• An earnest endeavour for peace? Ulster Unionism and the Craig/Collins Peace Pact of 30th March 1922

      Norton, Christopher (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France: Presses Unversitaires, 2007)
      Article in English, abstract in French. "Cet article considère la tentative, ratée, de réconcilier unionisme et nationalisme en Irlande du Nord en mars 1922. Les forces en présence au sein du camp unioniste sont réévaluées, entre opposants et partisans du pacte Craig-Collins de mars 1922, et il est suggéré que la position belligérante et obstructionniste finalement adoptée n'était au départ ni automatique ni inévitable. Les éléments qui indiquent une plus grande diversité de réactions (bienveillantes ou malveillantes) vis-à-vis du Pacte sont également présentés. La signification et l'influence variables des différents points de vue sont considérées au vu du contexte de violence et d'instabilité politique, et au vu de la stratégie politique de Michael Collins." (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS))
    • Anglo-Irish Relations and the Northern Ireland Peace Process: From Exclusion to Inclusion.

      O'Kane, Eammon (Taylor & Francis, 2004)
      In the early 1990s the British and Irish governments moved away from the policy of attempting to marginalise the IRA and Sinn Féin to enticing republicanism into mainstream politics. This article examines why the two governments made this apparent shift in policy. The British and Irish governments were persuaded to change their policy on Northern Ireland due to a variety of factors, all of which need to be examined if the origins of the peace process are to be understood. The article questions existing explanations that portray the origins of the peace process and the Downing Street Declaration as simply a victory for Irish nationalism without taking account of the concessions secured by the British government from the Irish during the protracted negotiations. (Ingenta)
    • Apologies in Irish Politics: A Commentary and Critique

      Cunningham, Mike (London: Taylor & Francis, 2004)
      This article considers the reasons for, and the responses to, two recent apologies in Irish Politics. These are Tony Blair's statement in 1997 concerning the Famine of the 1840s and the IRA apology of 2002. A set of criteria are developed by which to judge the validity of these apologies. It is argued that Blair's statement did not formally constitute an apology although one would be valid if British policy of the period were to be considered unjust. The case of the IRA apology is more clear cut, as unjust actions were committed and responsibility can be clearly demonstrated.
    • Britain, Ireland and Northern Ireland Since 1980: The Totality of Relationships

      O'Kane, Eammon (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      This new study reveals how British and Irish governments not only had different reasons for co-operating, but also had different prescriptions for ending the conflict in Northern Ireland. Eamonn O'Kane shows how and why the two states were subject to demands and expectations from their 'client' communities in the North had conflicting historical explanations for the problem and different domestic considerations to take into account. He argues that all of these factors must be examined in context and in doing so makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the Northern Ireland conflict and offers a new explanation for the emergence and development of the peace process. Based on extensive new interview data, this volume is an invaluable resource for students and researchers of British politics, Irish studies and conflict studies.
    • Internationalism, peace and reconciliation: Anglo-German connections in the Youth Hostels movement, 1930-1950

      Cunningham, Michael; Constantine, Simon (Wiley, 2020-02-11)
      This article examines the close relationship that existed between the English and Welsh Youth Hostel Association (YHA) and the Deutsche Jugendherbergswerk (DJH), the German pioneer movement, between 1930 and 1950. It emphasises the importance of shared cultural values and the influence that the German DJH had on the YHA from its beginnings. It argues that the internationalism and pacifism of the fledgling national association, its debt of gratitude to the parent organisation, and close relationship between leading figures, all pushed it towards a position of accommodation with Germany, even when the German movement was subsumed within the racist, nationalist and militarist Nazi movement in 1933. The YHA thus reinforced the spirit and policy of Appeasement between the wars. In the aftermath of war, the same commitment to peaceful cooperation between nations, and the same personal ties, saw the hostel movement re-emerge as a vehicle for reconciliation.
    • Prisoners of the Japanese and the Politics of Apology: a battle over history and memory

      Cunningham, Mike (London: Sage Publications, 2004)
      This article examines the arguments and claims of the two groups which have been most active in the campaign for an apology from the Japanese for wartime atrocities and the group which believes that an apology would be counter to its advocacy of reconciliation. The claims and arguments made by the groups are used as a basis to explore further the role of apology within international politics and to develop the criteria for its use.
    • Re-evaluating the Anglo-Irish Agreement: Central or Incidental to the Northern Ireland Peace process?

      O'Kane, Eammon (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007-10-18)
      The 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA) was one of the major achievements of Anglo-Irish diplomacy during the course of the Troubles. Yet its importance has been misunderstood and often ignored in subsequent histories of the development of the conflict and the peace process. This article seeks to re-evaluate the AIA. It examines the purposes of the agreement, taking issue with a number of the existing explanations. It is argued that London and Dublin had conflicting analyses of what the AIA was designed to do, which led to disappointment in both states with its impact. These differences also made it difficult for academics to accurately characterize the accord. However, the AIA played a profound and imperative role in shaping the subsequent peace process, but this arose out of consequences of the Agreement that were, despite recent claims to the contrary, unanticipated, and indeed unintended, by those who drew up the document. (Palgrave Macmillan)
    • When Can Conflicts Be Resolved? A Critique of Ripeness

      O'Kane, Eammon (London: Routledge, 2006-12-22)
      The idea that conflicts cannot be resolved until they are 'ripe' has been influential in conflict resolution literature in recent years. This article critiques the theoretical underpinnings of ripeness using the Northern Ireland peace process as a case study. It highlights the problems that results from the subjectiveness of both the theory itself and the information needed to apply it. By critically examining William Zartman's six 'propositions' of ripeness, the inadequacy of the approach is highlighted and claims that the theory can help predict when conflicts are ripe for resolution are shown to be unsustainable. It advocates a more dynamic approach to conflict resolution than ripeness suggests that parties and mediators adopt. (Informaworld)