Now showing items 1-20 of 662

    • Rebellion and resistance in French Indochina, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Nearly every major French colony experienced some form of organized anticolonial resistance during, and as a direct result of, the First World War. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Chad, Burkina Faso, Madagascar, New Caledonia, and Indochina all experienced rebellion of some notable scope. Similar patterns of unrest also developed in the British, Russian, Italian and Ottoman empires during the First World War, suggesting a global moment for anticolonialism. These rebellions took place for many different reasons, in a wide range of historical, cultural, political and economic contexts. For all their contextual diversity, however, the anticolonial rebellions that erupted from 1914 through to the 1920s could not help but be influenced by the realities presented by the First World War. The two principal realities that influenced and helped spark anticolonial rebellions in the First World War were the reduction of colonial occupation forces across Africa and Asia and the recruitment of Afro-Asians for military and industrial service in Europe, often through coercive means. The direct influence of aspects of the First World War in sparking anticolonial rebellions across large swathes of Africa and Asia demand that we discuss these rebellions as part of both the global experience and legacy of the First World War.
    • From balletics to ballistics: French artillery, 1897-1916

      Krause, Jonathan (BJMH, 2019-12-31)
      The fighting on the Western Front during the First World War was characterized by the mass use of artillery and, thanks to scholarship from recent decades, is now understood as a crucible for learning and innovation. This article follows the trajectory of French artillery capabilities, mental and mechanical, from the late 19th century through to 1916.
    • Iron lion or paper tiger? The myth of British naval intervention in the American Civil War

      Fuller, Howard (Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, 2015-01-15)
      When it comes to the thought-provoking subject of foreign intervention in the Civil War, especially by Great Britain, much of the history has been more propaganda than proper research; fiction over fact. In 1961, Kenneth Bourne offered up a fascinating article on “British Preparations for War with the North, 1861–1862” for the English Historical Review. While focusing largely on the military defense of Canada during the Trent Affair, Bourne also stressed that Britain’s “position at sea was by no means so bad,” though he potentially confused the twentieth-century reader by referring to “battleships” rather than (steam-powered, sail, and screw-propelled) wooden ships-of-the-line, for example. This blurred the important technological changes that were certainly in play by 1861—and not necessarily in Britain’s favor. The Great Lakes the British considered to be largely a write-off as there were no facilities in place for building ironclads, much less floating wooden gunboats up frozen rivers and canals during the long winter season. American commerce and industrialization in the Midwest, on the other hand, had led to booming local ports like Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland—all facilitated by new railroads. Of course, Parliament had not seen to maximizing the defense of the British Empire’s many frontiers and outposts over the years. If anything, the legendary reputation of the Royal Navy continually undermined that imperative. That left the onus of any real war against the United States to Britain’s ability to lay down a naval offensive. And while Bourne was content to trust the judgment of an anonymous British officer in Colburn’s United Service Magazine that “1273 guns” were available to Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Milne’s North American and West Indies naval forces during the Trent crisis, the same publication also went on to warn its contemporary British readers that “in calculating the power of the Northern States at sea, we must not be deluded by the ships actually in existence, but must reckon on those that may be built.” The author might have added that of the 86 guns of Milne’s flagship, HMS Nile, for example, or the 91 guns of the newer Agamemnon (launched in 1852 and reinforcing the British naval base at Bermuda from Gibraltar), no more than a third were 8-inch (65 cwt. ) shell-firing guns, the rest being 32-pounders in use since the Napoleonic era. In fact, the more deep-draft, screw-propelled ships-of-the-line the Admiralty dispatched to Milne, the more nervous he became. The 101-gun Conqueror ran aground in the Bahamas on December 13, 1861, a total loss. The British admiral pleaded for more shallow-draft paddle steamers, like those in use by the Union navy. Indeed, it was the lighter craft of the Yankees which proved better adapted for warfare in American waters.
    • Black Britain in the weekly music press during the late-1960s and 1970s

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Music is a means of communicating and sharing. Sounds and lyrics, even the most abstract or oblique, can document memories, impressions of the present and articulate desires for the future that listeners unpack and reinterpret imposing their own contexts, experiences and prior understandings. Recorded music provided a memory technology that allowed these ideas, sounds and cultures to be articulated, transmitted and interpreted more quickly and further than oral cultures previously allowed. A culture industry and mass media (newspapers, magazines, books television and radio) gave certain—profoundly shaped by capitalism, creating and perpetuating structures of power in society—recorded songs and musics the chance to be shared across and between countries and continents. Within the colonial and post-colonial context Britain after 1945, music made and performed by people who had arrived in Britain from colonies, created in dialogue with those who remained, and the reaction to it by their ‘hosts’, provided an impression of both new arrivals and British society. As Jon Stratton argues regarding Caribbean migration to Britain, ‘[music] offered sites for memory and identity, a refuge from the present and a source of opposition and to and commentary on the migrants’ circumstances. In the new situation cultural exchange with the dominant culture was inevitable.’
    • “Who is Mr. Karlheinz Stockhausen? Introduce Me”: Responses to Krautrock/Kosmische in 1970s Britain

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      During the 1970s, British music fans came to know several West German avant-garde rock or ‘Krautrock’ bands through the music press, radio, television, tours and record releases. This occurred as Britain’s relationship with Europe and West Germany shifted through membership of the Common Market from 1973 and as Cold War allies. This article explores how musical encounters and the broader historical and socio-political context affected British representations of Germany and Germans. It argues that in spite of a changing historical context and space for meaningful, nuanced representations, the myths and memory of the Second World War and general clichés about Germans remained highly resilient. Representations of Germans and Germany in popular music culture, authored by the post-War generation, suggest the importance of Germany as a counterpoint to understandings British national identity and characteristics, and the ways in which ideas of British cultural superiority circulated in popular culture.
    • ‘Had we used the Navy’s bare fist instead of its gloved hand’: The absence of coastal assault vessels in the Royal Navy by 1914

      Fuller, Howard (British Commission for Military History, 2017-06-02)
      This paper will briefly chart how and why the Royal Navy chose not to develop coastal assault vessels—namely heavy-gunned, light-draught monitors specially designed to absorb damage from modern mines or torpedoes—until well after the First World War began. Churchill and Fisher envisaged these particular men-of-war as the floating equivalent of tanks, both ‘intended to restore to the stronger power an effective means of the offensive’. Only when they were finally launched and deployed in sufficient numbers could serious plans for projecting power directly against the German coastline be safely considered. So where were the monitors before the war?
    • Determinants of environmental sustainable behaviour amongst logging companies in Cameroon

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN (Academic Star Publishing Company, 2019-12-31)
      This paper presents the findings of an indepth qualitative study of the most important forest logging companies and syndicates to explore the factors which influence forest exploitation and related businesses in the Congo Basin of Africa to act or not in environmentally sustainable ways. More specifically, the study explored the motivations, the benefits and the factors which facilitate or constrain sustainable behaviour amongst forest exploitation companies in Cameroon. Data analysis was undertaken using a holistic model consisting of institutional, economic and resource based factors. Economic motivations were the most cited factors driven by increased awareness and demands from clients. Interestingly, the most cited benefit from adopting environmentally sustainable behaviour related to gains in internal organisation, transparency and productivity within the company. The regulatory institutional environment was the most cited constraint because of illegality, weak law enforcement and corruption in the country’s forest sector followed by high costs of investment and unclear financial premiums from environmentally sourced timber. The policy implications are discussed.
    • Die sorgsame ondernemingsreddingspraktisyn: ‘n ondersoek na die gepaste maatstaf

      Jacobs, Lezelle; Neethling, Johann (Litnet - Online, 2016-09-26)
      When the Companies Act 71 of 2008 came into effect on 1 May 2011 it brought about a new era of corporate rescue for South African companies. Chapter 6 of the act provides for a new corporate rescue scheme known as business rescue. Business rescue replaces the previous South African rescue model, judicial management, contained in the Companies Act 61 of 1973. The key role player in the rescue scheme is the business rescue practitioner. The practitioner is afforded extensive powers and rights. He takes control of the management of the company and the duty to rescue the company rests on his shoulders. It is, however, possible for the purposes of chapter 6 to protect the interests of all stakeholders to be frustrated through the incompetence and carelessness of the practitioner. Section 140(3)(b) of the act states that the practitioner has the responsibilities, duties and liabilities of a director of the company for the duration of the rescue proceedings. The responsibilities, duties and liabilities of directors are set out in sections 75, 76 and 77. These sections contain the quasi-codified fiduciary duties of directors as well as the duty of care, skill and diligence and therefore make them applicable to the practitioner. The purpose of this article is to investigate the principles that underpin the test for negligence and the applicability thereof to the practitioner. The conclusion is that the practitioner’s conduct should be measured against that of a reasonable practitioner. This implies that it should be established whether he acted with the same degree of care, skill and diligence that may reasonably be expected of a reasonable practitioner in the same circumstances, having regard also to his personal attributes and qualifications and considering whether this necessitates an even higher standard to be met. At common law it is accepted that a director of a company needs no specific qualifications or even special business acumen to be appointed as such. The degree of care, skill and diligence expected of a director has therefore been determined by applying the notional reasonable person test. The director of a company is, however, held to a somewhat higher standard than the average person due to the fact that he is a fiduciary of the company and is responsible for another’s interests and property. Contrary to this, a business rescue practitioner will be appointed because of his knowledge and experience in the field of business and turnaround management. The notional reasonable person test can therefore not be utilised to evaluate negligent conduct by the practitioner. An argument can, however, be made for the application of the reasonable expert test, and even for the development of a new reasonable practitioner yardstick. The article focuses on an in-depth exploration of the objective and subjective elements of such a reasonable practitioner test and considers all the relevant facts and circumstances that will be of importance during business rescue proceedings. The influence of the business judgment rule as a means to review the fulfilment of the duty of care and the application thereof to the practitioner in the financial distress circumstances will also be investigated. Since the practitioner’s training will influence the consideration of whether he acted with the necessary degree of care, his qualifications, skills and experience will be considered and analysed. The Companies Act of 2008 and the regulations pursuant thereto provide for extensive qualification requirements to be met by a prospective practitioner. Furthermore, practitioners will be appointed as either junior, experienced or senior practitioners, depending on their levels of experience. This article also addresses the disparity between the liability provisions contained in sections 76 and 77 and those contained in chapter 6 of the act – the first requiring ordinary negligence and the latter gross negligence. This is of extreme importance since both provisions apply to the practitioner, but the standard thereof differs. The conclusion is that the yardstick for the practitioner’s liability should be ordinary negligence, that is what could be expected of a reasonable practitioner with the same qualifications and experience.
    • National and European identity

      Pryke, S (Informa UK Limited, 2019-05-23)
      © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This article is one in a number of attempts by students of nations and nationalism to understand national and European identity. Its point of departure are the arguments of Guibernau (2011) that the EU has created only a non-emotional identity based on the pursuit of prosperity; and, conversely, the claim of Wellings and Power (2015) that the EU has now its own nationalism with an emotional dimension. My initial observation is that an explicit evocation of European nationalism only surfaced in the immediate post war period within the remnants of fascist parties. So the issue is the attempt by the actors within the EU to create a European identity as an accompaniment to federal integration. This was not an initial quest but something that arose within attempts to breathe life into the EU in the 1970s. The endeavour was controversial from the outset and had effectively been curtailed by the mid 1990s as the intergovernmental character of the organisation imposed a primary commitment to preserving national diversity. Subsequent economic and monetary union has relied on the rationale of efficient governance. However, the evidence suggests that identification with Europe and the EU is surprisingly high. To understand it, I finally consider the gestation of Europeanism.
    • Complementarity, rivalry and substitution in the governance of forests: Learning from independent forest monitoring system in Cameroon

      Mbzibain, Aurelian; Ongolo, Symphorien (Elsevier BV, 2019-08-06)
      The consequence of state controlled forestry in Cameroon has been the overexploitation of forest resources often in conflict with local forest dependent communities and state conservation objectives. The failure of state controlled forestry to achieve sustainable forest management has led to the emergence of new network like arrangements amongst which is independent forest monitoring (IFM) by civil society. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize the factors which affect the effectiveness of IFM governance network in Cameroon. Our research focused on a case study of Cameroon, employing a governance network perspective. The main findings are that national civil society in Cameroon is playing a significant role in improving transparency in the forest sector and holding decision makers to account. The paper finds a shift from technical areas of forest monitoring to the monitoring of social obligations and the respect of community rights by private companies. An analysis of actors highlights a strong network of national NGOs with self-defined goals and strategies engaged in very fluid relationships with law enforcement agencies beyond traditional ministries of forests and wildlife characterised by a spectrum ranging from complementarity, substitution and rivalry. The lack of sustainable funding and weak capabilities of national NGOs to navigate these fluid relationships emerges as core constraints for network effectiveness. Accordingly, recommendations for effectiveness entail strategies for sustainable funding, capacity strengthening and network coordination to address current weaknesses but also to build trust and credibility of the governance network.
    • Local and territorial determinants in the realization of public-private-partnerships: an empirical analysis for Italian provinces

      Mazzola, Fabio; Cusimano, Alessandro; Di Giacomo, Giuseppe; Epifanio, Rosalia (Informa UK Limited, 2019-07-17)
      Relational networks and intangible factors are crucial elements for the competitiveness of a territory. Public–Private–Partnerships (PPPs), in particular, allow for the provision of goods and services that favour the exploitation of complementarities between public and private resources. They aim at promoting an increase in the overall efficiency of investment projects through a complex mechanism that distributes risk and revenues among stakeholders. This paper examines the local and territorial determinants of PPPs through an econometric analysis based upon Italian municipal data, grouped at the provincial level. Using a tobit model, we analyse the relationship between the realization of successful PPP initiatives and different sets of factors, including less analysed local and territorial determinants. We stress the role of the local management of infrastructure assets, the administrative efficiency of local authorities and the diffusion of previous local development initiatives. Local management and territorial context factors explain most of the occurrence of successful PPP initiatives in the pre-crisis period while usual determinants (infrastructure endowment and financial distress) display a weaker effect.
    • "Open the other eye": Payment, civic duty and hospital contributory schemes in Bristol, c.1927-1948

      Gosling, GC; Centre for Health, Medicine and Society: Past and Present, School of Arts and Humanities, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK. gcgosling@brookes.ac.uk (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2010-10-01)
      On the appointed day of 5 July 1948, the National Health Service (NHS) came into existence in Britain. What existed before had been a complex and constantly evolving mixed economy of healthcare, within which hospital services were provided by a combination of public and voluntary sectors. The public sector accounted for the majority of hospital beds and dominated treatment of the chronic and aged sick. However, it is the voluntary hospitals that have often been seen as at the heart of this system because of their historic foundations—many having been established as charitable institutions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—as well as their perceived clinical superiority. In fact, the move towards a national health service, which ultimately nationalized the hospitals, gave great credence to an approach Daniel Fox has described as “hierarchical regionalism”. This placed such institutions as leading specialist and teaching centres at the top of a hierarchy of regional service providers, and in doing so reinforced this view of the primacy of the voluntary hospitals
    • Did Wigan have a northern soul?

      Gildart, Keith; Catterall, Stephen; Lashua, Brett; Wagg, Stephen; Spracklen, Karl; Yavuz, M. Selim (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019)
      The town of Wigan in Lancashire, England, will forever be associated with the Northern Soul scene because of the existence of the Casino Club, which operated in the town between 1973 and 1981. By contrast, Liverpool just 22 miles west, with the ‘the most intensely aware soul music Black Community in the country’, (Cohen, 2007, p.31 quoting from Melody Maker, 24 July 1976) remained immune to the attractions of Northern Soul and its associated scene, music, subculture and mythology. Similarly, the city of Manchester has been more broadly associated with punk and post-punk. Wigan was and remains indelibly connected to the Northern Soul scene with the Casino representing a symbolic location for reading the geographical, class and occupational basis of the scene’s practitioners. The club is etched into the history, iconography, and mythology of Northern Soul appearing in the academic and more general literature, television documentaries, memoirs, autobiographies and feature films. This chapter seeks to explore the relationship between history, place, class, industrialisation, mythology and nostalgia in terms of Wigan, the Casino Club and the Northern Soul scene. It asks the question: did Wigan have a northern soul? This is explored through the industrial and working-class history of the town and the place of soul music in its post-war popular culture. More broadly, it complements the historical literature on regional identity identifying how Northern Soul both complemented and challenged orthodox readings of Wigan as a town built on coal and cotton that by the 1970s was entering a process of deindustrialisation.
    • Dust, diesel, and disability in the British coal industry: a view from the coal face, 1985-1992

      Gildart, Keith (Social Sciences Academic Press China, 2019-12-31)
      In September 1992, I worked my last shift as an underground coal miner at Point of Ayr Colliery in the small North Wales coalfield. Yet I never really left the industry. As a researcher and academic my work has been underpinned by my own background as a coal miner and continued engagement with the collective memory of coal. The article reflects on this process using memory, autobiography, archival research and ethnography. Drawing on personal experiences of working in the coal industry between the years 1985-1992, it examines the shifting attitudes to health, safety and disability in one colliery, and how such responses were mediated by masculinity, humour, and the shifting industrial relations culture of the British coal industry. In 1989, the Labour Research Department published a pamphlet, The Hazards of Coal Mining, which became a crucial source for trade union officials in stressing the continued problems of miners’ health and safety. Yet the reception of the publication proved problematic in the context of colliery closures, new forms of coal extraction and payment, and an emphasis on increased production. This examination of miners’ attitudes to health and injury was complemented by ethnographic work in one Welsh mining community. The legacy of coal in this locality is still apparent with miners conveying both the physical and mental scars of exposure to dust, diesel and noise, yet working to create their own histories and representations of a mining past.
    • The determinants of trust in the boardroom

      Ogunseyin, Michael; Farquhar, Stuart; Machold, Silke; Gabrielsson, Jonas; Khlif, Wafa; Yamak, Sibel (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019-07-26)
      Using a behavioural perspective, this chapter presents further knowledge on the conditions in the boardroom that facilitate or hinder the presence of trust. Building on previous studies, a model explaining the hypothesised relationships between trust and its determinants (cognitive conflict, communication efficacy, the perception of board members’ competence, affective conflict, and familiarity), with the moderating effects of board meeting frequency and board tenure, was developed. Based on a survey of UK companies, it was found that the perception of board members’ competence and familiarity are positively related to trust, whereas affective conflict is negatively related to trust. The implication of this finding for board practice is that boards of directors should engage in activities such as training and development that increase directors’ perception of each other’s competencies and why affective conflict should be managed in the boardroom.
    • Youth and permissive social change in British music papers, 1967–1983

      Glen, Patrick (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-02-04)
      Paul Rambali, a music journalist during the 1970s and 1980s, explained that popular music had ‘suggested a range of possibilities in life that nobody ever told me at school nor my parents.’1 For young people like Rambali, in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s popular music was the most significant cultural form that entertained, informed and influenced them. The music press was where, every week, they found out what was going on and why it mattered. Any young person with a small amount of disposable income could walk to almost any newsagents in Britain and find a copy of a weekly music paper – one of the so-called inkies due to their cheap printing methods which left ink on the readers’ fingers. Even if someone did not have the money to buy a copy, it seemed that music press readers were a generous sort and would share: the National Readership Survey recorded that over nine people read each copy which translated into a potential readership, combining those who read the Melody Maker, New Musical Express (NME) and Sounds, of around 3,000,000 people per week.2 These papers, made in metropolitan London – the hub of the music industry and the press, offered a window into popular music, the people who made it and other fans. Copies piled up in bedrooms, living rooms, university and sixth form common rooms telling not only a story of the happenings in music, but that of social change and the way we as a society understood youth.
    • ‘Oh you pretty thing!’: How David Bowie ‘unlocked everybody’s inner queen’ in spite of the music press

      Glen, Patrick (Informa UK Limited, 2017-12-29)
      The 1967 Sexual Offence Act decriminalised homosexual acts between men allowing gay men to discuss their sexuality in public. Few prominent popular musicians came-out until 1972 when David Bowie claimed that he was bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker. Music papers and Bowie had substantial cultural power: Bowie was a rising star and music papers recruited journalists who discussed and perpetuated social change. The subsequent conversation, however, reinforced negative stereotypes in constructing the queer subject and tried to safeguard commercial concerns due to the assumption that the market for popular music avoided queer music. This undermined arguments that associate permissive legislation with a permissive media and society, but, to some, representation alone empowered people and destabilised preconceptions about queer identity.
    • ‘Exploiting the Daydreams of Teenagers’: Press reports and memories of cinema-going by young people in 1960s Britain

      Glen, Patrick (Informa UK Limited, 2017-08-28)
      During the 1960s, young people were subject to intense scrutiny. Their lives differed from previous generations and as a consequence, they were portrayed as being at the forefront of social change and representative of Britain’s national health. By comparing oral history interviews of those who were young and visited the cinema with media reports, this article evaluates the conversation around ‘teenagers.’ Newspapers’ reports of youth arguably reflected their selection principles and journalistic practices. Oral history narratives, however, complicate press discourse by bringing to the fore a diversity of experiences and understandings: some felt the ‘cultural revolution,’ while others felt bored. This demonstrates how studies of reception materials are incomplete and could benefit from being combined with ethnohistorical approaches.
    • Stream 1. Gouvernance forestière et aménagement du territoire

      Mbzibain, Aurelian (Congo Basin Forest Partnership, 2018-11-27)
      Notre stream porte sur les questions toujours d’actualité de la gouvernance forestière et de l’aménagement du territoire. Plus que jamais, ces deux thématiques sont des thématiques clés pour les perspectives d’avenir des forêts du Bassin du Congo. Cependant, la nature vaste des questions de comment aménager l’espace forestier et comment le pouvoir s’exerce dans ces zones nous exigent de prioriser, au sein du stream, nos discussions et interventions. Il y a ainsi les priorités qui ont émergé. Nos discussions et actions tout au long de l’année passée, et nos priorités pour l’avenir, sont organisé en trois axes : l’aménagement intégré du territoire, les marchés du bois et la légalité, et la foresterie participative.