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AbstractThis thesis comprises three main sections: a literature review, research report, and a critical appraisal of the research process. The literature reviewed is the existing research relating to trust as a construct. An attempt is made to clarify the conceptual confusion that exists in the area, by suggesting a comprehensive definition of what is meant by the term trust for the purposes of both the current study and future research. The importance of trust in relation to mental health and therapeutic relationships is discussed. Current measures of the construct are critically examined, and the ‘scientist’ versus ‘humanist’ divide is explored. It is concluded that a new multidimensional trust measure is required to further research efforts in the area. The aim of the research project was to develop a trust measure to form a part of a larger endeavour to operationalise the concept of mental health via key set of basic human emotions and responses. The research reported in Section 2 consists of a Pilot Test, Main Study, and follow up validation study of a new multidimensional measure of trust. Three bases of trust were hypothesised and tested. These were: self trust, interpersonal trust, and environmental trust (that is, trust in wider social, cultural, or political context). A new measure was constructed and validity tested using an inductive approach, and the relationship between trust and trait anxiety was also examined. The results supported the hypothesis that trust is a multidimensional construct, and demonstrated a strong relationship between trust and trait anxiety. It is hoped that this work will rekindle research interest in this important area. The final section is the researcher’s critical appraisal of the research process based on her personal research diary. It is a reflective piece that examines the impact of the research on the researcher (and vice versa) and the critical events in the research process.
PublisherUniversity of Wolverhampton
TypeThesis or dissertation
DescriptionThesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the degree of Doctor of Counselling Psychology
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
THE DOCTRINE OF PAROL AGREEMENT TRUSTS AND FRAUD IN EQUITY: AN HISTORICAL-DOCTRINAL ANALYSIS OF EQUITY'S JURISDICTION UNDER THE HEAD OF FRAUD TO IMPOSE TRUSTS ARISING OUT OF PAROL AGREEMENTSGREGORY, WILLIAM ALLAN (2016)This thesis examines, through the most comprehensive historical-doctrinal analysis to date, the nature and extent of equity’s jurisdiction to impose trusts arising out of parol agreements. The central argument of this thesis is that all such trusts are enforced pursuant to a single doctrine of equity which arises to prevent fraud. This doctrine, which is uncovered and elucidated in this thesis, is named ‘the doctrine of parol agreement trusts’. It is argued that the ‘fraud’ which brings the doctrine into play will occur if the recipient of property knowingly reneges on a parol agreement subject to which she took the property and upon which the other party thereto relied. Moreover, it is demonstrated that trusts arising for the prevention of fraud were, until the early twentieth century, not seen as express, resulting or constructive trusts, but that, according to modern nomenclature, they are best regarded as constructive trusts. This thesis also challenges several modern orthodoxies. It is proven that the leading case of Rochefocuauld v Boustead was reported imperfectly, and that all previously presented accounts of the facts are inaccurate. Furthermore, it is categorically demonstrated that secret trusts are enforced for the prevention of fraud, but that this is not inconsistent with the notion that secret trusts are dehors the will. The juxtaposition between parol agreement trusts and related equitable innovations such as mutual wills, proprietary estoppel and ‘common intention’ constructive trusts is also examined, as well as the doctrine’s relationship with contract law and the law of agency, with a view to providing a doctrinal solution to some modern controversies in these areas. The historical-doctrinal relationship between parol agreement trusts and other types of constructive trusts is also examined with surprising results which suggest doctrinal affinities with the liability which affects knowing recipients. Finally, it is suggested that the manner in which modern commentators and some judges have eschewed fraud as a justification for parol agreement trusts and other related trusts may represent an unwelcome development.
Environmental dynamism, trust and dynamic capabilities of family businessesWang, Yong (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016-05-30)Purpose – Dynamic capabilities are regarded as the bedrock of firms that survive in a dynamic environment. Notwithstanding this perspective, little research has been implemented in understanding dynamic capabilities of family firms. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between environmental dynamism and dynamic capabilities of family businesses, and the moderating effect of trust on this relationship. Design/methodology/approach - A quantitative survey was executed with the sampling frame outlined based on the Hemscott Company Guru database. 137 useful responses were employed in this study. Findings – The results suggest that environmental dynamism is an antecedent of dynamic capabilities. Furthermore, findings show the presence of trust moderates the environmental dynamism-dynamic capabilities nexus. Research limitations/implications - The cross-sectional design of the study determines that it can only proffer a snapshot of the scenario. In addition, the exclusion of non-incorporated firms in the sample because of the nature of the Hemscott database constrains the generalisability of the study. Future studies in a similar vein may be implemented through national/local development agencies to overcome this barrier. Originality/value - The unique intertwined family and business system embedded in family firms has led to the assumption that trust will influence the environmental dynamism-dynamic capabilities nexus. The current study confirms this assumption and offers a perspective that helps appreciate the environment-business relationship in family businesses.
Particularistic and system trust in family businesses: the role of family influenceWang, Yong; Shi, Henry Xiang (Wiley, 2019-04-14)Research on how trust develops and why it matters in family businesses is in development. Our study investigates the emergence and the evolution of trust in family business leaders. Drawing on the New Systems Theory, we also examine the impact of family influence on trust. Multiple semi‐structured interviews were performed in three Chinese family businesses. Results suggest that relationship‐based particularistic trust prevails at the start‐up stage because of the void of governance mechanisms. As businesses grow, particularistic trust gradually gives way to institution‐based system trust. Evidence further indicates high family influence catalyzes particularistic trust initially and restricts system trust subsequently.