• A century of state murder?: death and policy in twentieth century Russia

      Haynes, Michael J.; Hasan, Rumy (London: Pluto Press, 2003)
      Russia has one of the lowest rates of adult life expectancy in the world. Average life expectancy for a man in America is 74; in Russia, it is just 59. Birth rates and population levels have also plummeted. These excess levels of mortality affect all countries that formed the former Soviet bloc. Running into many millions, they raise obvious comparisons with the earlier period of forced transition under Stalin. This book seeks to put the recent history of the transition into a longer term perspective by identifying, explaining and comparing the pattern of change in Russia in the last century. It offers a sharp challenge to the conventional wisdom and benign interpretations offered in the west of what has happened since 1991. Through a careful survey of the available primary and secondary sources, Mike Haynes and Rumy Husan have produced the first and most complete and accurate account of Russian demographic crisis from the Revolution to the present. (Pluto Press)
    • Accumulation and Working Class Exploitation, Some Origins of 1956 in Hungary.

      Haynes, Michael J. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007)
      This chapter: Mike Haynes looks at the origins of the Hungarian revolt, in terms of workplace politics while Anne Alexander reviews the impact that Suez had on Nasser s reputation within the Arab world and Arab nationalist politics. In the afternoon there was a widening of the focus. This book: ‘Through the Smoke of Budapest 50 Years On’, The February 2006 Conference of the London Socialist Historians Group was held at the Institute of Historical Research in central London, one of a series of such conferences over the previous ten years. Assembled were a modest group of academics and activists come to mark the 50th anniversary of the events of 1956, and to do so in a particular way. Firstly by presenting new historical research on the questions under review rather than trotting out tired orthodoxies. Secondly by linking historical inquiry to political activism. It was queried why such a conference was held in February 2006 rather than in the autumn, and the answer was a simple one. To intervene historically in the debates of the year by setting a socialist historical agenda for doing so.
    • Affluence and Authority: A Social History of Twentieth-Century Britain

      Benson, John (Hodder Arnold, 2005)
      The turn of the millennium generated a spate of reflections on the state of the nation and the ways in which life in Britain had changed during the course of the twentieth century. Affluence and Authority contributes to this debate by providing a wide-ranging, well-informed and accessible interpretation of British social history during a hundred years of profound, and almost certainly unprecedented, economic, political, cultural, demographic and ideological change. This book lays particular emphasis upon material conditions in accounting for the underlying stability of society during the course of this turbulent and troubled century. It argues that despite the fact that many groups shared only haltingly and uncertainly in the benefits of economic growth, it is the long-term improvement in the standard of living that provides the single most important key to understanding the social history of twentieth-century Britain. The balance between economic and social developments is analysed thoroughly. Indeed, one of this book's central purposes is to challenge the view that economic gains were undermined by social losses, that the British people failed to respond as constructively as they should to the economic improvements they enjoyed. John Benson's thought provoking study also suggests that social class should be set alongside categories such as age, gender and ethnicity when attempting to analyse the ways in which British social history developed during the course of the twentieth century.
    • Air Power and the Modern World

      Buckley, John (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2003)
      This book: Conflict is central to human history. It is often the cause, course and consequence of social, cultural and political change. Military history therefore has to be more than a technical analysis of armed conflict. War in the Modern World since 1815 addresses war as a cultural phenomenon, discusses its meaning in different socities and explores the various contexts of military action. Each chapter takes a geographic area and provides an in-depth analysis of its military history. Areas and subjects range from Japan and China to Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, breaking away from a Western focus on war history and offering a global perspective. The result is a unique study of war across the world in the last 200 years, showing connections, similarities and contrasts.
    • An earnest endeavour for peace? Ulster Unionism and the Craig/Collins Peace Pact of 30th March 1922

      Norton, Christopher (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France: Presses Unversitaires, 2007)
      Article in English, abstract in French. "Cet article considère la tentative, ratée, de réconcilier unionisme et nationalisme en Irlande du Nord en mars 1922. Les forces en présence au sein du camp unioniste sont réévaluées, entre opposants et partisans du pacte Craig-Collins de mars 1922, et il est suggéré que la position belligérante et obstructionniste finalement adoptée n'était au départ ni automatique ni inévitable. Les éléments qui indiquent une plus grande diversité de réactions (bienveillantes ou malveillantes) vis-à-vis du Pacte sont également présentés. La signification et l'influence variables des différents points de vue sont considérées au vu du contexte de violence et d'instabilité politique, et au vu de la stratégie politique de Michael Collins." (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS))
    • Anglo-Irish Relations and the Northern Ireland Peace Process: From Exclusion to Inclusion.

      O'Kane, Eammon (Taylor & Francis, 2004)
      In the early 1990s the British and Irish governments moved away from the policy of attempting to marginalise the IRA and Sinn Féin to enticing republicanism into mainstream politics. This article examines why the two governments made this apparent shift in policy. The British and Irish governments were persuaded to change their policy on Northern Ireland due to a variety of factors, all of which need to be examined if the origins of the peace process are to be understood. The article questions existing explanations that portray the origins of the peace process and the Downing Street Declaration as simply a victory for Irish nationalism without taking account of the concessions secured by the British government from the Irish during the protracted negotiations. (Ingenta)
    • Beyond Camps and Forced Labour: Current International Research on Survivors of Nazi Persecution. Proceedings of the First International Multidisciplinary Conference at the Imperial War Museum, London, 29-31 January 2003

      Steinert, Johannes-Dieter; Weber-Newth, Inge (Osnabrűck: Secolo Verlag, 2005)
      In recent years the volume of international research on survivors of Nazi persecution has continually increased. At the same time there is a growing public interest in how survivors coped with their experiences and how they were treated by post-war societies. Researched topics are varied, as are the academic disciplines involved – often without taking much notice of each other. It is time to take stock of current research and to open up new perspectives for future work. This book and CD contain 70 selected contributions to the international multidisciplinary conference on Beyond Camps and Forced Labour. Current International Research on Survivors of Nazi Persecution which took place on 29 – 31 January 2003 at the Imperial War Museum, London (The 2nd conference took place in 2006). Edited CD-ROM and Booklet, includes Steinert & Weber Newth 'Beyond Camps and Forced Labour: Current International Research on Survivors of Nazi Persecution', pp. 1-27; Steinert 'British NGOs in Belsen Concentration Camp: Emergency Relief and the Perception of Survivors', pp. 44-57.
    • Britain

      Durham, Martin (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003)
      This book: What attracts women to far-right movements that appear to denigrate them? This question has vexed feminist scholars for decades, and has led to lively debates in the academy. During the 1980s, scholars produced many studies of women, gender, and fascism in twentieth-century Europe. This volume makes a major new contribution to those studies and casts fresh light on questions such as women's responsibility for the collapse of democracy in interwar Europe, the relationship between the women's movement and the extreme right, and the relationships between conceptions of national identity (especially racial conceptions) and gender. Bringing emerging scholarship on Central and Eastern Europe alongside that of more established Western European historiography on the topic, the essays cover Serbia, Croatia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Hungary, Latvia, and Poland in addition to Germany, Italy, France, Spain, and Britain, and conclude with a European-wide perspective. As a whole, the volume provides a compelling comparative examination of this important topic.
    • Britain, Ireland and Northern Ireland Since 1980: The Totality of Relationships

      O'Kane, Eammon (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      This new study reveals how British and Irish governments not only had different reasons for co-operating, but also had different prescriptions for ending the conflict in Northern Ireland. Eamonn O'Kane shows how and why the two states were subject to demands and expectations from their 'client' communities in the North had conflicting historical explanations for the problem and different domestic considerations to take into account. He argues that all of these factors must be examined in context and in doing so makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the Northern Ireland conflict and offers a new explanation for the emergence and development of the peace process. Based on extensive new interview data, this volume is an invaluable resource for students and researchers of British politics, Irish studies and conflict studies.
    • Britain, NATO and the Lessons of the Balkan Conflicts 1991-1999 (Sandhurst Conference)

      Badsey, Stephen; Latowski, Paul (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This publication considers the lessons to be gained for Britain, the British armed forces, and for NATO as a whole, from the Yugoslav wars of dissolution (1991-1999), with particular emphasis on the Kosovo crisis. The papers come from a diverse and high quality mixture of analysts, practitioners and policy-makers. The issues developed here represent a significant advance in the emerging debate on the lessons to be learnt from the Balkan experience, which will shape thinking on defence and international security far into the new millennium.
    • British Armour in the Normandy Campaign

      Buckley, John (Frank Cass Publishers (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      The popular perception of the performance of British armour in the Normandy campaign of 1944 is one of failure and frustration. Despite overwhelming superiority in numbers, Montgomery''s repeated efforts to employ his armour in an offensive manner ended in disappointing stalemate. Indeed, just a week after the D-Day landings, the Germans claimed to have halted an entire British armoured division with one Tiger tank. Most famously of all, in July, despite a heavy preparatory bombardment, three British armoured divisions were repulsed by much weaker German forces to the east of Caen, suffering the loss of over 400 tanks in the process. Explanation of these and other humiliating failures has centred predominantly on the shortcomings of the tanks employed by British formations. Essentially, an orthodoxy has emerged that the roots of failure lay in the comparative weakness of Allied equipment and to a lesser extent in training and doctrine. This new study challenges this view by analysing the reality and level of the supposed failure and the causes behind it. By studying the role of the armoured brigades as well as the divisions, a more complete and balanced analysis is offered in which it is clear that while some technologically based difficulties were encountered, British armoured forces achieved a good deal when employed appropriately. Such difficulties as did occur resulted from British operational techniques, methods of command and leadership and the operating environment in which armour was employed. In addition, the tactics and doctrine employed by both British and German armoured forces resulted in heavy casualties when on the offensive. Ultimately, the experience of the crews and the effects of fighting on their morale is studied to provide a complete picture of the campaign. (Taylor & Francis)
    • British Armoured Operations in Normandy, June-August 1944

      Buckley, John (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      With essays from leading names in military history, this new book re-examines the crucial issues and debates of the D-Day campaign. It tackles a range of core topics, placing them in their current historiographical context, to present new and sometimes revisionist interpretations of key issues, such as the image of the Allied armies compared with the Germans, the role of air power, and the lessons learned by the military from their operations. As the Second World War is increasingly becoming a field of revisionism, this book sits squarely within growing debates, shedding new light on topics and bringing current thinking from our leading military and strategic historians to a wider audience. This book will be of great interest to students of the Second World War, and of military and strategic studies in general. (Routledge)
    • British Government Policy in Northern Ireland, 1969-2000

      Cunningham, Mike (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001)
      This completely revised and updated second edition provides a comprehensive introduction to British government policy in Northern Ireland. It is a detailed study and looks at policy in four related areas - constitutional, security, economic and social - offering an overview of the questions of continuity and bipartisanship in British policy. For ease of reference, the book deals with these four policy areas chronologically by administration. The text is completely revised to cover the Major administration and the Labour administration up to 2000, including recent periods of intense legislative activity, such as the Good Friday Agreement, the reform of the Ulster Defence Regiment, and the reform of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. It will prove invaluable as an undergraduate textbook for modules on Northern Ireland, and as a reference source on government policy for students of British politics at undergraduate and postgraduate level. (Manchester University Press)
    • Cooperation and Conflict: Episodes from the North Wales Coalfield, 1925-35

      Gildart, Keith (Keele University: Centre for Industrial Relations, 2001)
    • Correction in the Countryside: Convict Labour in Rural Germany 1871-1914

      Constantine, Simon (London: Sage Publications, 2006)
      Over the course of the Empire demand for labour in the countryside and penal reform together created the conditions for a greater deployment of prisoners, workhouse inmates and young offenders in agriculture. Farming on site, and especially leasing offenders, were the most cost-efficient ways of detaining men. Agricultural work was also regarded as key to their rehabilitation. It served to equip inmates upon release for the sector of the economy most in need of workers. ‘Outside work’ away from the institution was also seen as an intermediate stage in the prisoner's sentence before release. Two developments in the charitable sector complemented this correctional strategy: the emergence of a network of workers’ farming colonies which acted as half-way houses for ex-prisoners after release, and ex-offender employment programmes run by prisoner welfare societies, channelling ex-offenders towards agricultural employment. Despite these efforts to reintegrate offenders, re-offending rates remained high. Penal authorities either attributed this to the incorrigibility of some inmates, or pushed for longer sentences. In some cases penal and medical authorities were inclined to re-interpret the criminal behaviour of repeat offenders as behaviour symptomatic of mental illness, and some inmates were transferred to asylums. In the discourse surrounding the failure of reform the argument that the exclusionary and punitive nature of the prison and workhouse régime actually worked against rehabilitation held little sway, nor the argument that high re-offending rates could be attributed to the vagrancy and begging laws which criminalized systemic poverty and homelessness. Absent here was any understanding that the life offered following release, working as ancillary workers or hands on the estates, bore too striking a resemblance to work in agriculture during detention. This in itself was one major reason why many ex-offenders directed into agricultural employment after release refused to stay and work.
    • Creating Jobs, Manufacturing Unity: Ulster Unionism and Mass Unemployment 1922-34

      Norton, Christopher (London: Routledge, 2001)
      The inter-war recession and resultant mass unemployment presented a serious problem for the new Northern Ireland government. Having weathered republican attempts to destabilise the state, the Unionist government found its credibility questioned by a core element of its own support: the Protestant working class. In its efforts to galvanise support and ensure Unionist unity the government resorted to a series of strategies to alleviate the unemployment problem. The pursuit of these strategies created tension and division within the Unionist cabinet. What became apparent was that Unionist unity could be secure not by the appeal of sectarianism but only by the appearance of competence. (Informaworld)
    • Europe's Last Red Terrorists: The Revolutionary Organization 17 November

      Kassimeris, George (London: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd. / New York: New York University Press, 2001)
      Since the 1970s, Europe's last Marxist-Leninist terrorists the Greek Revolutionary Organization 17 November have waged a violent campaign against US and NATO personnel, Turkish diplomats and members of the Greeks military and business elite. In May 2000 they assassinated a top British diplomat in Athens in a daring daylight attack. Yet no one suspected of belonging to the organization, let alone of being involved in its terror campaign, has ever been arrested. This book deals with revolutionary terrorism in Greece. Tracing the history of 17 November, Kassimeris demonstrates how it has persevered with a one-dimensional view of a world peopled by heroes and villains, that has precluded the emergence of a coherent ideology. Combining fanatical nationalism, contempt for the existing order, and the cult of violence for its own sake, 17 November has stubbornly refused to accept that its eclectic belief system is incompatible with modern democratic principles. Unlike Italy's Red Brigades or Germany's Red Army Faction, which both assailed "the capitalist state and its agents," 17 November hopes to create an insurrectionary mood that will propel the Greeks into revolutionary political action without disrupting society as a whole. As such, 17 November's terror campaign has been an audacious protest aimed at discrediting and humiliating the Greek establishment and the US government, but one that has never sought to develop widespread revolutionary guerrilla warfare.
    • Food and the Food Crisis in Post-War Germany, 1945-1948: British Policy and the Role of British NGOs

      Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006)
      This volume examines conflicts over food and their implications for European societies in the first half of the Twentieth century. Ranging across Europe, from Scandinavia and Britain to Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union, this volume explores the political, economic and cultural dynamics that shaped conflicts over food and their legacies. (Palgrave Macmillan)
    • German Migrants in Post-war Britain

      Weber-Newth, Inge; Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2006)
      Weber-Newth and Steinert consider German migration to Britain after World War II, using written sources and interviews.