• Building resilience to climate risks through social protection: from individualised models to systemic transformation.

      Ulrichs, Martina; Slater, Rachel; Costella, Cecilia; Program Officer, Pathy Family Foundation, Canada. (Wiley, 2019-04-04)
      This article analyses the role of social protection programmes in contributing to people's resilience to climate risks. Drawing from desk-based and empirical studies in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, it finds that social transfers make a strong contribution to the capacity of individuals and households to absorb the negative impacts of climate-related shocks and stresses. They do so through the provision of reliable, national social safety net systems-even when these are not specifically designed to address climate risks. Social protection can also increase the anticipatory capacity of national disaster response systems through scalability mechanisms, or pre-emptively through linkages to early action and early warning mechanisms. Critical knowledge gaps remain in terms of programmes' contributions to the adaptive capacity required for long-term resilience. The findings offer insights beyond social protection on the importance of robust, national administrative systems as a key foundation to support people's resilience to climate risks.
    • Corporate governance and IPO underpricing in a cross-national sample: A multilevel knowledge-based view

      Judge, William Q.; Witt, Michael A.; Zattoni, Alessandro; Talaulicar, Till; Chen, Jean Jinghan; Lewellyn, Krista; Hu, Helen Wei; Shukla, Dhirendra; Bell Robert, R. Greg; Gabrielsson, Jonas; et al. (Wiley, 2014-05-27)
      Prior studies of IPO underpricing, mostly using agency theory and single-country samples, have generally fallen short. In this study, we employ the knowledge-based view (KBV) to explore underpricing across 17 countries. We find that agency indicators are insignificant predictors, board of director knowledge limits underpricing, and external knowledge both substitutes for and complements internal board knowledge. This third finding suggests that future KBV studies should consider how internal and external knowledge states interact with each other. Our study offers new insights into the antecedents of underpricing and extends our understanding of comparative governance and the KBV of the firm.
    • Creating shared value in an industrial conurbation: evidence from the North Staffordshire ceramics cluster

      Jackson, Ian; Limbrick, Lorraine (Wiley, 2019-03-15)
      The claims by Porter and Kramer that the concept of Creating Shared Value is an effective way of reinventing modern capitalism by releasing an upsurge in innovation is misleading because it maintains self-interest principally of large corporations at the centre of the economic system. The long-term development of the North Staffordshire Ceramics cluster suggests that firms such as Wedgwood were developing a primitive form of CSV over 250 years ago at the start of capitalism as opposed to a recent way of reinventing modern capitalism. The evidence of competitive forces remains strong and the resilience of firms in the cluster is much more in line with Schumpeterian “perennial gale of creative destruction” than a “wave of innovation and growth” offered by Porter and Kramer.
    • CSR and leadership approaches and practices: a comparative inquiry of owners and professional executives

      Yamak, Sibel; Ergur, Ali; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Tatli, Ahu (Wiley, 2018-08-20)
      This study generates comparative insights into CSR approaches of owners and non-kin professional executives in an emerging country context, Turkey. Drawing on 61 interviews, we found that ownership status of the executive is crucial in shaping their CSR perceptions and practices. Owner-executives are empowered in pursuing CSR approaches based on their personal preferences and values; they have mostly societal aims. Professionals display tendency for company-related CSR practice; they exhibit greater knowledge of CSR, and their CSR initiatives are the results of strategic choices to enhance their power within the corporation. Our paper contributes to the debate on the drivers for CSR by accounting for both societal and individual influences on the CSR agency of these two key groups of executives. First, we develop a typology of CSR approaches of owners and professionals. Second, we provide insights from an emerging country context. Third, we present empirically grounded practice implications for CSR.
    • Gender, microcredit, and poverty alleviation in a developing country: the case of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan

      Hussain, Javed; Mahmood, Samia; Scott, Jonathan (Wiley, 2018-11-06)
      The paper explores the impact of financial exclusion on financial and human poverty amongst women in Pakistan. The findings suggest that persistent financial exclusion, gender discrimination, and conservative religious values adversely impact women’s empowerment. There is an inverse correlation between the size of microcredit and women’s financial poverty, which is not the case for human poverty. Larger families experienced higher rates of poverty reduction than smaller families. The study offers evidence, and supports theories on the impact of microcredit upon poverty alleviation. These findings inform policy makers, women entrepreneurs, and microfinance institutions.
    • Greek Everyman: Andreas Papandreou at 100

      Kassimeris, G (Wiley, 2019-04-26)
      © The Author 2019. The Political Quarterly © The Political Quarterly Publishing Co. Ltd. 2019 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2019 marks 100 years since the birth of Andreas Papandreou, Greece's first socialist prime minister and an extraordinary figure of twentieth century European politics. Looking back, the central purpose of this article is to answer pivotal questions about Papandreou and his career. What have been the major turning points in his life? What were his main beliefs? What motivated him and his politics? What were his political priorities and methods? What did he want to achieve as prime minister? Why did he become so involved in foreign policy issues? What were his assets as prime minister? Did they outweigh his shortcomings as a politician and leader? Did power change him and how? What will be Papandreou's place in history?.
    • In support of universalistic models of managerial and leadership effectiveness: Implications for HRD research and practice

      Hamlin, Robert G. (Wiley, 2004)
      Various researchers have recently challenged contingent models of managerial and leadership effectiveness, arguing that logic suggesting the universality of manager and supervisory leader behaviors is compelling, although there is sparse empirical evidence to support this view. A comparative study of the findings from three previous empirical factor analytic studies into the criteria of managerial effectiveness, carried out in three different types of public sector organizations in the United Kingdom, support the view that universalistic as opposed to contingent models are more consistent with the facts. A generic model of managerial and leadership effectiveness is presented, and the implications for HRD research and practice are discussed.
    • Internationalism, peace and reconciliation: Anglo-German connections in the Youth Hostels movement, 1930-1950

      Cunningham, Michael; Constantine, Simon (Wiley, 2020-02-11)
      This article examines the close relationship that existed between the English and Welsh Youth Hostel Association (YHA) and the Deutsche Jugendherbergswerk (DJH), the German pioneer movement, between 1930 and 1950. It emphasises the importance of shared cultural values and the influence that the German DJH had on the YHA from its beginnings. It argues that the internationalism and pacifism of the fledgling national association, its debt of gratitude to the parent organisation, and close relationship between leading figures, all pushed it towards a position of accommodation with Germany, even when the German movement was subsumed within the racist, nationalist and militarist Nazi movement in 1933. The YHA thus reinforced the spirit and policy of Appeasement between the wars. In the aftermath of war, the same commitment to peaceful cooperation between nations, and the same personal ties, saw the hostel movement re-emerge as a vehicle for reconciliation.
    • Livelihoods, conflict and aid programming: Is the evidence base good enough?

      Mallett, Richard; Slater, Rachel (Wiley, 2015-08-17)
      In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions—from job creation to microfinance—this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations. Many evaluations appear to conflate outputs with impacts and numerous studies fail to include adequate information on their methodologies and datasets, making it difficult to appraise the reliability of their conclusions. Given the primary purpose of this literature—to provide policy guidance on effective ways to promote livelihoods— this silence is particularly concerning. As such, there is a strong case to be made for a restrained and nuanced handling of such interventions in conflict-affected settings.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within the Canadian public sector

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Whitford, Sandi (Wiley, 2020-07-28)
      This study responds primarily to numerous calls for specific public management and public administration‐related research to better understand public leadership currently performed in an increasingly complex and ambiguous world. It also responds to calls in the human resource development (HRD) literature for more qualitative managerial behavior research. The inquiry explores perceptions of what behaviorally distinguishes effective managers from ineffective managers, as expressed by managers and nonmanagerial employees within a Canadian public utility company. It reaches for generalization by comparing the results against findings from equivalent qualitative managerial behavior studies carried out in three subareas of the British public sector. Using the critical incident technique (CIT), concrete examples (critical incidents [CIs]) of observed managerial behavior were collected from managers and nonmanagerial staff. The CIs (n = 530) were subjected to open and axial coding to identify a smaller number of discrete behavioral categories (BSs). Selective coding of the identified BSs (n = 99) resulted in 16 positive (effective) and 12 negative (ineffective) behavioral criteria (BCs) being deduced. Over 92% of the Canadian BSs are convergent in meaning with over 81% of the compared British BSs. Consequently, they are likely to be generalizable to other subareas of the Canadian public sector. The 8% of nonconvergent Canadian BSs and their respective underpinning CIs contain no content that could be construed as being context‐specific to the Canadian public utility sector. Implications of these study findings for HRD research and practice are discussed.
    • Prosuming tourist information: asking questions on TripAdvisor

      Oriade, Ade; Robinson, Peter (Wiley, 2018-10-21)
      This paper aims to improve our knowledge regarding types of queries raised by travellers on digital platforms by developing a model that helps in identifying and classifying such queries. Qualitative data collection and analysis of questions and answer postings of visitors on TripAdvisor forum of 10 U.K. destinations were used. Extracted data were analysed using NVivo11. Preliminary analysis identified basic themes in tourist information search. Further analysis indicated that two principal factors help in classifying online travel queries facilitating the development of the WOLF model. Findings in this study also indicate some practical implications and areas of further study.
    • Race discrimination at work: the moderating role of trade unionism in English Local government

      Seifert, Roger; Wang, Wen (Wiley, 2018-06-21)
      Workplace racism remains a serious issue despite over forty years of legislation alongside a raft of HRM policies. There remains limited research on the differences in employment experiences of British Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) staff and their white colleagues. There is a power imbalance at work as between individual employees and management, and this lack of equity has been traditionally counterbalanced by strong workplace trade unionism. In particular, we know little about the role of trade unionism on the perception of workplace equality among BAME employees. Using more than 2,580 valid responses from full‐time employees in highly unionised local councils, this study shows that BAME employees have a significantly lower evaluation than their white colleague of fair pay and equal work environment. The latter fully mediates the negative perception between BAME staff and fair pay; and furthermore, the perception of union commitment to equality strengthened their views of a management‐supported equal work environment.
    • Rates of human–macaque interactions affect grooming behavior among urban‐dwelling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

      Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Marty, Pascal R; Beisner, Brianne; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N.; Bliss‐Moreau, Eliza; Kaur, Kawaljit; Mohan, Lalit; McCowan, Brenda (Wiley, 2018-10-03)
      OBJECTIVES: The impact of anthropogenic environmental changes may impose strong pressures on the behavioral flexibility of free-ranging animals. Here, we examine whether rates of interactions with humans had both a direct and indirect influence on the duration and distribution of social grooming in commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected in two locations in the city of Shimla in northern India: an urban setting and a temple area. We divided these two locations in a series of similar-sized physical blocks (N = 48) with varying rates of human-macaque interactions. We conducted focal observations on three free-ranging rhesus macaque groups, one in the urban area and two in the temple area. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that macaques engaged in shorter grooming bouts and were more vigilant while grooming in focal sessions during which they interacted with people more frequently, suggesting that humans directly affected grooming effort and vigilance behavior. Furthermore, we found that in blocks characterized by higher rates of human-macaque interactions grooming bouts were shorter, more frequently interrupted by vigilance behavior, and were less frequently reciprocated. DISCUSSION: Our work shows that the rates of human-macaque interaction had both a direct and indirect impact on grooming behavior and that macaques flexibly modified their grooming interactions in relation to the rates of human-macaque interaction to which they were exposed. Because grooming has important social and hygienic functions in nonhuman primates, our work suggests that human presence can have important implications for animal health, social relationships and, ultimately, fitness. Our results point to the need of areas away from people even for highly adaptable species where they can engage in social interactions without human disruption.
    • Retail markets in northern and midland England, 1870-1914: civic icon, municipal white elephant, or consumer paradise?

      Mitchell, Ian; University of Wolverhampton (Wiley, 2017-12-27)
      Retail markets were a notable feature of urban England in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth, particularly in the midlands and north. Market halls were the most visible manifestation of this, and were important public buildings. This article looks beyond the imposing architecture to take a more critical view of their function and justification. It argues that while most were well-managed and earned income in excess of current expenditure, very substantial investment in large and elaborate buildings was hard to justify in purely financial terms. The return on capital was often negligible. Food and drink traders were the largest group in almost all markets, but there were significant numbers of traders selling clothing, textiles, and household goods. There was some justification to complaints that local authorities were providing publicly financed miscellaneous shops in competition with rent- and rate-paying shopkeepers. Most retailers supplying basic necessities operated from shops rather than markets. Saturday night markets were important in working-class culture and as a source of cheap food, but most day-to-day necessities were purchased from local shops or street traders.
    • Romancing the past: Heritage visiting and the nostalgic consumer

      Goulding, Christina (Wiley, 2001)
      Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in nostalgia and consumption experiences on the part of a small group of consumer researchers. This article offers an insight into the nostalgic experiences gained through consuming history at a contemporary British living museum. The findings of the research focus on two types of nostalgic behavior, which are identified as existential and aesthetic. Differences in the nostalgic reaction are conceptualized in relation to such factors as the quantity and quality of the individual's role repertoire, the experience of alienation in the present, and the extent and quality of social contact. The article aims to offer a perspective that draws upon both existing work in related fields and the findings of the research in order to contextualize nostalgia as an experiential factor behind the consumption of recreated history in the living interactive museum. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    • A snapshot of company voluntary arrangements: success, failure and proposals for reform

      Walton, Peter; Umfreville, Christopher; Jacobs, Lezelle (Wiley, 2020-06-24)
      The Company Voluntary Arrangement (“CVA”), introduced by the Insolvency Act 1986, was born out of the Cork Committee, which in 1982 identified the need for a simple procedure where the will of the majority of creditors in agreeing to a debt arrangement could be made binding on an unwilling minority.1 Despite the availability of this flexible restructuring tool for over three decades, the frequency of CVAs is reasonably low when compared with alternative corporate Insolvency Act 1986 procedures and it has been commented that CVAs have a high failure rate.2 The CVA has risen to prominence recently with a number of highprofile cases drawing media attention and, at times, creditor criticism.3 It is in this context that the authors were commissioned by R3, the Association of Business Recovery Professionals, and the ICAEW, to consider the reasons for the ‘success’ or ‘failure’ of CVAs and investigate the outcomes where CVAs fail. The aim of the project was to identify key characteristics which will allow practical guidance to be provided to insolvency practitioners (“IPs”) and also inform policy recommendations to Government. This led to the publication in May 2018 of Company Voluntary Arrangements: Evaluating Success and Failure (“the Report”).4 This paper represents a summary of the key findings of the Report.
    • Social protection and graduation through sustainable employment

      McCord, Anna; Slater, Rachel (Wiley, 2015-04-07)
      This article explores the role of social protection in contributing to sustainable employment in the context of the broader graduation debate. Many efforts to achieve graduation focus on the household or community level: helping households reach a certain asset and productivity level at which they are able to survive, and perhaps prosper, without support from cash transfer programmes; building assets at community level to provide public goods that increase economic productivity; and making communities more resilient to specific shocks and stress (for example, by supporting community soil and water conservation). However, it remains critical to focus on broader questions of employment and labour markets to understand how social protection programme design might impact on recipient households' wider job prospects, and to recognise that the feasibility and scale of graduation depend on wider factors such as labour demand and labour market structures, as well as on improving individual capacity and productivity.
    • The effects of directors' exploratory, transformative and exploitative learning on boards' strategic involvement: An absorptive capacity perspective

      Schønning, Aud; Walther, Axel; Machold, Silke; Huse, Morten (Wiley, 2018-05-22)
      While directors’ knowledge represents a crucial resource for strategizing on boards, little is known how knowledge of individual directors becomes deployed behind the doors of the boardroom. Drawing on the concept of absorptive capacity, we develop a model that explores how directors’ explorative, transformative and exploitative learning affects boards’ strategic involvement. Using large-scale survey data, our findings indicate that learning helps to ex-plain how directors’ knowledge leads to higher levels of strategic involvement. Moreover, we find that learning processes mutually reinforce each other and have complementary effects on boards’ strategic involvement. Our study contributes to the board and absorptive capacity lit-eratures by demonstrating that learning processes are interconnected with each other and rep-resent an intermediate way to put directors’ knowledge into effective use.