• A century of state murder?: death and policy in twentieth century Russia

      Haynes, Michael J.; Hasan, Rumy (London: Pluto Press, 2003)
      Russia has one of the lowest rates of adult life expectancy in the world. Average life expectancy for a man in America is 74; in Russia, it is just 59. Birth rates and population levels have also plummeted. These excess levels of mortality affect all countries that formed the former Soviet bloc. Running into many millions, they raise obvious comparisons with the earlier period of forced transition under Stalin. This book seeks to put the recent history of the transition into a longer term perspective by identifying, explaining and comparing the pattern of change in Russia in the last century. It offers a sharp challenge to the conventional wisdom and benign interpretations offered in the west of what has happened since 1991. Through a careful survey of the available primary and secondary sources, Mike Haynes and Rumy Husan have produced the first and most complete and accurate account of Russian demographic crisis from the Revolution to the present. (Pluto Press)
    • A chaos/complexity theory approach to marketing in the turbulent South African business environment.

      Mason, Roger B. (San Diego: University Readers, 2007)
      This book consists of articles selected by the editors from the papers presented at the 2006 Leadership & Management Studies in Sub-Sahara Africa Conferences in Stone Town, Zanzibar. Conferences are presented by a voluntary association of individuals interested in improving the leadership and management competencies of Africans. Volume I details the association’s initial efforts consisting of empirical and theoretical research investigations and reviews of studies in the area. Topics range from core leadership issues, problems in management and leadership education, and business competitiveness to an exploration of the historical context of Sub-Sahara Africa. Coupled with the research data and theoretical concepts presented in the selected articles, this volume presents an in-depth look into the strategies directed to address these issues.
    • A computer-aided environment for construction of multiple-choice tests

      Mitkov, Ruslan; Ha, Le An; Bernardes, Jon (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Multiple choice tests have proved to be an efficient tool for measuring students' achievement and are used on a daily basis both for assessment and diagnostics worldwide. The objective of this project was to provide and alternative to the lengthy and demanding activity of developing multiple-choice tests and propose a new Natural Language Processing (NLP) based approach to generate tests from instructional texts (textbooks, encyclopaedias). Work on the pilot project has shown that the semi-automatic procedure is up to 3.8 times quicker than a completely manual one.
    • A cross-industry review of B2B critical success factors

      Eid, Riyad; Trueman, Myfanwy; Ahmed, Abdel (Emerald, 2002)
      Business-to-business international Internet marketing (B2B IIM) has emerged as one of the key drivers in sustaining an organisation’s competitive advantage. However, market entry and communication via the Internet have affected the dynamics and traditional process in B2B commerce. Difficulties resulting from these new trends have been cited in the literature. Research into identifying what are the critical success factors for global market entry is rare. This research presents a comprehensive review in this field. The study identified 21 critical success factors applicable to most of the B2B IIM. These factors were classified into five categories: marketing strategy, Web site, global, internal and external related factors. The significance, importance and implications for each category are discussed and then recommendations are made.
    • A Dynamic Programming Approach to Improving Translation Memory Matching and Retrieval Using Paraphrases

      Gupta, Rohit; Orăsan, Constantin; Liu, Qun; Mitkov, Ruslan; Sojka, Petr; Horak, Ales; Kopecek, Ivan (Springer, 2016-09)
      Translation memory tools lack semantic knowledge like paraphrasing when they perform matching and retrieval. As a result, paraphrased segments are often not retrieved. One of the primary reasons for this is the lack of a simple and efficient algorithm to incorporate paraphrasing in the TM matching process. Gupta and Orăsan [1] proposed an algorithm which incorporates paraphrasing based on greedy approximation and dynamic programming. However, because of greedy approximation, their approach does not make full use of the paraphrases available. In this paper we propose an efficient method for incorporating paraphrasing in matching and retrieval based on dynamic programming only. We tested our approach on English-German, English-Spanish and English-French language pairs and retrieved better results for all three language pairs compared to the earlier approach
    • A General Much Maligned: The Earl of Manchester as Army Commander in the Second Newbury Campaign (July to November 1644)

      Wanklyn, Malcolm (Sage Publications, 2007)
      The disappointing performance of the Eastern Association army in the campaign fought in the Thames valley theatre of war in October and November 1644 compared with its previous history has been attributed to the shortcomings of its commander, Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester. This paper shows that much of the criticism of Manchester's generalship was propaganda of dubious validity produced after the campaign by Oliver Cromwell and his political allies, and that a good case can be made for Manchester's strategic and operational competence. (Sage Publications)
    • A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulant environment

      Mason, Roger B. (SAe Publications, 2007)
      Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised. Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with little emphasis on individual tactics and even less on the marketing mix as a whole. Therefore, this paper can be viewed as an important foundation for a new stream of research using chaos and complexity theory to better understand marketing mixes and the choice of marketing tactics for complex and turbulent business environments.
    • A Military History of the English Civil War: 1642-1649

      Wanklyn, Malcolm; Jones, Frank (London: Longman/Pearson Books, 2004)
      A Military History of the English Civil War examines how the civil war was won, who fought for whom, and why it ended. With a straightforward style and clear chronology that enables readers to make their own judgements and pursue their own interests further, this original history provides a thorough critique of the reasons that have been cited for Parliament's victory and the King's defeat in 1645/46. It discusses the strategic options of the Parliamentary and Royalist commanders and councils of war and analyses the decisions they made, arguing that the King’s faulty command structure was more responsible for his defeat than Sir Thomas Fairfax's strategic flair. It also argues that the way that resources were used, rather than the resources themselves, explain why the war ended when it did. (Longman/Pearson)
    • A Nation of Shopkeepers: Retailing in Britain 1550-2000

      Benson, John; Ugolini, Laura (London: I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2002)
      "A Nation of Shopkeepers" reflects research on retail history and cultures of consumption. The contributors challenge existing ideas about retail development, showing how, for example, large-scale retailers played a far lesser role in the development of the modern city that is generally thought, and how the success of department stores was determined less by "entrepreneurial" spirit and more by the unforseen consequences of legislation. With the growing interest in cultures of consumption, this book should be useful to specialists and students in retail history, human geography and social and cultural history. (I.B. Taurus publishers)
    • 'A Plentiful Crop of Cripples Made by All This Progress': Disability, Artificial Limbs and Working-Class Mutualism in the South Wales Coalfield, 1890-19481

      Curtis, B.; Thompson, S. (2014-04-07)
      Historians of orthopaedics, artificial limbs and disability have devoted a great deal of attention to children and soldiers but have neglected to give sufficient space in their studies to industrial workers, the other patient group that has been identified as crucial to the development of these areas. Furthermore, this attention has led to an imbalanced focus on charitable and philanthropic activities as the main means of assistance and the neglect of a significant part of the voluntary sphere, the labour movement. This article, focusing on industrial south Wales, examines the efforts of workingclass organisations to provide artificial limbs and a range of other surgical appliances to workers and their family members in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It finds that a distinctive, labourist conception of disability existed which envisaged disabled workers as an important priority and one to which significant time, effort and resources were devoted.
    • A review of the Black Country economy and labour market from the PricewaterhouseCoopers West Midlands Business Surveys: 1994-1998

      Worrall, Les (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      This paper updates previous research papers and looks specifically at the economy and labour market of the Black Country focusing on a set of business performance, recruitment, training and skills issues. The report also “locates” the Black Country in the context of the West Midlands Region and in the context of recent macro-economic changes which are affecting different parts of the UK economy differentially. Reference is also made to the level of innovation in the Black Country and the region and to other “structural” issues as it is contended that levels of innovation, capital expenditure and training will largely determine the future health of the sub-regional economy. Uniquely, the questionnaire is targeted towards the most senior managers in West Midlands businesses: around 60% of respondents are Chairmen, Chief Executives or Managing Directors. Analysis of the data yields some insights into recent changes in the Black Country economy labour market viewed from the apex of a representative cross-section of around 1,000 regional businesses almost 300 of which are located in the four Black Country boroughs of Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall and Sandwell. This analysis can be used to augment economic and labour market intelligence derived from more traditional, nationally published sources. This report has been based on the West Midlands Business Survey which is funded by PricewaterhouseCoopers in the Midlands. Their support is gratefully acknowledged.
    • A review of the insolvency framework: a new moratorium to help business rescue

      Umfreville, Christopher (Sweet & Maxwell, 2016-06-30)
      With a view to making Britain the best place in the world to start and grow a business, on 25 May 2016 the Government launched “A Review of the Corporate Insolvency Framework: A consultation on options for reform” (the “Consultation”). Motivated by a manifesto pledge to put the UK in the top five of the World Bank’s Doing Business ratings, the Consultation puts forward four key proposals to encourage rescues of viable businesses: the introduction of a pre-insolvency restructuring moratorium; the protection of essential supplier contracts during restructuring; the ability to bind and cram-down secured creditors in a restructuring; and exploring options for rescue financing. This article will consider the central plank to the reforms, the introduction of a new restructuring moratorium. Experienced readers will remember similar proposals being made in 2010 (“Proposals for a Restructuring Moratorium” (the “2010 Proposals”)), with questions remaining whether the issues arising then have been addressed.
    • A scalable meta-classifier for combining search and classification techniques for multi-level text categorization

      Oakes, Michael; Wermter, Stefan; Tripathi, Nandita (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2015-12)
      Nowadays, documents are increasingly associated with multi-level category hierarchies rather than a flat category scheme. As the volume and diversity of documents grow, so do the size and complexity of the corresponding category hierarchies. To be able to access such hierarchically classified documents in real-time, we need fast automatic methods to navigate these hierarchies. Today’s data domains are also very different from each other, such as medicine and politics. These distinct domains can be handled by different classifiers. A document representation system which incorporates the inherent category structure of the data should also add useful semantic content to the data vectors and thus lead to better separability of classes. In this paper, we present a scalable meta-classifier to tackle today’s problem of multi-level data classification in the presence of large datasets. To speed up the classification process, we use a search-based method to detect the level-1 category of a test document. For this purpose, we use a category–hierarchy-based vector representation. We evaluate the meta-classifier by scaling to both longer documents as well as to a larger category set and show it to be robust in both cases. We test the architecture of our meta-classifier using six different base classifiers (Random forest, C4.5, multilayer perceptron, naïve Bayes, BayesNet (BN) and PART). We observe that even though there is a very small variation in the performance of different architectures, all of them perform much better than the corresponding single baseline classifiers. We conclude that there is substantial potential in this meta-classifier architecture, rather than the classifiers themselves, which successfully improves classification performance.
    • A three-talk model for shared decision making: multistage consultation process

      Elwyn, Glyn; Durand, Marie Anne; Song, Julia; Aarts, Johanna; Barr, Paul J; Berger, Zackary; Cochran, Nan; Frosch, Dominick; Galasiński, Dariusz; Gulbrandsen, Pål; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-11-06)
      Objectives To revise an existing three-talk model for learning how to achieve shared decision making, and to consult with relevant stakeholders to update and obtain wider engagement. Design Multistage consultation process. Setting Key informant group, communities of interest, and survey of clinical specialties. Participants 19 key informants, 153 member responses from multiple communities of interest, and 316 responses to an online survey from medically qualified clinicians from six specialties. Results After extended consultation over three iterations, we revised the three-talk model by making changes to one talk category, adding the need to elicit patient goals, providing a clear set of tasks for each talk category, and adding suggested scripts to illustrate each step. A new three-talk model of shared decision making is proposed, based on “team talk,” “option talk,” and “decision talk,” to depict a process of collaboration and deliberation. Team talk places emphasis on the need to provide support to patients when they are made aware of choices, and to elicit their goals as a means of guiding decision making processes. Option talk refers to the task of comparing alternatives, using risk communication principles. Decision talk refers to the task of arriving at decisions that reflect the informed preferences of patients, guided by the experience and expertise of health professionals. Conclusions The revised three-talk model of shared decision making depicts conversational steps, initiated by providing support when introducing options, followed by strategies to compare and discuss trade-offs, before deliberation based on informed preferences.
    • A view through a window: Social relations, material objects and locality

      Hirsch, Shirin; Smith, Andrew (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017-07-28)
      In this article the authors ask what it would mean to think sociologically about the window as a specific material and symbolic object. Drawing on qualitative analysis of a series of comparative interviews with residents in three different streets in a diverse local area of Glasgow, they explore what the use and experience of windows tells us about their respondents’ very different relationships to the places where they live. On the one hand, the window, as a material feature of the home, helps us grasp the lived reality of class inequality and how such inequality shapes people’s day-to-day experience. On the other hand, windows are symbolically charged objects, existing at the border of the domestic and public world. For this reason, they feature in important ways in local debates over the appearance, ownership and conservation of the built environment. The article explores these struggles, and shows what they reveal about the construction of belonging in the neighbourhood, a process which is both classed and racialised at one and the same time.
    • Access to health and social care services for deaf and hard of hearing people in Wolverhampton

      Bown, Sarah; Dekesel, Kristiaan (Healthwatch Wolverhampton in conjunction with University of Wolverhampton, 2017-12-01)
      In 2012 Johannes Fellinger and colleagues highlighted a growing concern for signs of health inequality amongst D/deaf individuals, in the area of both general and mental health, within their respective community/country. The claim was even made that deafness itself can endanger your health (Alexander, Ladd and Powell, 2012). It was also established that the level of poor communication between D/deaf patients and health professionals, exacerbated the barriers to health care, which D/deaf people experienced. Barnet et.al. examining health inequality experienced by D/deaf people argued that “... It appears that addressing language barriers improves adherence with some preventive services and may help prevent chronic diseases or improve patient’s long-term outcomes through earlier detection” (Barnett, et al, 2011:2). This is supported by Alexander, Ladd and Powell, who advocate that “good communication is the key” (2012:980), given that it is “the bedrock of diagnosis and treatment” (The Lancet, 2012:977) and has the potential to avoid offering a lower standard of service (Sign Health 2014).
    • Accessible texts for autism: an eye-tracking study

      Yaneva, Victoria; Temnikova, Irina; Mitkov, Ruslan Prof. (Association of Computing Machinery, 2016-05-19)
      Images are widely used in automatic text simplification systems, Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) and human-produced easy-read documents, in order to make text more accessible for people with various types of disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). People with ASD are known to experience difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as to have unusual attention patterns, which makes the development of user-centred tools for this population a challenging task. This paper presents the first study to use eye-tracking technology with ASD participants in order to evaluate text documents. Its aim is two-fold. First, it evaluates the use of images in texts and provides evidence of a significant difference in the attention patterns of participants with and without autism, with the autistic participants focusing on images more than the non-autistic ones. Sets of two types of images, photographs and symbols, are compared to establish which ones are more useful to include in simple documents. Second, the study evaluates human-produced easy-read documents, as a gold standard for accessible documents, on 20 adults with autism. The results provide an understanding of the perceived level of difficulty of easy-read documents according to this population, as well as the preferences of autistic individuals in text presentation. The results are synthesized as set of guidelines for creating accessible text for autism.
    • Accountability, governance and performance in UK charities

      Bellante, Giulia; Berardi, Laura; Machold, Silke; Nissi, Eugenia; Rea, Michele A. (Inderscience, 2017-12-11)
      The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between governance characteristics of a sample of 200 UK non-profit organisations (NPOs) and their performance, considered as their ability to collect financial resources. Using a regression analysis, we verify strong positive relationships between the NPOs’ financial performance and CEO duality and board size. Further analyses show that if the charities increase their level of accountability through the use of additional voluntary disclosure mechanisms and tools such as the use of social networks, these relationships are confirmed. The results of our research have implications for policy makers that seek to strengthen governance of NPOs, and for boards and managers of NPOs who wish to develop their organisations’ performance.
    • Accumulation and Working Class Exploitation, Some Origins of 1956 in Hungary.

      Haynes, Michael J. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007)
      This chapter: Mike Haynes looks at the origins of the Hungarian revolt, in terms of workplace politics while Anne Alexander reviews the impact that Suez had on Nasser s reputation within the Arab world and Arab nationalist politics. In the afternoon there was a widening of the focus. This book: ‘Through the Smoke of Budapest 50 Years On’, The February 2006 Conference of the London Socialist Historians Group was held at the Institute of Historical Research in central London, one of a series of such conferences over the previous ten years. Assembled were a modest group of academics and activists come to mark the 50th anniversary of the events of 1956, and to do so in a particular way. Firstly by presenting new historical research on the questions under review rather than trotting out tired orthodoxies. Secondly by linking historical inquiry to political activism. It was queried why such a conference was held in February 2006 rather than in the autumn, and the answer was a simple one. To intervene historically in the debates of the year by setting a socialist historical agenda for doing so.
    • Acts of faith: instinct, value and IT investment decisions

      Bannister, Frank; Remenyi, Dan (Palgrave Macmillan, 2000)
      Although well over 1000 journal articles, conference papers, books, technical notes and theses have been written on the subject of information technology (IT) evaluation, only a relatively small subset of this literature has been concerned with the core issues of what precisely is meant by the term 'value' and with the process of making (specifically) IT investment decisions. All too often, the problem and highly complex issue of value is either simplified, ignored or assumed away. Instead the focus of much of the research to date has been on evaluation methodologies and, within this literature, there are different strands of thought which can be classified as partisan, composite and meta approaches to evaluation. Research shows that a small number of partisan techniques are used by most decision makers with a minority using a single technique and a majority using a mixture of such techniques of whom a substantial minority use a formal composite approach. It is argued that, in mapping the set of evaluation methodologies on to what is termed the investment opportunity space, that there is a limit to what can be achieved by formal rational evaluation methods. This limit becomes evident when decision makers fall back on 'gut feel' and other non-formal/rigorous ways of making decisions. It is suggested that an understanding of these more complex processes and decision making, in IT as elsewhere, needs tools drawn from philosophy and psychology.