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AbstractThis thesis comprises three main sections: a literature review, research report, and a critical appraisal of the research process. The literature reviewed is the existing research relating to trust as a construct. An attempt is made to clarify the conceptual confusion that exists in the area, by suggesting a comprehensive definition of what is meant by the term trust for the purposes of both the current study and future research. The importance of trust in relation to mental health and therapeutic relationships is discussed. Current measures of the construct are critically examined, and the ‘scientist’ versus ‘humanist’ divide is explored. It is concluded that a new multidimensional trust measure is required to further research efforts in the area. The aim of the research project was to develop a trust measure to form a part of a larger endeavour to operationalise the concept of mental health via key set of basic human emotions and responses. The research reported in Section 2 consists of a Pilot Test, Main Study, and follow up validation study of a new multidimensional measure of trust. Three bases of trust were hypothesised and tested. These were: self trust, interpersonal trust, and environmental trust (that is, trust in wider social, cultural, or political context). A new measure was constructed and validity tested using an inductive approach, and the relationship between trust and trait anxiety was also examined. The results supported the hypothesis that trust is a multidimensional construct, and demonstrated a strong relationship between trust and trait anxiety. It is hoped that this work will rekindle research interest in this important area. The final section is the researcher’s critical appraisal of the research process based on her personal research diary. It is a reflective piece that examines the impact of the research on the researcher (and vice versa) and the critical events in the research process.
PublisherUniversity of Wolverhampton
TypeThesis or dissertation
DescriptionThesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the degree of Doctor of Counselling Psychology
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THE DOCTRINE OF PAROL AGREEMENT TRUSTS AND FRAUD IN EQUITY: AN HISTORICAL-DOCTRINAL ANALYSIS OF EQUITY'S JURISDICTION UNDER THE HEAD OF FRAUD TO IMPOSE TRUSTS ARISING OUT OF PAROL AGREEMENTSGREGORY, WILLIAM ALLAN (2016)This thesis examines, through the most comprehensive historical-doctrinal analysis to date, the nature and extent of equity’s jurisdiction to impose trusts arising out of parol agreements. The central argument of this thesis is that all such trusts are enforced pursuant to a single doctrine of equity which arises to prevent fraud. This doctrine, which is uncovered and elucidated in this thesis, is named ‘the doctrine of parol agreement trusts’. It is argued that the ‘fraud’ which brings the doctrine into play will occur if the recipient of property knowingly reneges on a parol agreement subject to which she took the property and upon which the other party thereto relied. Moreover, it is demonstrated that trusts arising for the prevention of fraud were, until the early twentieth century, not seen as express, resulting or constructive trusts, but that, according to modern nomenclature, they are best regarded as constructive trusts. This thesis also challenges several modern orthodoxies. It is proven that the leading case of Rochefocuauld v Boustead was reported imperfectly, and that all previously presented accounts of the facts are inaccurate. Furthermore, it is categorically demonstrated that secret trusts are enforced for the prevention of fraud, but that this is not inconsistent with the notion that secret trusts are dehors the will. The juxtaposition between parol agreement trusts and related equitable innovations such as mutual wills, proprietary estoppel and ‘common intention’ constructive trusts is also examined, as well as the doctrine’s relationship with contract law and the law of agency, with a view to providing a doctrinal solution to some modern controversies in these areas. The historical-doctrinal relationship between parol agreement trusts and other types of constructive trusts is also examined with surprising results which suggest doctrinal affinities with the liability which affects knowing recipients. Finally, it is suggested that the manner in which modern commentators and some judges have eschewed fraud as a justification for parol agreement trusts and other related trusts may represent an unwelcome development.
The role of the Registered [Surgical] Nurse in the 21st century NHS acute trust hospital. An ethnographic studyCooper, Andrew; Jester, R.; Sadler-Moore, Della (University of Wolverhampton, 2009)This study focused on Registered Nurses (RNs) working in Acute Trust surgical wards in the context of their role development, role expansion and role extension. The study originated from concerns raised by RNs undertaking the surgical pathway of the BSc Hons in clinical nursing practice, who alerted me to their dissatisfaction with their working conditions and their role. This revelation was made at a time when modernization was cascading into Acute Trusts as a result of the NHS plan (DOH 2000); simultaneously the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) was being implemented, sequentially reducing Junior Doctor’s hours of work. NHS modernization and the EWTD were the two initiatives which led the researcher to the assumption that RNs working in surgical wards were the labour force who would be absorbing the additional workload brought about by these changes, because RNs are the only health professionals in acute surgical wards with twenty-four hour contact with, and responsibility for, ward-based surgical patient care. The study was conducted in one clinical directorate of an Acute Trust hospital, comprising six in-patient surgical wards and five specialist nursing services. The methodology was ethnography, where the researcher worked as an RN for fifteen months, collecting data through Spradley’s (1980) descriptive, selective and focused phases of fieldwork. Data was analysed using what Miles and Huberman (1994) refer to as a set of ‘choreographed / custom built’ techniques. The descriptive phase of fieldwork revealed an apparent ‘staffing illusion’ on the surgical wards and RNs were found to be under tremendous pressure to manage ‘patient throughput’, and an ever increasingly dependent case mix of surgical patients, within the existing, or if possible diminishing Senior / experienced RN labour force due to the emergent evidence of a ‘cycle of staff change’ with non-clinical managers backfilling Senior RN posts with Junior RNs. For Senior RNs this backdrop meant additional support and supervision demands on their role. To get through the workload many RNs held ‘dual roles’ to enable maintenance of the surgical services within the directorate. The selective phase of fieldwork re-focused the ethnographic lens on the RNs in the context of their role development, role expansion and role extension, from which six perspectives were found: 1) role development from Junior to Senior RN, 2) role expansion dependent on shift of the day, day of the week – the co-ordinator role, 3) role extension confusion and boundary disputes, 4) hidden [role expansion and extension] talents of surgical nurses, 5) role contraction – a feeling Nursing is going backwards, and finally, 6) ‘if only I could’ – role expansion aspirations of surgical RNs. The third phase of fieldwork, described by Spradley (1980) as the focused phase, was spent validating the findings and conducting the ethnographic interviews. The findings are interpreted locally [from the perspective of RN’s working within Rodin] as ‘working to full capacity’ through ‘doing more for more with less’, as a result of the RN with the surgical directorate being sandwiched between two agendas, that of Junior Doctors EWTD and NHS modernisation. Braverman’s skill substitution / degradation of skilled work thesis is then used as an interpretative framework to conclude the thesis, the outcome of which reports a ‘triple substitution’ agenda.
Supply Chain Management Practices in Construction and Inter-organisational trust DynamicsAnkrah, Nii; Manu, Emmanuel (University of Wolverhampton, 2014-08)The poor trust culture in the construction sector is often considered an inhibiting factor to collaboration success in the United Kingdom (UK) despite reform efforts. Numerous reform initiatives tend to have focused on improvements in client and main contractor aspects of construction supply chain relationships, prompting claims that failure to integrate subcontractors, suppliers and consultants into collaborative arrangements remains a major shortcoming. Main contractor and subcontractor relationships therefore continue to be typified by such problems as late payments, charging fees to tender for work, award of contracts based on cheapest price rather than best value, negative margins and demand of retrospective discounts and cash rebates; all of which negatively impact on trust. Some main contractor organisations however, continue to embed supply chain management practices as a strategy for levering value from subcontractors. Such collaborative practices and their implications for inter-organisational trust development, and indeed overall project outcomes, have nonetheless received limited attention in construction management research, raising significant questions on the empirical basis for their implementation. This research was thus undertaken to investigate strategic supply chain management practices adopted by UK main contractors and its implications for inter-organisational trust development during projects. The study adopts a multiple case study design so as to unravel complex subtleties of inter-organisational trust development in the main contractors’ supply chain during projects. With four purposefully selected UK main contractor organisations that had implemented strategic supply chain management, data was gathered through a supply chain workshop, semi-structured interviews, passive observations and documentary analysis. From analysis of the data, it was revealed that strategic supply chain management practices of the main contractors were instrumental for trust manifestation across cognition, system and relational based dimensions. These practices served as constitutive elements of face-to-face interactions through which inter-organisational trust developed, whilst providing the institutional framework to which respective supply chain parties directed their psychological expectations. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a core of subcontractors from which the main contractor can leverage long-term value irrespective of economic climate. This can be achieved by adequately prioritizing relationally trusted subcontractors for sensitive and high risk work packages whilst ensuring that strategic supply chain management principles can be used to engender impersonal (cognition and system-based) trust dimensions amongst other subcontractors used on a project. Accordingly, a supply chain management oriented framework for engendering inter-organisational trust during projects has been developed based on the study findings and evaluated through semi-structured interviews with selected target participants. This framework does not only provide a systematic and coherent approach for implementing or benchmarking strategic supply chain management in a main contractor’s organisation, but can also be used to prioritize and promote different trust dimensions and their associated behavioural consequences on projects, depending on perceived work package risks.