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On twinning: the impact of naming an EU accession programme on the effective implementation of its projectsThe introduction of the Twinning instrument as its principal institution-building mechanism in countries applying to join the European Union saw the appearance of a vocabulary very much at divergence with the language associated with other Technical Assistance programmes. The arbitrary and connotational character of this heavily metaphorical terminology has differentiated Twinning from other programmes in the minds of those involved in the programme. At the same time, however, it has also resulted in a measure of ambiguity and confusion among project partners - principally over their roles and responsibilities. This problem could be overcome by targeting any one of the three points in Peirce's semiotic model: by changing the signs of twinning; by re-attuning the users' interpretants; or by bringing the object, the Twinning programme itself, closer to how the signs of twinning are actually perceived and understood.