• Deducing an emergent South Korean behavioural taxonomy of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Kang, Hye-Seung; Chai, Dae Seok; Kim, Sewon (Emerald, 2021-07-28)
      Purpose This study aims to identify people’s perceptions of what behaviourally differentiates effective managers from ineffective managers within a South Korean (SK) public sector organization, and the extent to which the findings are similar or different to those of an equivalent previous study in the SK private sector. Design/methodology/approach Adopting the “pragmatic approach” and assuming a post-positivist ontology and constructivist–interpretivist epistemology, examples of “effective” and “ineffective” managerial behaviour were collected from managers and non-managerial employees in an SK central government Ministry using the critical incident technique. The collected critical incidents were coded, classified and reduced to a smaller number of behavioural categories. These were then compared against equivalent findings from a previous SK private sector replication study using open, axial and selective coding to identify generic behavioural criteria (GBCs) Findings High degrees of convergence point towards the emergence of a “two-factor” SK behavioural taxonomy of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness comprised of positive (n = 11) and negative (n = 4) GBCs of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour. Practical implications The GBCs constituting the deduced SK behavioural taxonomy could be used by HRD practitioners to critically evaluate the efficacy of extant management and leadership development (MLD) programmes, or to inform/shape the creation of new MLD programmes. Additionally, they could be used by other HR professionals to critically evaluate the relevance and efficacy of the assessment criteria used for existing management selection, 360-degree feedback and formal performance appraisal systems. Originality/value The emergence of an SK behavioural taxonomy through Type 3 (emic-as-emic) and Type 4 (emic-and-etic) indigenous research is a rare example of Eastern mid-range theory development.
    • Social Protection and COVID-19 in situations of displacement

      Lind, Jeremy; Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Slater, Rachel (World Food Programme, 2020-12-01)
      At a time when the news is awash with analysis and assessment of the impacts of COVID-19 in what are typically peaceful and stable settings, this brief considers some of the potential impacts and implications of the coronavirus pandemic on vulnerability and social protection responses to displacement in East Africa.
    • Social protection and COVID-19 in urban and rural settings

      Devereux, Stephen; Slater, Rachel (World Food Programme, 2020-12-01)
      While the dominant narrative on the geographical distribution of COVID-19 focuses on urban settings, this brief considers some of the potential impacts and implications of the coronavirus pandemic on vulnerability and social protection responses in both rural and urban contexts in East Africa. As it lists the various implications for social protection and livelihood responses for "building back better", it draws on the lessons learned from the WFP operations in East Africa to fill the urban social protection gap in the short, medium and long terms.
    • Social Protection and COVID-19 amidst climate shocks

      Slater, Rachel (World Food Programme, 2020-12-01)
      Recent years have seen an increasing focus on the role of social protection in building the resilience of households to climate-related shocks and stresses. This brief considers some of the potential impacts and implications of the coronavirus pandemic on this work in East Africa. Drawing lessons from WFP programming in a number of countries, the brief lists out three main ways of responding to immediate threats while not losing focus on longer-term agendas and programming in support of resilience building in the face of climate shocks.
    • A contextual understanding of youth of entrepreneurship education outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Anosike, Paschal (Academy of Management, 2020-07-29)
      Prompted by growing emphasis, particularly in Africa where poverty and conflict have been associated with high youth unemployment, to use entrepreneurship education to influence young people’s post-study intentions, this paper articulates the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention amongst students and graduates from two higher education institutions affected by the on-going conflict in northern Nigeria. By relying on systematic analysis following semi-structured interviews, the findings showed that newly acquired knowledge and skills in use of market intelligence, business plan writing and record-keeping were not only linked with entrepreneurial intentions, but it also emerged that the volatile context of the business environment influenced strategic decisions related to new business growth and survival. Future research and policy implications were considered based on the findings.
    • Two-sided institutional impacts and informal entrepreneurship motivation in Nigeria

      Adike, Abinotam Joshua; Anosike, Paschal; Wang, Yong (SAGE, 2021-10-11)
      Institutions are developed to direct individuals’ behaviours in ways that lead to their fulfilment. However, either by deliberate human design or other factors, institutions can also either impact positively or negatively on individuals with entrepreneurial ambition. This characterisation is typical of Nigeria’s institutions because of their often two-sided impacts on the individual. This article uses interview data from a qualitative study to demonstrate how ambiguity, as reflected in the often conflicting effects of institutional arrangements in Nigeria influence the decision to engage in informal entrepreneurship. In particular, the finding that both the enforcement and the absence of enforcement of formal laws potentially cause informality, presents a challenge that seriously implicate policy formulation and point to the need for more targeted research.
    • Know your guests’ preferences before they arrive at your hotel: evidence from TripAdvisor

      Rahimi, Roya; Thelwall, Mike; Okumus, Fevzi; Bilgihan, Anil (Emerald, 2022-04-26)
      Purpose Toward achieving a better guest experience, the current study uses the word frequency comparison technique to evaluate the types of attributes and services that are used most frequently in guests’ five- and one-star reviews on TripAdvisor. The paper also investigates the differences between reviews written by men and women. Design/methodology/approach A combined sentiment and text analysis was applied to 329,849 UK hotel reviews from UK TripAdvisor to identify factors that influence customer satisfaction, including those with gender differences. Findings Our findings reveal important differences between the male- and female-produced terms. The results show that female travelers pay more attention to the hotel’s core products and their comfort compared to male travelers. In terms of food and beverage, men’s comments tended to focus on pubs, beer, and certain types of food. In contrast, women’s comments were more likely to be related to healthy eating, such as homemade, vegan, and vegetarian foods, as well as fruits and healthy breakfasts. Women also pay more attention to the soft skills of staff such as friendliness, helpfulness, and welcoming messages. Implications While core attributes of a hotel stay remain crucial for all guests, disparities exist between the language men and women use to describe them. For core products, women pay more attention to the room’s cleanliness, comfort, and features such as bed, pillow, blanket, towel, toiletries, and decoration, whereas men pay more attention to the layout, size, and type of room. Hotels may use gender as a segmentation variable and use these findings in their marketing campaigns. Originality/value This is one of the first studies offering insights into the differences between the male and female reactions to and preferences for hotel services at a national level. Following a novel method, this study has listed and ranked attributes and differentiated them based on gender.
    • A gender-based approach to the influence of personality traits on entrepreneurial intention

      Laouiti, Rahma; Haddoud, Mohamed Yacine; Nakara, Walid Adam; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel (Elsevier, 2022-01-19)
      While previous studies have demonstrated the importance of personality traits in the decision to pursue a career in entrepreneurship, more empirical evidence is needed to explain the mechanism through which entrepreneurial intention (EI) is strengthened. Accordingly, espousing a gender-based perspective, the current paper identifies characteristics that positively affect EI in a sample of 531 students in France. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis is performed yielding four alternate combinations that are likely to lead to high EI, of which two are gender specific. The inherent findings advance previous studies by offering entrepreneurship educators in France and similar contexts a new understanding of entrepreneurial intention from a gender perspective. Similarly, the results offer first-hand evidence to inform university students’ career choices.
    • Using consumer advertising and promotional marketing materials for historical research: 1960s Heinz baked beans

      Hawkins, Richard (Adam Matthew Digital, 2021-11-30)
      This case study will equip you with the intellectual and practical toolkit necessary to investigate and derive worthwhile information from historical advertising and promotional marketing materials, using the example of a scrapbook of baked beans advertisements from the 1960s. Most of the print advertising from this period has survived in archives around the world in various formats, including the original publications, microfilmed copies, and more recently digitised scans. Not all the reproductions are high quality. Furthermore, while some of the original advertisements were published in colour, many have been reproduced in black and white. Advertising can reveal a lot more than just the product being advertised. The text and images used can reveal information about the advertising agency, the agency’s client, the product being advertised, the consumers being targeted, and how the agency and its client view the society in which they are working. In this case study, you will learn what analytical questions you can ask of such sources and sample the kinds of answers you might expect to find in them. Analysis of the Heinz Baked Beans scrapbook also reveals information about how advertising campaigns, promotions, and competitions evolved during the period 1961–1968.
    • Institutions and instruments for tackling chronic poverty: the case of social protection and HIV/Aids

      Slater, Rachel (Chronic Poverty Research Centre, 2008-01-01)
      HIV/AIDS is both a cause and a symptom of chronic poverty and requires new and innovative policy instruments and institutional structures to address its impacts. Focusing specifically on orphans, vulnerable children and the elderly, this paper explores the appropriateness of different social protection mechanisms for supporting households living with HIV/AIDS and suggests what roles are appropriate for different institutions – from households and communities to governments and donors – for tackling chronic poverty among people living with HIV/AIDS.
    • Comparative study of the perceptions of Mexican and Colombian employees about managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Torres, Luis (Emerald, 2022-02-22)
      Abstract Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to compare the perceptions of employed people in Mexico and Colombia about managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness. Research Design A qualitative multiple cross-case and cross-nation comparative analysis of findings obtained from the two past emic replication (Mexico and Colombia) studies was conducted. Findings Our study suggests that people within Mexican and Colombian organizations perceive ‘managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness’ in very similar ways. Our findings support those researchers whose studies indicate that culture may not, as previously thought, play a significant role in the way managers should manage and lead their subordinates. Originality Our comparative study attempts to generate new insights and better understanding within the context of ‘managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness’ research, which we hope will make a useful contribution to the existing small body of knowledge regarding similarities and differences in managerial practices across culturally diverse Latin American countries. Practical implications The findings of our comparative study are relevant to those HRD professionals in international companies with operations in Mexico and/or Colombia when preparing their executives for international assignments in these Latin American countries.
    • Harmonization of similar instruments

      Slater, Rachel; Loewe, Markus; Schuring, Esther (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021-08-10)
    • Editorial

      Prior, Ross (Intellect, 2021-12-23)
    • Detoxing university through creative engagement

      Prior, Ross; Francis, Abraham P.; Carter, Margaret Anne (Springer, 2022-03-13)
      This chapter outlines a philosophy of higher education practice that includes emphasis on using creativity to engage students, both in and outside of formal classes, to improve wellbeing. In an age of increasing discourse preoccupied with division and difference, individuals’ feelings of isolation and loneliness, increased student debt, lack of job opportunities and societal destabilisation, there is urgent need for a philosophy of ‘togetherness’. In developing this ideal of coming together, the benefits to mental health and wellbeing are many. Further, the way we conduct research in the academy is something to consider more carefully too. The choice of our research methodologies may not be as benign as we might think and can shift perceptions and distort values over time. The past decade has revealed an unhealthy preoccupation with measurement and performance rankings which has been pervasive amongst the neoliberalist higher education sector. However, lived experience, feelings and creative endeavour resist numerical reduction. Running alongside this issue has been growing calls across those working in wellbeing and education to increase usage of art-based approaches in understanding and evidencing the benefits of expressive art practice. To these ends, this chapter offers hope in how creative activity might bring about essential change to combat a corporate hardening that has in recent times ruthlessly hijacked the love of learning and indeed the love of enabling others. Reporting on an initiative where artistic processes have been used as an antidote to the ‘toxic university’, the chapter explores what we can do to bring about positive change for both students and staff.
    • The psychological drivers of entrepreneurial resilience in the tourism sector

      Haddoud, Mohamed Yacine; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Al-Azab, Mahmoud Ramadan; Elbaz, Ahmed Mohamed (Elsevier, 2021-12-03)
      Although resilience is assumed to play a crucial role in entrepreneurship, the factors leading to entrepreneurial resilience in the tourism sector remain relatively unknown. To address this issue, this study adopts a novel configuration approach to assess psychological traits that are likely to result in resilient entrepreneurial behaviour in the tourism sector. It approaches this by conceptualising personality traits through the big five model which is widely espoused in the psychology discipline. Then, using fuzzy-set analysis, a sample of 180 bazaar owner/managers in Egypt is investigated from which three distinct profiles likely to exhibit high levels of entrepreneurial resilience are determined. The findings of this paper advance scholars’ theoretical understanding and offer intelligence to policymakers and training institutions in the Egyptian tourism sector. Particularly, they help bazaar owner/managers reflect on their predispositions as a means for increasing resilience.
    • The correlates of energy management practices and sales performance of small family food firms in Turkey

      Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Puntaier, Elmar; Hussain, Sundas (Emerald, 2021-12-22)
      Purpose While pursuing energy management, firms simultaneously strive to boost sales as a path towards economic performance. Also, the literature suggests that family firms exhibit greater environmental commitment than their non-family counterparts. To examine these contentions, this review espouses contingency theory to interrogate the correlations of (1) energy consumption targets, (2) energy efficiency enhancing measures, (3) energy consumption monitoring and (4) the domestic sales performance of small family food firms in Turkey’s food sector. Methodology Data were sourced from the World Bank Enterprise Survey. A sample of 137 family firms in food production, processing and retail was analysed using non-linear structural equation modelling. The net effects of path coefficients were estimated to determine the extent to which energy management practices predict domestic sales. Findings The path analysis revealed that although energy consumption targets do not directly increase sales performance, they stimulate firms’ energy efficiency enhancement measures and energy consumption monitoring to produce this effect by 21%. Practical/Managerial Implications The definitive results will reassure small family food firms of the financial and ecological benefits of setting energy targets in the first instance. This should be seen as a path towards putting in place energy efficiency enhancing measures and monitoring energy consumption. Insights for policy development are also offered to public stakeholders in the energy sector. Originality This inquiry is one of the first to examine energy management in the food sector at the family firm level through the contingency lens. Theoretically, the results draw attention and shed new light on disparate energy management practices and their discrete yet substantial contribution to sales performance. Practically, the fresh insights offer intelligence for the development of a national energy management policy in Turkey.
    • ‘A new and disturbing form of subversion’: Militant tendency, MI5 and the threat of Trotskyism in Britain, 1937-1987

      Kassimeris, George; Price, Oliver (Routledge, 2021-10-27)
      This article examines how the rise of Militant Tendency transformed MI5’s perception of Trotskyism’s ability to pose a threat to the British state. Militant’s emergence in the 1970s as an entryist organisation within the Labour Party and its subsequent influence on Liverpool City Council in the early 1980s led security officials to consider it as an equal if not greater subversive threat than the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). Drawing on newly released files, the article adds to the understanding of counter-subversive investigations in Cold War Britain and assesses how, between the late 1970s and early 1980s, Militant became the first and, so far, only Trotskyist group to be considered by MI5 a significant subversive threat to British internal security.
    • Women in social housing and the pursuit of entrepreneurship

      Hussain, Sundas; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Carey, Charlotte; Jafari-Sadeghi, Vahid (Inderscience, 2022-12-31)
      Women’s engagement in entrepreneurship from a social housing perspective has scarcely been explored in the literature. Thus, insights into how the social housing system may condition participation in entrepreneurship have been excluded from empirical understanding. In order to address this gap, we assess the entrepreneurial intention of women in a deprived area of one of the UK’s largest cities. Through an inductive analysis, we develop a conceptual model in which attitude towards entrepreneurship, self-efficacy and subjective norms emerge as mediators of entrepreneurial intention. Our findings pose theoretical implications for future variance-based analyses, as well as practical implications for social housing providers and the role of public institutions in fostering entrepreneurial outcomes.
    • Legal issues arising for the utilisation of blockchain based products in the 4th industrial revolution

      Haynes, Andrew; Yeoh, Peter (Juta & Co., 2020-12-01)
      This contribution considers the nature of distributed ledger technology, or blockchain as it is otherwise known, analysing its key elements, the reasons for its emergence and development and its potential importance. The method by which it functions is analysed together with a discussion of the facilities that are being developed on it. There is also a consideration of the legal issues arising from its operation and of the facilities that utilise it. Further, there is also a consideration of the cost issues involved in using blockchain and the particular factors arising when shares and bonds are issued on a blockchain system. Criminal factors inevitably arise with the development of any new regime and key elements of this are considered. Finally, there is also an analysis of the inherent problems arising with such a system and the current situation in which the world now finds itself with blockchain, and the future issues that seem to be emerging.