• Blasphemy, religious rights and harassment: A workplace study

      Hambler, Andrew; Temperman, Jeroen; Koltay, Andras (Cambridge University Press, 2017)
    • Exposing gender bias in intellectual property law: the UK music industries

      Potocnik, Metka; Mtima, Lateef; Jamar, Steven D (Cambridge University Press, 2022-12-31)
    • ‘Get a blue and you will see your money back again’: staffing and marketing the English prep school, 1890–1912

      Benson, John (Cambridge University Press, 2014-05-07)
      This article explores the ways in which English prep schools were staffed and marketed in the years before the First World War. Its aim more specifically is to employ a biographical approach to consider the emphasis that the schools placed upon sport, and in particular the extent to which they recruited Oxford and Cambridge Blues as teachers (and/or as coaches). It will be suggested that while prep schools certainly placed enormous emphasis upon sport, few of them employed Blues; and that even the small number which did, generally did so only on a part-time, seasonal or casual basis – and made virtually no mention of them in their marketing.
    • The good character backstop: directions, defeasibility and frameworks of fairness

      Glover, Richard (Cambridge University Press, 2020-09-04)
      This paper examines the law on good character evidence in criminal trials through a discussion of the important but under-analysed case of Hunter, in which a five-judge Court of Appeal sought to clarify the law on good character directions to the jury. However, it is argued here that the judgment conflicts with the leading House of Lords decision in Aziz. The paper considers how the court misinterpreted the law and, in particular, the defeasible nature of the rule in Aziz and the impact of the Criminal Justice Act 2003. As a result, the circumstances in which a good character direction will be provided have diminished significantly. It is argued that this has important implications for the right to a fair trial, as good character directions act as a ‘backstop’ against miscarriages of justice. They also form a vital part of the ‘framework of fairness’ considered necessary, in lieu of reasoned jury verdicts, by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights in Taxquet v Belgium. Accordingly, it is contended that Aziz rather than Hunter should be followed so that, where there is evidence of good character, a direction is normally provided as a matter of law.
    • Islam and anticolonial rebellions in north and west Africa, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Cambridge University Press, 2020-10-01)
      European empires experienced widespread anticolonial rebellions during the First World War. These rebellions occurred for many different reasons, reflecting the diversity of context and history across colonial societies in Africa and Asia. Religion naturally played a strong role in most of the anticolonial rebellions during the First World War, most prominently Islam. This article looks at the role Islam played in two key anticolonial rebellions in North and West Africa: the rebellions in Batna, Algeria and the Kaocen War in Niger, respectively. The article examines how Islam was instrumentalized by rebels, imperial collaborators, and French officers and administrators to further their own ends. Rebels called upon Islam to help inspire anticolonial movements, to bind together diverse populations, and to contextualise their actions in wider socio-political conflicts. Imperial collaborators likewise called on religious authority to assist with European imperial recruitment efforts. French officers and administrators used Islam both as a justification and a target for collective punishment and repression after the rebellions were put down from 1917. This repression is still under-studied in a period usually portrayed as evidencing broad imperial harmony, rather than violent extraction and oppression.
    • Mediator immunity: time for evaluation in England and Wales?

      Brooker, Penny; University of Wolverhampton (Cambridge University Press, 2016-06-19)
      In England and Wales, the issue of mediator immunity has not been considered by the courts or via legislation. Mediator immunity is constructed by analogy to that given to judges, but the role of the judiciary is different to that of mediators, who do not determine cases and, it is argued, do not require protection from litigation because the parties are responsible for the final settlement outcome. In Australia and the USA, mediators are usually provided with immunity in mandatory, ‘court-annexed’ programmes, although this varies from an absolute to a qualified level that is constrained by bad faith or dishonesty. In the English jurisdiction, mediation is court-connected and parties are dissuaded from accessing the courts through the risk of costs penalties or automatic referral schemes. Therefore, the time is opportune for a review of many issues involved in mediation development, including immunity. This paper considers the reasoning for extending immunity to mediators, before concluding that the subject should not be determined through legal action until after a comprehensive review of mediation developments and after a consideration of mediator standards and regulation of practice.
    • Supporting tenants with multiple and complex needs in houses in multiple occupation: The need to balance planning restrictions and housing enforcement with support

      Iafrati, Stephen (Cambridge University Press, 2020-06-23)
      The number of houses in multiple occupation (HMOs) in the UK has increased significantly in recent years, with recognition that this sector often houses some of the UK’s most vulnerable tenants. Government responses to the growth in HMOs has focused increasingly on landlord enforcement and planning controls, with more limited attention on the needs of vulnerable residents. Drawing on new research with HMO tenants with multiple and complex needs (MCN), attendance at HMO working groups and consultations with stakeholders, this paper argues that whilst there is a need to address some of the issues associated with HMOs through landlord enforcement and regulation, it is important to balance this approach with appropriate support for tenants with MCN. For many people, living in an HMO can exacerbate personal challenges they may be facing. However, researching experiences of living in HMOs from a tenant perspective shows that positive outcomes are possible when tenants with MCN are supported to address their needs. At a time when the number of HMOs is continuing to increase, it is important to explore the significant role of support provided to tenants with MCN.
    • The Impact of the NGO Sector and Roma/Gypsy Organisations on Bulgarian Social Policy making 1989-1997

      Pinnock, Katherine (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
      This paper, drawing on fieldwork carried out in Bulgaria in 1997, examines the impact of Roma/Gypsies and the NGO sector on Bulgarian social policy-making between 1989 and 1997. NGOs emerged during this period as important actors in the field of social policy. They were seen as agents of civil society and as having scope to fill in gaps left by inadequate state welfare. However, a number of problems have also been identified, in terms of limited scope for participation and for long-term development. The paper explores both outside and inside forces that shaped NGO development and in turn social policy-making in Bulgaria in the period 1989–97. The case study of a Roma/Gypsy led NGO reveals this interplay of forces and shows how international, national and local social policy frameworks are both fundamental to and shaped by such NGO activities.
    • The Isle of Wight Suicide Study: a case study of suicide in a limited geographic area

      Shahpesandy, H; Oakes, Michael; Heeswijck, Ad van (Cambridge University Press, 2014-06-30)
      Suicide is a major public health problem, with mental disorders being one of its major risk factors. The high incidence of suicide on the Isle of Wight has motivated this study, the first of its kind on suicide in this small geographic area. The aim of the study was to identify socio-demographic and clinical risk factors for suicide in the population of service users and non-service users, and gender-related characteristics of suicidal behaviour in a limited geographic region. Data were collected on 68 cases of suicide (ICD-10×60-X84) from residents of the Isle of Wight District between January 2006 and December 2009. All data were statistically analysed using Pearson’s χ2 test and Yates’ correction for continuity. The mean annual suicide rates over the period were 5.65 per 100 000 for women and 19.28 for men. Significantly (p=0.0006), more men than women (male/female ratio 3:1) died as a result of suicide. Relatively (p=0.07) more women (56.2%) than men (32.7%), and significantly more (p=0.05) service users (45.3%) than non-service users (13.3%) were unemployed. Significantly, more (p=0.0006) service users (64%) than non-service users (20%) had a history of suicide attempts and relatively (p=0.06) more (50.9%) service users than non-service users (20%) had attended the accident and emergency department before their death; 69% had an adverse life event within a year before their suicide. Depression as the most common Axis-I illness was diagnosed in 36% of all; but significantly (p=0.008) more in women (66.6%) than men (17.3%). Relatively (p=0.07) more women (56.2%) than men (32.7%) have contacted services before their death. Suicide by hanging was the most common cause, accounting for the death of 71% of men and 50% of women. The study found that 80% of all suicides occurred in people suffering from mental disorder. Men are at a significant risk of suicide. Depressive disorders in women and stress-related disorders in men were the most common mental disorders. Treating mental disorders and co-morbid conditions seems to be one of the key elements in suicide prevention strategies.
    • This Thing Called GOODWILL: The Reynolds Metals Company and political networking in wartime America

      Perchard, Andrew (Cambridge University Press, 2019-08-27)
      This article examines the Reynolds Metals Company’s political networking activities in Washington D.C. and the state capitols of the US South in the 1940s and 1950s. It argues that Reynolds’ astute recruitment of senior staff from federal and state government, adept building of elite networks in the legislative and executive branches, and judicious espousing of key political rhetoric (antitrust, regional development, national security) and nurturing of Democratic circles in the South, was crucial to their rise from a new entrant to US primary aluminum production during World War II to the second largest national producer by 1946 and a major global player by the mid-1950s. This same political networking was critical to maintaining that advantage after WWII in the face of competition from the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) and Canadian multinational the Aluminium Company of Canada (Alcan). “Wartime” – covering WWII and into the Cold War – and the legacy of state intervention in the US from the early twentieth century until the 1960s, including the New Deal, provided a fertile context for this strategy. RMC’s success owed much to founder Richard S. Reynolds Snr’s acumen, networks and social capital, and his experiences and connections accrued from working from his uncle, and noted tobacco magnate, R. J. Reynolds. The article offers insights into the nature of US business-government relations.