The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between governance characteristics of non-profit organizations (NPOs) (CEO duality and board size) and their performance, considered as their ability to collect financial resources. The study is conducted on a sample of 200 UK registered charities that work in a context characterized by a medium to high level of “mandatory” accountability. With a regression analysis we verify strong positive relationships between the NPOs’ financial performance and the CEO duality and board size. Further analyses show that if the charities increase their level of accountability through the use of additional voluntary disclosure mechanisms and tools such as the use of social networks, these relationships are confirmed. Qualitative characteristics of governance and voluntary accountability of UK charities are also analysed in association with some classes of revenues using the logistic regression method and the multiple correspondence analysis.
This paper represents a new technique for building a relevance judgment list for information retrieval test collections without any human intervention. It is based on the number of occurrences of the documents in runs retrieved from several information retrieval systems and a distance based measure between the documents. The effectiveness of the technique is evaluated by computing the correlation between the ranking of the TREC systems using the original relevance judgment list (qrels) built by human assessors and the ranking obtained by using the newly generated qrels.
We describe a new technique for building a relevance judgment list (qrels) for TREC test collections with no human intervention. For each TREC topic, a set of new queries is automatically generated from key phrases extract-ed from the top k documents retrieved from 12 different Terrier weighting models when the initial TREC topic is submitted. We assign a score to each key phrase based on its similarity to the original TREC topic. The key phrases with the highest scores become the new queries for a second search, this time using the Terrier BM25 weighting model. The union of the documents retrieved forms the automatically-build set of qrels.
Yaneva, Victoria; Temnikova, Irina; Mitkov, Ruslan Prof. (Association of Computing Machinery, 2016-05-19)
Images are widely used in automatic text simplification systems, Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) and human-produced easy-read documents, in order to make text more accessible for people with various types of disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). People with ASD are known to experience difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as to have unusual attention patterns, which makes the development of user-centred tools for this population a challenging task. This paper presents the first study to use eye-tracking technology with ASD participants in order to evaluate text documents. Its aim is two-fold. First, it evaluates the use of images in texts and provides evidence of a significant difference in the attention patterns of participants with and without autism, with the autistic participants focusing on images more than the non-autistic ones. Sets of two types of images, photographs and symbols, are compared to establish which ones are more useful to include in simple documents. Second, the study evaluates human-produced easy-read documents, as a gold standard for accessible documents, on 20 adults with autism. The results provide an understanding of the perceived level of difficulty of easy-read documents according to this population, as well as the preferences of autistic individuals in text presentation. The results are synthesized as set of guidelines for creating accessible text for autism.
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