reviews the reintroduction of apprenticeships in England, with a focus on education into employment. This is achieved by comparing English secondary schools with the Austrian system. The Austrian system was chosen due to its having over 40 years of very diverse educational provision, including a significant vocational and apprenticeship programme. The curriculum offer in England is determined by the national curriculum and supported by governmental accountability measures, which focus on academic subjects. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) has been neglected in England, regardless of the student's interests, passion or abilities. With the introduction of more specialised TVET provision in England, it may possibly allow for routes to represent 'vocationalised' general education. The Austrian education system is run by the individual federal states and therefore there is no national curriculum standard as such. Intermediate and upper secondary technical and vocational schools/colleges offer pupils the possibility of choosing between different study courses.
  • Challenges to concordance: theories that explain variations in patient responses

    Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca (Mark Allen Group, 2019-10-23)
    Failing to establish a collaborative relationship between patient and health professional can be a significant obstacle to recovery. Julie Green and Rebecca Jester delve into the psychology behind patient responses and present methods to empower patients.
  • Granulated sugar treatment for leg ulcers: a case report

    Murandu, Moses Donald (RCN Publishing Ltd., 2016-02-02)
    The use of sugar in the treatment of wounds dates back to Ancient Egypt. This article begins with a summary of that history and, in the case study that follows, a patient describes his 13-year experience of living with leg ulcers. The patient explains the challenges these ulcers have brought to his day-to-day life and the particular problems he encountered with pain management. He discusses different approaches by doctors and district nurses to manage the ulcers and how, by chance, a newspaper article led to a meeting with a PhD student researching sugar and wound care – a meeting that was to lead to a new lease of life for the patient.
  • Try before you buy: a small business employer (SME) perspective of international student mobility in England

    Sutherland, Matthew; Thompson, David; Edirisingha, Prabash (Informa UK Limited, 2019-10-25)
    Attracting international students has become a strategic priority for UK immigration policy as well as for British universities. However, research shows that there are emergent intercultural barriers that challenge international students’ carrier aspirations and inhibit their ability to find employment. Also, small business employers (SMEs) are becoming a significant force in the post-Brexit UK economy and integral to creating innovation and employment opportunities. Despite this significance, we do not know what SME owners view the value of international students and how these perceptual discourses shape international student experience and mobility. In response, this research investigates small business employer discourses relating to international student employability. We base our data collection in strategically important North East of England and draw from semi-structured in-depth interviews with small business employers from the region. Our findings discuss their perception of international students as well as universities and discuss how these prevailing discourses influence international students’ employability. We specifically show how socio-cultural dispositions of international students, dominant British employer and market discourses, and universities strategic pursuits interplay and contribute to challenges international students confront within the highly competitive and dynamic higher education environment.
  • Schools, food and social learning

    Lalli, Gurpinder Singh (Routledge, 2019-10-08)
    This book explores the potential of school dining halls as spaces of social learning through interactions between students and teachers. Schools, Food and Social Learning highlights the neglect of school dining halls in sociological research and the fact that so much can be gained from fostering interpersonal relations with other students and the school staff over meals. The book focuses primarily on social and life skills that students develop during lunch-hour meetings, modelling behaviors while eating and conversing in the school space known as the ‘restaurant’. With case studies based in the UK, the book takes a social constructivist approach to dealing with the tensions and challenges between the aims of the school – creating an eating space that promotes social values and encourages the development of social skills, and the activities of teachers and catering assistants of managing and providing food for many students daily. The book carries snippets of interviews with children, dining hall attendants, teachers, parents and the school leadership team, offering a new way of thinking about social learning for both scholars and students of Social Anthropology, Sociology, Social Policy, Food Policy, Education Studies and Childhood Studies.
  • Online risk for people with intellectual disabilities

    Chadwick, Darren (Emerald, 2019-10-05)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to summarise the current state of empirical knowledge pertaining to online risk and cybercrime relating to people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Design/methodology/approach This narrative review summarises, synthesises and critically evaluates the current literature and state of knowledge and offers suggestions for extending current knowledge and practice. Findings Evidence regarding risk for people with ID is limited but growing. Existing findings highlight that: risk may increase contingent upon higher levels of sociability, loneliness, anxiety and depression, poorer insight, judgement, discrimination and ability to detect deception online and reduced experience and life opportunities; people without ID perceive high online risk for people with ID, which may lead to gatekeeping restrictions and controlling digital access; restriction may potentially impede online self-determination, participation and development by people with ID; and experience of risk may enhance awareness, independence and resilience in managing future online risk amongst people with ID. Further research work is needed in this area to enhance understanding of risk experience and effective support strategies. Originality/value This review of current knowledge has highlighted the necessity for more research to better understand the propensity for engagement in different risky online behaviours and to better inform support practices to help people with ID to manage risk whilst maintaining digital inclusion.
  • Only connect: indigenous digital learning

    Traxler, John (Scuola IaD, 2019-10-31)
    There is now a unique interdisciplinary opportunity to work across the various digital technology development communities, for example ICT4D and m4d, albeit with their conservative conceptions of learning, and the innovative digital learning communities breaking away from institutional e-learning formats, for example the open learning movement, at a time when many indigenous communities in the global South have considerable experience, access, ownership and familiarity with personal and social digital systems and when the decolonising movement provide the impetus and processes to develop new tools and techniques to work together for an accurate and authentic understanding of learning needs and the methods to address them. This is timely and urgent since digital technologies, produced by Anglophone global corporations and promoting the global knowledge economy, threaten fragile cultures and languages and promote the Fourth Industrial Revolution whilst in fact delivering the next wave of epistemicides. This paper sets out the case for urgent, collective and coherent action.
  • ‘We’re the lassies from Lancashire’: Manchester Corinthians Ladies FC and the use of overseas tours to defy the FA ban on women’s football

    Williams, Jean (Taylor & Francis, 2019-10-15)
    The FA banned women’s football from the grounds of Association-affiliated clubs in 1921, on the grounds that the organisation perceived that football was ‘unsuitable’ for women and too much money raised for charity had been absorbed in player expenses. But women continued to play. This article analyses how Manchester Corinthians Ladies Football Club, which had been formed in 1949, was able to sustain a varied range of overseas tours and domestic matches in spite of the ban. Using a range of methods, including oral history, family history interviews, a reunion of the surviving players and player memorabilia, firstly, the article provides a history of Corinthians and Nomads from 1949 onwards. Secondly, the article uses oral history to reflect what the players felt about playing for the club and particularly its overseas tours, and charity work. Not all of the players are represented due to constraints of space, but this is an introduction to a larger ongoing project to reclaim the teams’ history. Finally, the article argues that it is important to examine the 1950s and 1960s, decades when women’s football was an unregulated activity, in order to understand that which followed once the FA ban was lifted in 1969.
  • The prevention of arboviral diseases using mobile devices: a preliminary study of the attitudes and behaviour change produced by educational interventions

    Traxler, John; Bond, Carol; Matheson, David; Santos, Silvana; Santos-Silva,, Tais; Olinda,, Ricardo; Mangueira,, Francisco; Smania-Marques,, Roberta; Albino, Victor (Wiley, 2019-10-18)
    Objectives In Brazil, the National Policy for Dengue Control seeks to incorporate the lessons of national and international experience in dengue control, emphasizing the need for health education activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to the prevention of arboviruses before and after a two‐month educational intervention using a learning platform on mobile devices. Methods This quasi‐experimental study corresponds to the first phase of the project "Impact of mobile learning in the prevention and management of complications caused by arboviruses (Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya) – ZIKAMOB”, sponsored as part of the British Council Newton Fund. Results Thirty of the 93 participants were first‐year undergraduate university students (36.7% male) and 63 were police officers (84.1% male). The pattern of attitudes and behaviour was very similar in both groups before the intervention. The students changed their attitudes and behaviour (p=0.032) in relation to their engagements in actions for the prevention of arboviral diseases and several other activities related to house inspections and precautions with water tanks (p<0.01). However, recycling and surveillance activities were not as effective in changing behaviour. Female participants showed more motivation to participate in preventive activities, but living alone and working were barriers to participation. Individuals who already perform selective waste collection and are cultivating gardens demonstrated both a positive attitude and positive behaviour towards actions for the prevention of arboviral diseases. Conclusion Mobile learning and behaviour change theories might be successful as the basis for school‐based and community‐based interventions to avoid arboviruses. These outcomes need to be confirmed in broader future studies.
  • Signage interventions for stair climbing at work: more than 700,000 reasons for caution

    Puig-Ribera, Anna; Señé-Mir, Anna M.; Taylor-Covill, Guy A. H.; De Lara, Núria; Carroll, Douglas; Daley, Amanda; Holder, Roger; Thomas, Erica; Milà, Raimon; Eves, Frank F (MDPI AG, 2019-10-08)
    Increased stair climbing reduces cardiovascular disease risk. While signage interventions for workplace stair climbing offer a low-cost tool to improve population health, inconsistent effects of intervention occur. Pedestrian movement within the built environment has major effects on stair use, independent of any health initiative. This paper used pooled data from UK and Spanish workplaces to test the effects of signage interventions when pedestrian movement was controlled for in analyses. Automated counters measured stair and elevator usage at the ground floor throughout the working day. Signage interventions employed previously successful campaigns. In the UK, minute-by-minute stair/elevator choices measured effects of momentary pedestrian traffic at the choice-point (n = 426,605). In Spain, aggregated pedestrian traffic every 30 min measured effects for ‘busyness’ of the building (n = 293,300). Intervention effects on stair descent (3 of 4 analyses) were more frequent than effects on stair climbing, the behavior with proven health benefits (1 of 4 analyses). Any intervention effects were of small magnitude relative to the influence of pedestrian movement. Failure to control for pedestrian movement compromises any estimate for signage effectiveness. These pooled data provide limited evidence that signage interventions for stair climbing at work will enhance population health.
  • Physiological characteristics of musical theatre performers and the effect on cardiorespiratory demand whilst singing and dancing

    Wyon, Matthew; Stephens, Nicola (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2019-12-31)
    Musical Theatre (MT) combines acting, singing and dancing within a performance. The purpose of the current study was two-fold; firstly, to report on the cardiorespiratory fitness of pre-professional MT dancers and secondly, to examine the cardiorespiratory demand of singing whilst dancing. Twenty-one participants (F=16, M=5; 20 ±1.23 yrs; 169.1 ±9.24cm; 62.7 ±10.56kg) in their final year of pre-professional training volunteered for the study. All participants carried a maximal aerobic capacity test on a treadmill using a portable breath-by-breath gas analyser. Nine participants completed a 4-minute section from Chorus Line twice; singing and dancing, and just dancing, in a randomised order whilst wearing the same portable gas analyser. Blood lactate was measured at the end of each trial. Male participants had significantly greater peak oxygen consumption (M vs. F; 67.6 ±2.30 vs. 55.6 ±4.42 ml.kg-1 .min-1 , p<0.001) and anaerobic threshold (% of peak VO2) (M vs. F; 54.6 ±4.04% vs. 43.1 ±3.68% p<0.001) whilst maximum heart rate and heart rate at anaerobic threshold were similar. The physiological demands of dancing vs. singing+dancing were similar with the exception of the singing+dancing trial having significantly reduced mean breathing frequency and increased lactate (p<0.01). MT dancers’ aerobic capacity is greater than that observed in other theatre-based dance genres. The observed breathing frequency and lactate differences in the Chorus-line trails could be due to singing reducing breathing frequency thereby influencing cardiorespiratory recovery mechanics and subsequently blood lactate levels.
  • 'Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not': why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport

    Beedie, C; Whyte, G; Lane, AM; Cohen, E; Raglin, J; Hurst, P; Coleman, D; Foad, A; School of Human and Life Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UK. (BMJ, 2017-07-19)
    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are treatments for which either evidence is lacking, or for which evidence suggests no effect over a placebo treatment. When a non-evidence-based treatment is used alongside conventional medicine, it is considered ‘complementary’. When a non- evidence-based treatment is used instead of conventional medicine, it is considered ‘alternative’. Many forms of CAM have origins and/or a history of use beyond evidence-based medicine. Further, many CAM treatments are based on principles and/or evidence that are not recognised by the majority of independent scientists. When a person uses CAM and experiences an improvement in symptoms, this may be due to the placebo effect.
  • Effective early learning: a praxeological and participatory approach to evaluating and improving quality in early childhood education

    Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony (Revista da FAEEBA, 2018-04-30)
    This paper acknowledges the importance of providing high quality early education to young children if positive long term child outcomes and social mobility for the less advantaged are to be achieved. It offers a strategy to improve pedagogical quality in early childhood settings worldwide where quality remains low for many children and sets out an alternative praxeological model of quality assessment and improvement that is democratic, participatory, inclusive and culturally sensitive rather than universalised and metricised. The Effective Early Learning (EEL) quality evaluation and improvement programme embodies this participatory approach and has been successfully implemented across UK, Portugal and the Netherlands, where evidence has shown its impact in enhancing child wellbeing, child involvement and child dispositions to learn through improving the quality of pedagogical processes and the enabling educative context in which these occur.
  • The treatment of informal care as a social risk in England: Conceptual and methodological innovations in undertaking comparative care policy analysis

    Morgan, Fiona (European Network for Social Policy Analysis (Espanet), 2016-09-15)
    The combined challenges of population ageing and the reliance on informal carers to meet the care needs of older people is requiring post-industrial welfare states to address these demands through the implementation of a diverse array of care policies. These policy interventions seemingly demonstrate that states are increasingly recognising and treating the informal care of older people as a social risk. This paper argues that it is essential to undertake detailed comparative analysis at a national level to assess the effectiveness of current care policies in providing adequate social protection against the care-related risks experienced by different types of care relationships. The paper focuses on discussing the design of a policy simulation tool, ‘the model care relationship matrix’, used to analyse and compare the statutory entitlements of different care relationship types across policy areas, localities, and practitioners, in England. Using this innovative methodological and conceptual approach exposed that the English state does not treat informal care as a social risk on account of the inconsistent and inadequate statutory protection provided to different care relationships, and how the care policy system itself can generate secondary risks for care relationships.
  • Young children as beings, becomings, having beens: an integrated approach to role-play

    Kingdon, Zenna (Taylor & Francis, 2018-09-26)
    The new paradigm of early childhood allows for the construction of the child as active agents able to comment on their own lives. Historically children have been constructed using divergent discourses as either beings or becomings. More recently they have been seen as complementary and a further temporal state of having been allows for a richer description of the child. In play and role-play, the three temporal states can be observed and appear to inform the children’s understanding of complex world structures. This paper reports the research that was conducted in two Early Childhood Education and Care settings in England. The research was concerned with young children’s experiences of play and role-play in their early childhood setting. Observations and conferences demonstrate the ways in which the temporal states are established in their play.
  • Modern foreign language learning: The impact of parental orientations on student motivation

    Martin, Christopher (The International Academic Forum (IAFOR), 2019-09-27)
    This study investigates the possible relationships between parental orientations towards language learning and their child’s motivation to learn a foreign language at school. Data were collected from 495 students and 107 parents in four secondary schools in the wider West Midlands conurbation of England. A mixed-methods research design encompassing both quantitative and qualitative data collection was adopted with the aim of gaining a multidimensional view. Questionnaires were given to both parents and students, measuring six motivational constructs: general motivation; sense of achievement in modern foreign language (MFL) learning, internal/external attribution of performance in MFL learning, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. The mean values for parents and students for each construct were correlated to see if there was a relationship between them. The findings indicate that, for four of the five constructs, there are moderate to strong positive relationships that were statistically significant. Furthermore, the data suggest that parents are less motivated when it comes to MFL learning than their children. This study is part of a wider doctoral research project, the next stage of which involves the collection of qualitative data through semistructured interviews in order to explore the nature of the relationships found in the quantitative analysis.
  • Paradoxical paradigm proposals

    Traxler, John; Read, Timothy; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Barcena, Elena (Federación Argentina de Asociaciones de Profesores de Inglés, 2019-12-31)
    The concept of paradigms gives us the capacity to look analytically at historical scientific and intellectual episodes in a broader framework. It does however potentially also give us the capacity to look more analytically at contemporary scientific and intellectual activity and make conjectures and predictions. This paper looks at various contemporary pedagogic paradigms, including language learning and mobile learning, and suggests both their failings and then their replacement by an over-arching pedagogic paradigm more suited to societies permeated by personal digital technologies. This might be called the mobility, learning and language paradigm. The paper uses these examples as a way of exploiting paradigmatic thinking in order to catalyse intellectual progress.
  • Aggression and related stressful life events among Chinese adolescents living in rural areas: A cross-sectional study

    Huang, Juan; Tang, Jie; Tang, Lina; Chang, Hong Juan; Ma, Yuqiao; Yan, Qiuge; Yu, Yizhen (Elsevier BV, 2017-01-04)
  • Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji (Elsevier BV, 2013-12-18)
    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N = 755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.
  • Indirect aggression and parental attachment in early adolescence: Examining the role of perspective taking and empathetic concern

    Li, Xiaofang; Bian, Chenyang; Chen, Yanlin; Huang, Juan; Ma, Yuqiao; Tang, Lina; Yan, Qiuge; Ye, Xiaozhou; Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen (Elsevier BV, 2015-07-25)
    This study examined the unique and interactive roles of parental attachment and empathy in indirect aggression during early adolescence. A sample of 6301 early adolescents (49.2% boys and 50.8% girls) in urban China, aged from 11 to 14 years, completed self-administrated measures of parent-adolescent attachment, empathy, and indirect aggression. Results indicated that perspective taking was negatively associated with indirect aggression, and empathetic concern was not related to indirect aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that perspective taking moderated the association between empathetic concern and boys' indirect aggression. The findings highlighted that empathetic concern might not be a sufficient protective factor of indirect aggression for boys with low levels of perspective taking during early adolescence.

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