• The Nadir of the Regular Army: 28th Division and the Battle for the Hohenzollern Redoubt, September-October 1915

      Jones, Spencer (Society for Army Historical Research, 2020-03-15)
      The year 1915 was a difficult one for the British Army. The Official Historian, Sir James Edmonds, lamented that the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) of 1915 consisted of ‘partly trained’ officers and men who suffered ‘awful slaughter and pitiably small results’ on the Western Front. This was demonstrated at the Battle of Loos, when the novice 21st and 24th Divisions were prematurely committed to action with disastrous consequences. Edmonds acknowledged the courage of these formations but was critical of their lack of field craft and felt that the exertions demanded of them were ‘small as compared with the original five divisions of professional soldiers of the B.E.F.’
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; McDaniel, John LM; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken G (Routledge, 2020-01-10)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and wellbeing of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
    • “Something is happening and you don’t know what it is”: The music and entertainment press

      Glen, Patrick; Conboy, Martin; Finkelstein, David (University of Edinburgh, 2020-01-01)
      Coleman joined the Melody Maker at their Fleet Street office in 1960, and at first found it hard to adjust to a different style of showbiz journalism. He couldn't see what was ‘newsworthy’ about a string of Cliff Richard tour dates and preferred to stir up a row with the BBC or research a heavily angled investigation into the music business. Feeling frustrated, he planned to defect to the Daily Telegraph. Then he encountered a classic put-down from a Telegraph executive at his job interview. Asked where he worked, he replied: ‘The Melody Maker.’ And before that? ‘The Manchester Evening News.’ After a long pause, the executive inquired icily: ‘Tell me, Mr Coleman, why did you leave journalism?’ The anecdote, taken from Roy Coleman’s obituary (Independent 13 September 1996) reveals a common preconception about the entertainment press: it was a journalistic backwater, a place for fanatics and second-rate journalists, where publishers made easy money. The view misses the significance of a medium where the entertainment industry and the public came together to discuss the creative practices, performances and commercial products of artistes. These journalistic and publishing practices were not performed in isolation: the entertainment press, often implicitly but also knowingly, constructed and represented broader understandings of society, politics and culture.
    • A snapshot of company voluntary arrangements: success, failure and proposals for reform

      Walton, Peter; Umfreville, Christopher; Jacobs, Lezelle (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      The Company Voluntary Arrangement (“CVA”), introduced by the Insolvency Act 1986, was born out of the Cork Committee, which in 1982 identified the need for a simple procedure where the will of the majority of creditors in agreeing to a debt arrangement could be made binding on an unwilling minority.1 Despite the availability of this flexible restructuring tool for over three decades, the frequency of CVAs is reasonably low when compared with alternative corporate Insolvency Act 1986 procedures and it has been commented that CVAs have a high failure rate.2 The CVA has risen to prominence recently with a number of highprofile cases drawing media attention and, at times, creditor criticism.3 It is in this context that the authors were commissioned by R3, the Association of Business Recovery Professionals, and the ICAEW, to consider the reasons for the ‘success’ or ‘failure’ of CVAs and investigate the outcomes where CVAs fail. The aim of the project was to identify key characteristics which will allow practical guidance to be provided to insolvency practitioners (“IPs”) and also inform policy recommendations to Government. This led to the publication in May 2018 of Company Voluntary Arrangements: Evaluating Success and Failure (“the Report”).4 This paper represents a summary of the key findings of the Report.
    • Dust, diesel, and disability in the British coal industry: a view from the coal face, 1985-1992

      Gildart, Keith (Social Sciences Academic Press China, 2019-12-31)
      In September 1992, I worked my last shift as an underground coal miner at Point of Ayr Colliery in the small North Wales coalfield. Yet I never really left the industry. As a researcher and academic my work has been underpinned by my own background as a coal miner and continued engagement with the collective memory of coal. The article reflects on this process using memory, autobiography, archival research and ethnography. Drawing on personal experiences of working in the coal industry between the years 1985-1992, it examines the shifting attitudes to health, safety and disability in one colliery, and how such responses were mediated by masculinity, humour, and the shifting industrial relations culture of the British coal industry. In 1989, the Labour Research Department published a pamphlet, The Hazards of Coal Mining, which became a crucial source for trade union officials in stressing the continued problems of miners’ health and safety. Yet the reception of the publication proved problematic in the context of colliery closures, new forms of coal extraction and payment, and an emphasis on increased production. This examination of miners’ attitudes to health and injury was complemented by ethnographic work in one Welsh mining community. The legacy of coal in this locality is still apparent with miners conveying both the physical and mental scars of exposure to dust, diesel and noise, yet working to create their own histories and representations of a mining past.
    • Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility in Hospitality and Tourism

      Rahimi, Roya; Taheri, Babak (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in hospitality and tourism is laden with contradictions. From the simple “carbon offsetting” of budget flights to the warning from the Maldivian Government that their country will disappear due to rising water levels whilst also building, in one year, at least seven additional airports to service their resort islands. The academic literature does not always help; the continually inconclusive or contradictory findings of financial impact studies, often meaningless CSR reporting, and consumer cynicism over perceived “green-washing” activities (Farrington et al., 2017) further contribute to the lack of clarity in this area. There is a need for a substantive move towards sustainable, ethical, responsible, environmentally or socially friendly strategies, but also towards concern for the well-being of future generations in the coming decades (Farrington et al., 2017; Jones et al., 2016; Wells et al., 2016a). Despite continued interest, this is a challenge for many countries, particularly with regards to meeting the ever-shifting opinions and customer expectations surrounding environmental issues pertaining to modern hospitality and tourism. Research should fundamentally debate the relevance and application of sustainability to the sector and its relationship with external stakeholders, and move away from narrow focuses. More specifically, ‘one size does not fit all’ with regards to sustainability and CSR, hence societies and organisations with different cultures and beliefs may be motivated to be involved in sustainability and CSR developments for different reasons, and may also face diverse barriers to implementation (Nyahunzvi, 2013; Thompson et al., 2018; Wells et al., 2015; Wells et al., 2016b; Xu, 2014; Yadav et al., 2016). Hence, the goal of this special issue was to encourage new theoretical and empirical development on sustainability and CSR studies in the hospitality and tourism field.
    • Banks' vulnerabilities to money laundering activities

      Yeoh, Peter (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose This paper provides insights as to why money laundering persists in banks, and their weaknesses as gatekeepers. Design/methodology/approach This paper contextualizes the design and proliferation of AML measures; investigates the different manners of conceptualizing them; and provides insights pertaining to probable limitations of these measures. The paper relies on primary data from statutes and secondary data from published sources. Findings The paper’s findings suggest that competitive pressures, shareholders returns imperative, and lucrative misaligned incentives for management contributed to weaknesses in effective compliance in banks. Practical implications Insights drawn from this paper reinforces the notion that banks need to seriously review their business approaches, as well as their roles as gatekeepers. Social implications Given the slew of corporate scandals and other materially harmful misjudgments in moneylaundering compliance, banks might need to seriously review their role and obligations in the economy. Originality/value Much has been said about money-laundering activities enabled by the banking sector. This paper contributed to insights as to why they persist despite AML rules, and what measures could be further taken to enhance compliance effectiveness. Keywords Anti-money laundering, bitcoin, European banks, financial disruptions, jurisdictional risk, virtual currencies, whistleblowing
    • Does institutional logic matter in microfinance delivery? An empirical study of microfinance clients

      Atiase, Victor; Mahmood, Samia; Wang, Yong (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose – From an institutional theory perspective, this study investigates the combined impact of financial capital (microcredit) and human capital development (entrepreneurship training) delivered by Financial Non-Governmental Organisations (FNGOs) on the performance of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach– Adopting a multiple linear regression analysis, the study used primary data collected from 506 Ghanaian MSEs. Microcredit was measured using four main constructs namely loan cost, loan amount, the flexibility of loan repayment and loan accessibility. Entrepreneurship training was measured using four main constructs namely training content, training efficiency, training frequency and training accessibility. MSE performance was also measured using three main indicators namely sales, employment and profitability growth. The study controlled for business age, industry category, manager’s educational level and gender. Findings- The results of this study show that the combined delivery of financial and human capital development by FNGOs has a significant impact on MSE performance. The social welfare logic adopted by FNGOs seems to be legitimate to the needs and growth of MSEs in Ghana. However, the cost of microcredit remains a drawback, constraining the performance of MSEs in Ghana. Research limitations/implications – This study was carried out in the Volta Region, which is one of the ten regions of Ghana. Even though the sample size suffices, the findings from this study could not be generalised to the whole of Ghana. Also, this study is a quantitative study and could benefit from a triangulated method where the qualitative inputs could offer insights into the findings in this study. Originality/value– Theoretically, this study contributes to the understanding of institutions and the type of impact they have on the growth of MSEs. Practically, the provision of a conducive environment and access to financial capital is crucial to the growth of MSEs. Also, the adoption of the social welfare logic in microfinance delivery could be one of the major steps in promoting the performance of MSEs in Ghana.
    • Eine neubewertung der "gift relationship" in der Britischen geschichte zum freiwilligensektor

      Gosling, George Campbell (Oldenbourg Verlag, 2019-12-31)
      Es gibt nicht die eine Geschichtsschreibung, die karitative Arbeit, Kampagnen, gemeinnützige Organisationen, Freiwilligenverbände, Zivilgesellschaft, den dritten Sektor und Nichtregierungsorganisationen behandelt. Stattdessen lassen sich vier zentrale Forschungszweige ausmachen, die diesen Bereich neuerer britischer Geschichte abdecken. Sie sind nicht klar voneinander zu trennen, und Historiker wechseln von einem Schwerpunkt zum anderen, aber sie gingen dabei unterschiedlichen Zielsetzungen und Fragestellungen nach. Dazu zählt erstens eine Sozialgeschichte, die sich in erster Linie mit wohltätiger Arbeit und Armutsbekämpfung befasst und diese in den größeren Kontext der Beziehungen zwischen Arm und Reich einordnet. Zweitens ist eine Geschichte der Freiwilligenarbeit zu nennen, die aus dem Wunsch der ehrenamtlich Engagierten heraus entstanden ist, ihre Arbeit historisch zu verorten und aus der eigenen kollektiven Geschichte zu lernen. Drittens gibt es eine politische Geschichte, die sich mit der Beziehung zwischen dem freiwilligen Sektor und dem Staat befasst. Dazu gehören auch Arbeiten, deren besonderes Interesse den Nichtregierungsorganisationen nach 1945 gilt, die sich also einer speziellen Kategorie freiwilliger Organisationen widmen, welche Lobbyarbeit und Interessensvertretung betreiben. Und schließlich haben wir eine Geschichte des Humanitarismus, welche die Begegnungspunkte zwischen Großbritannien und der weiteren Welt untersucht, die von imperialistischen und internationalistischen Impulsen ausgegangen sind, sei es durch Fundraising oder durch die Entsendung freiwilliger Helfer nach Übersee.
    • “Who is Mr. Karlheinz Stockhausen? Introduce Me”: Responses to Krautrock/Kosmische in 1970s Britain

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      During the 1970s, British music fans came to know several West German avant-garde rock or ‘Krautrock’ bands through the music press, radio, television, tours and record releases. This occurred as Britain’s relationship with Europe and West Germany shifted through membership of the Common Market from 1973 and as Cold War allies. This article explores how musical encounters and the broader historical and socio-political context affected British representations of Germany and Germans. It argues that in spite of a changing historical context and space for meaningful, nuanced representations, the myths and memory of the Second World War and general clichés about Germans remained highly resilient. Representations of Germans and Germany in popular music culture, authored by the post-War generation, suggest the importance of Germany as a counterpoint to understandings British national identity and characteristics, and the ways in which ideas of British cultural superiority circulated in popular culture.
    • Black Britain in the weekly music press during the late-1960s and 1970s

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Music is a means of communicating and sharing. Sounds and lyrics, even the most abstract or oblique, can document memories, impressions of the present and articulate desires for the future that listeners unpack and reinterpret imposing their own contexts, experiences and prior understandings. Recorded music provided a memory technology that allowed these ideas, sounds and cultures to be articulated, transmitted and interpreted more quickly and further than oral cultures previously allowed. A culture industry and mass media (newspapers, magazines, books television and radio) gave certain—profoundly shaped by capitalism, creating and perpetuating structures of power in society—recorded songs and musics the chance to be shared across and between countries and continents. Within the colonial and post-colonial context Britain after 1945, music made and performed by people who had arrived in Britain from colonies, created in dialogue with those who remained, and the reaction to it by their ‘hosts’, provided an impression of both new arrivals and British society. As Jon Stratton argues regarding Caribbean migration to Britain, ‘[music] offered sites for memory and identity, a refuge from the present and a source of opposition and to and commentary on the migrants’ circumstances. In the new situation cultural exchange with the dominant culture was inevitable.’
    • Rebellion and resistance in French Indochina, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Nearly every major French colony experienced some form of organized anticolonial resistance during, and as a direct result of, the First World War. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Chad, Burkina Faso, Madagascar, New Caledonia, and Indochina all experienced rebellion of some notable scope. Similar patterns of unrest also developed in the British, Russian, Italian and Ottoman empires during the First World War, suggesting a global moment for anticolonialism. These rebellions took place for many different reasons, in a wide range of historical, cultural, political and economic contexts. For all their contextual diversity, however, the anticolonial rebellions that erupted from 1914 through to the 1920s could not help but be influenced by the realities presented by the First World War. The two principal realities that influenced and helped spark anticolonial rebellions in the First World War were the reduction of colonial occupation forces across Africa and Asia and the recruitment of Afro-Asians for military and industrial service in Europe, often through coercive means. The direct influence of aspects of the First World War in sparking anticolonial rebellions across large swathes of Africa and Asia demand that we discuss these rebellions as part of both the global experience and legacy of the First World War.
    • From balletics to ballistics: French artillery, 1897-1916

      Krause, Jonathan (BJMH, 2019-12-31)
      The fighting on the Western Front during the First World War was characterized by the mass use of artillery and, thanks to scholarship from recent decades, is now understood as a crucible for learning and innovation. This article follows the trajectory of French artillery capabilities, mental and mechanical, from the late 19th century through to 1916.
    • Determinants of environmental sustainable behaviour amongst logging companies in Cameroon

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN (Academic Star Publishing Company, 2019-12-31)
      This paper presents the findings of an indepth qualitative study of the most important forest logging companies and syndicates to explore the factors which influence forest exploitation and related businesses in the Congo Basin of Africa to act or not in environmentally sustainable ways. More specifically, the study explored the motivations, the benefits and the factors which facilitate or constrain sustainable behaviour amongst forest exploitation companies in Cameroon. Data analysis was undertaken using a holistic model consisting of institutional, economic and resource based factors. Economic motivations were the most cited factors driven by increased awareness and demands from clients. Interestingly, the most cited benefit from adopting environmentally sustainable behaviour related to gains in internal organisation, transparency and productivity within the company. The regulatory institutional environment was the most cited constraint because of illegality, weak law enforcement and corruption in the country’s forest sector followed by high costs of investment and unclear financial premiums from environmentally sourced timber. The policy implications are discussed.
    • Legal challenges for the cannabis industry

      Yeoh, Peter (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose-This paper examines laws and regulations applicable to cannabis in the US and the UK, and including legal reforms and international treaty obligations. Design/methodology/approach-The paper relies on primary data from statutes, and secondary data from online and offline resources, and including relevant case studies. Findings-Federal laws in the US and existing UK cannabis legal regime generally prohibit recreational use of cannabis. Increasingly, various individual states in the US have enabled the use of cannabis health-related uses thereby challenging the status of the UN treaties on drug enforcement. As US struggles to reconcile the conflicts between federal law on cannabis and individual states within its borders, much of the rest of the world including the UK are also struggling with how best to reconcile their domestic positions with their UN treaty obligations. Social Implications-Recent disclosures of past recreational use of prohibited drugs by several candidates vying to be UK Prime Minister suggests why understanding of the laws governing the use of cannabis is useful and relevant to the general public. Originality-The paper provide a general but integrated review of national laws in the US and the UK, and international treaties governing the use of cannabis.
    • Enhancing the accountability and transparency of transnational police cooperation within the European Union

      McDaniel, John; Lavorgna, Anita; McDaniel, John LM; Stonard, Karlie; Cox, David J (Routledge, 2019-10-29)
      The EU’s development of advanced instruments and processes of police cooperation on both policy and operational fronts presents new challenges and opportunities for conventional approaches to police accountability and transparency. Although no substantive mention is made of police accountability under Title V of the Lisbon Treaty 2009, it can be expected that the EU’s common transnational measures draw upon, reconcile and enhance Member State approaches to police accountability which are rooted in long-standing constitutional, legal and administrative traditions and values. This chapter will consider whether and to what extent various Member State norms on police accountability and transparency are informing the concept, design and operation of the EU policing regime and vice versa. More particularly, it will recommend the development of a new ethos of ‘transnational police accountability’ which should guide and shape EU policy-making in this area.
    • Proposing Researcher Brand Equity Index in Hospitality and Tourism

      Rahimi, Roya; Köseoglu, Mehmet Ali; Okumus, Fevzi (Emerald Publishing, 2019-09-25)
      Purpose: This study proposes a holistic model to rank and evaluate researchers’ performance. This holistic model is developed by focusing on brand equity, which includes three components of perceived quality, brand image, and brand loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: To show how the model works, two pseudo cases are presented. Findings: This model encourages researchers to conduct more interdisciplinary research and collaborate with researchers from diverse backgrounds. Since the model includes publication attributes identified by researchers in the publication processes, it allows researchers to strengthen their brand equity score or performance. . Practical Implications: The model is applicable not only to the fields of hospitality and tourism but also to other disciplines. Originality/Value: As one of the first study in the field, this research introduces a holistic model to rank and evaluate researchers’ performance.
    • This Thing Called GOODWILL: The Reynolds Metals Company and political networking in wartime America

      Perchard, Andrew (Cambridge University Press, 2019-08-27)
      This article examines the Reynolds Metals Company’s political networking activities in Washington D.C. and the state capitols of the US South in the 1940s and 1950s. It argues that Reynolds’ astute recruitment of senior staff from federal and state government, adept building of elite networks in the legislative and executive branches, and judicious espousing of key political rhetoric (antitrust, regional development, national security) and nurturing of Democratic circles in the South, was crucial to their rise from a new entrant to US primary aluminum production during World War II to the second largest national producer by 1946 and a major global player by the mid-1950s. This same political networking was critical to maintaining that advantage after WWII in the face of competition from the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) and Canadian multinational the Aluminium Company of Canada (Alcan). “Wartime” – covering WWII and into the Cold War – and the legacy of state intervention in the US from the early twentieth century until the 1960s, including the New Deal, provided a fertile context for this strategy. RMC’s success owed much to founder Richard S. Reynolds Snr’s acumen, networks and social capital, and his experiences and connections accrued from working from his uncle, and noted tobacco magnate, R. J. Reynolds. The article offers insights into the nature of US business-government relations.
    • Complementarity, rivalry and substitution in the governance of forests: Learning from independent forest monitoring system in Cameroon

      Mbzibain, Aurelian; Ongolo, Symphorien (Elsevier BV, 2019-08-06)
      The consequence of state controlled forestry in Cameroon has been the overexploitation of forest resources often in conflict with local forest dependent communities and state conservation objectives. The failure of state controlled forestry to achieve sustainable forest management has led to the emergence of new network like arrangements amongst which is independent forest monitoring (IFM) by civil society. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize the factors which affect the effectiveness of IFM governance network in Cameroon. Our research focused on a case study of Cameroon, employing a governance network perspective. The main findings are that national civil society in Cameroon is playing a significant role in improving transparency in the forest sector and holding decision makers to account. The paper finds a shift from technical areas of forest monitoring to the monitoring of social obligations and the respect of community rights by private companies. An analysis of actors highlights a strong network of national NGOs with self-defined goals and strategies engaged in very fluid relationships with law enforcement agencies beyond traditional ministries of forests and wildlife characterised by a spectrum ranging from complementarity, substitution and rivalry. The lack of sustainable funding and weak capabilities of national NGOs to navigate these fluid relationships emerges as core constraints for network effectiveness. Accordingly, recommendations for effectiveness entail strategies for sustainable funding, capacity strengthening and network coordination to address current weaknesses but also to build trust and credibility of the governance network.
    • Are disaggregate industrial returns sensitive to economic policy uncertainty

      Rehman, MU; Asghar, N; Hussain, J (Elsevier BV, 2019-08-01)
      © 2019 Elsevier B.V. This study investigates the impact of economic policy uncertainty on disaggregate US sector based returns. Our work is motivated by the presence of non-linear relationship between US economic policy uncertainty and equity returns of sampled US sectors. The paper uses weekly data from January 1995 to December 2015 for all the return indices and economic policy uncertainty data mainly based on policy issues, provision set for the US federal tax code and disagreement among economic forecasters. Our results indicate that information technology, utilities, industrial and telecommunication sectors remain insensitive to changes in the US economic policy uncertainty. However, financial and the consumer discretionary sectors show significant long run asymmetric relationship with the EPU.