• Courting white southerners: Theodore Roosevelt’s quest for the heart of the South

      Burns, Adam (Taylor and Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Most studies of President Theodore Roosevelt address his “southern strategy” to revive the Republican Party’s fortunes in a region where it was effectively shut out by 1900. This essay revisits Roosevelt’s approach to the South between 1901 and 1912 and argues that wooing white southerners away from the Democratic Party, more than any other approach, represented Roosevelt’s overriding strategy for the revitalization of the southern GOP.
    • Education policies on access and reduction of poverty: Thecase of Ghana

      Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael; Ikejiaku, Brian-Vincent (Professors World Peace Academy, 2019-12-31)
    • Creating Shared Value in an industrial conurbation: Evidence from the North Staffordshire Ceramics Cluster

      Jackson, Ian; Limbrick, Lorraine (Wiley, 2019-03-31)
      The claims by Porter and Kramer that the concept of Creating Shared Value is an effective way of reinventing modern capitalism by releasing an upsurge in innovation is misleading because it maintains self-interest principally of large corporations at the centre of the economic system. The long-term development of the North Staffordshire Ceramics cluster suggests that firms such as Wedgwood were developing a primitive form of CSV over 250 years ago at the start of capitalism as opposed to a recent way of reinventing modern capitalism. The evidence of competitive forces remains strong and the resilience of firms in the cluster is much more in line with Schumpeterian “perennial gale of creative destruction” than a “wave of innovation and growth” offered by Porter and Kramer.
    • Innovation and the export performance of firms in transition economies: the relevance of the business environment and the stage of transition

      Recica, Fisnik; Hashi, Iraj; Jackson, Ian; Krasniqi, Besnik (Inderscience, 2019)
      This paper investigates the impact of product and process innovation on firms’ export performance in transition economies (TEs) which embarked on a systemic change from a planned to a market economy in the early 1990s. The research builds on the technology gap theory and the analysis of the self-selection of firms into the export market. Unlike other studies that have focused on the export behaviour of firms in developed economies where business environment is generally stable and favourable, the paper controls for the relevance of business environment and the stage of transition on export performance of firms. The paper uses the firm-level Business Environment and Performance Survey data undertaken by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2002, 2005 and 2008 in 29 TEs. Findings show that the impact of innovation on export performance increases with the transition reforms. Macroeconomic instability acts as a moderating factor of export performance in countries at high transition stage, as it pushes firms to export more, as a risk shifting mechanism. The main implication of the study is that the impact of some explanatory factors on export performance differs through the stages of transition.
    • Run with the fox and hunt with the hounds': Managerial Trade Unionism and the British Association of Colliery Managers 1947-1994

      Gildart, Keith; Perchard, Andrew (Liverpool University Press, 2018-12-31)
      This article examines the evolution of managerial trade-unionism in the British coal industry, specifically focusing on the development of the British Association of Colliery Management (BACM) from 1947 until 1994. It explores the organization’s identity from its formation as a conservative staff association to its emergence as a distinct trade union, focusing on key issues: industrial action and strike cover; affiliation to the Trades Union Congress (TUC); colliery closures; and the privatization of the coal industry. It examines BACM’s relationship with the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and the National Association of Colliery Overmen, Deputies and Shotfirers (NACODS), the National Coal Board (NCB) and subsequently the British Coal Corporation (BCC). This is explored within the wider context of the growth of managerial trade unions in post-war Britain and managerial identity in nationalized industries.
    • An examination of the role of service quality and perceived value in visitor attraction experience

      Oriade, Ade; Schofield, Peter (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of service quality and perceived value in service experience in UK attraction context. Data was collected in the Midlands Region of the UK from two visitor attractions utilising mixed-mode survey approach. A total of 507 usable questionnaires were analysed using ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between the constructs. The findings confirm the cognitive-affective-conative order between the service constructs within the context of UK visitor attractions. This study has improved the understanding of the role of value in service experience, particularly attraction context, providing evidence that value exerts relatively more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than service quality. More specifically emotional value exerts more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than other forms of value. Managers need to view the visitor experience holistically rather than concentrating on one or two service construct(s).
    • The effects of remittances on education in a post-conflict society: evidence from Bosnia-Herzegovina

      Oruc, Nermin; Jackson, Ian; Pugh, Geoffrey (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-20)
      This paper analyses the effects of remittances on the educational enrolment of children in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where a process of forced migration made the relocation decision exogenous. Accordingly, this study has no need of methods to address the endogeneity of remittances. Hence, the approach taken means that the measure of educational enrolment is regressed on a set of individual- and household-level variables. In addition, a new approach to estimation is introduced, whereby the effect of remittances is calculated for each income quintile. It is found that the relationship between remittances and educational enrolment is strong among households from the fourth quintile, which includes households just outside the risk of poverty, while for those in poorer quintiles the effect is not significant.
    • Entrepreneurship education as human capital: implications for youth self-employment and conflict mitigation in sub-Saharan Africa

      Anosike, Paschal (Sage, 2018-11-15)
      Previous research has focused on stable developed economies to predict that human capital and entrepreneurship education (EE) provision at the higher education (HE) level will positively affect entrepreneurial success. This article draws on the outcome of recent EE projects in two HE institutions in a conflict-torn northern Nigeria as a proxy to advocate the introduction of entrepreneurship as a compulsory component into the secondary school curriculum in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using semi-structured interview data, it is found that the provision of EE at secondary education level could help to facilitate human capital development and assist efforts to curb youth unemployment. Specifically, the study suggests that EE comprises both generic and specific human capital that increases an individual’s ability to identify and exploit opportunities, particularly for young people, and in doing so helps to reduce their vulnerability to poverty and involvement in armed conflict. Suggestions for future research and policy considerations are provided.
    • First year law students: the impact of assessment type on attainment

      Jones, Dawn; Ellison, Lynn (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-02)
      This article describes an action research project that was undertaken to address a poor progression rate at the end of the first year of a single honours law degree. An attainment gap due to gender, age and ethnicity was also noted. The students were predominantly assessed by examinations; therefore a change of assessment to coursework and portfolio in some areas was proposed and actioned as a potential way to increase attainment and consequently progression. Data on pass rates for two years prior to the change of assessment and two years after the change were analysed. The impact of a change of assessment from examination to coursework raised attainment levels overall, but the gender, age and ethnicity gap remained.
    • Assignments of Book Debts – outright transfers of rights or unregistered securities?

      Walton, Peter (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-11-01)
      Businesses are increasingly being financed by receivables financiers who take assignments of a company’s book debts. The receivables finance industry is estimated to be worth over €1.6 trillion across Europe with the U.K. market leading the way. In the event that the company goes bust, the assigned book debts are swept away by the financier, as legal owner, and consequently what is often the only significant asset of a company is not available to the general body of creditors. The financier will either give notice to the debtor at the time of taking the assignment (“debt factoring”) or delay such notice until sometime later (“invoice discounting”). The accepted wisdom is that such agreements are absolute assignments and not security interests and therefore do not require registration under the Companies Act 2006. This article considers the history of assignments of book debts and suggests that an equitable assignment of a debt is not an out-and-out transfer of the debt but operates by way of charge. Such an agreement is therefore a security interest which is void against other creditors without registration. Although the invoice discounter may convert the equitable assignment into a legal assignment by giving notice to the debtor, if that notice is subsequent to the commencement of a formal insolvency process, that notice will be of no effect.
    • Prosuming tourist information: asking questions on TripAdvisor

      Oriade, Ade; Robinson, Peter (Wiley, 2018-10-21)
      This paper aims to improve our knowledge regarding types of queries raised by travellers on digital platforms by developing a model that helps in identifying and classifying such queries. Qualitative data collection and analysis of questions and answer postings of visitors on TripAdvisor forum of 10 U.K. destinations were used. Extracted data were analysed using NVivo11. Preliminary analysis identified basic themes in tourist information search. Further analysis indicated that two principal factors help in classifying online travel queries facilitating the development of the WOLF model. Findings in this study also indicate some practical implications and areas of further study.
    • Cooperation for innovation and its impact on technological and non-technological innovations: empirical evidence for European SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries

      Radicic, Dragana; Douglas, David; Pugh, Geoffrey; Jackson, Ian (World Scientific, 2018-10-18)
      Drawing on a sample of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in traditional manufacturing industries from seven EU regions, this study investigates how cooperation with external organisations affects technological (product and process) innovations and non-technological (organisational and marketing) innovations as well as the commercial success of product and process innovations (i.e., innovative sales). Our empirical strategy takes into account that all four types of innovation are potentially complementary. Empirical results suggest that cooperation increases firms’ innovativeness and yields substantial commercial benefits. In particular, increasing the number of cooperation partnerships has a positive impact on all measures of innovation performance. We conclude that a portfolio approach to cooperation enhances innovation performance and that innovation support programs should be demand-led.
    • The prevalence and overlap of technology-assisted and offline adolescent dating violence

      Stonard, Karlie E. (Springer, 2018-10-17)
      Research has established the nature and prevalence of offline Adolescent Dating Violence (ADV) and the role of Technology-Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence (TAADV) has been recently but slowly acknowledged, albeit primarily in the United States. Less research however, has examined such types of violence among British adolescences and the extent of overlap between the two forms of abuse. This paper examines the nature, prevalence and overlap of TAADV and offline ADV victimisation/instigation among a sample of adolescents in England. Four-hundred-and-sixty-nine adolescents (aged 12–18) completed questionnaires regarding their experience of TAADV and ADV. Findings revealed that TAADV involvement was prevalent and was generally characterised by both victimisation and instigation, except for sexual TAADV in which females were more likely to be identified as victims only. Technology appears to have provided new opportunities for victimisation and/or instigation of TAADV exclusively that may not have been possible before the development of such communication tools; however, some adolescents reported experiencing both TAADV and ADV. Implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations are made for future policy, practice and research.
    • Having a voice: a collaborative research project exploring the challenges and assets of people experiencing homelessness

      Massie, Rachel; Machin, Richard; McCormack, Fiona; Kurth, Judith (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-10-15)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the lived experience of people who have experienced homelessness and street activity, and professional stakeholders’ views about the challenges faced by this client group. The study sought to identify measures to improve the current situation for both individuals experiencing homelessness and professionals working with them. Design/methodology/approach: Peer researchers with lived experience of multiple and complex needs conducted semi-structured interviews/surveys with 18 participants (eight individuals experiencing homelessness and street activity and ten professional stakeholders). The authors of the paper conducted a thematic analysis of the data. Findings: This paper offers insights into both the current challenges and assets for people who are or have been homeless in an urban setting. Key findings include the need for a coordinated partnership approach to address pathways to support, and the importance of developing opportunities for meaningful activity and building on local resources including giving homeless people a voice. These findings are discussed within the context of current policy (Housing First) and legislation (Homelessness Reduction Act 2017) and the impact on integrated care for people who have experienced homelessness. Research limitations/implications: The views explored in this study are specific to one city centre in the West Midlands; thus, generalisability may be limited. Originality/value This study presents a participatory research approach with peer researchers exploring the perspective of individuals experiencing homelessness and wider stakeholders. The findings of this research are considered with reference to the provisions of the HRA 2017.
    • From weregild to a way forward? English restorative justice in its historical context

      Cox, David J.; Devi-McGleish, Yasmin (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-10-11)
      This article challenges the prevalent view of restorative justice as a new ‘technique’ within the English criminal justice system. By discussing a number of historical examples of non-traditional forms of justice, which the article argues can be seen as largely restorative in nature, it suggests that the use of restorative justice in the present day has a long tradition, albeit one whose historic practices and processes remain relatively unexplored by many criminologists. It does not presume to offer easy answers to the effectiveness or otherwise of restorative justice, but rather aims to present the ideas and theories behind the concept in an historical context in such a way as to illuminate possible avenues forward in its modern applications.
    • Legal skills and the SQE: Confronting the challenge head on

      Jones, Dawn (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-09)
      The approval of the Solicitors Qualifying Examination (SQE)1 in April 2018 by the Legal Services Board2 heralds the demise of the Legal Practice Course (LPC). The new route to qualification announced by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) also removes the requirement for a qualifying law degree3 prior to entering the legal profession as a solicitor, an undergraduate degree is required but the discipline is no longer prescribed. This change in approach creates new challenges for both Universities and students in relation to the acquisition of legal skills and understanding of professional conduct4 and the extent to which these elements should be incorporated into the LLB. Whether or not the LLB provided by an institution aims to include preparation for the SQE, a vocational legal education, or whether the institution offers a liberal law degree without SQE preparation will determine the degree to which practical legal skills and professional conduct will be a requisite. A liberal law degree can be seen as ‘one which does not focus on education for a particular purpose other than education itself. It is not aimed at preparing students for a particular job or profession and is not concerned with notions such as employability.’5 For those institutions offering SQE preparation the challenge may be retaining sufficient opportunities for students to engage with socio-legal writing while also covering the essential practical elements required by the SQE. This is a challenge identified by Rigg as “the dual function of providing a liberal legal education while facilitating student and external expectations of employability”.
    • Rates of human–macaque interactions affect grooming behavior among urban‐dwelling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

      Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Marty, Pascal R; Beisner, Brianne; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N.; Bliss‐Moreau, Eliza; Kaur, Kawaljit; Mohan, Lalit; McCowan, Brenda (Wiley, 2018-10-03)
      OBJECTIVES: The impact of anthropogenic environmental changes may impose strong pressures on the behavioral flexibility of free-ranging animals. Here, we examine whether rates of interactions with humans had both a direct and indirect influence on the duration and distribution of social grooming in commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected in two locations in the city of Shimla in northern India: an urban setting and a temple area. We divided these two locations in a series of similar-sized physical blocks (N = 48) with varying rates of human-macaque interactions. We conducted focal observations on three free-ranging rhesus macaque groups, one in the urban area and two in the temple area. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that macaques engaged in shorter grooming bouts and were more vigilant while grooming in focal sessions during which they interacted with people more frequently, suggesting that humans directly affected grooming effort and vigilance behavior. Furthermore, we found that in blocks characterized by higher rates of human-macaque interactions grooming bouts were shorter, more frequently interrupted by vigilance behavior, and were less frequently reciprocated. DISCUSSION: Our work shows that the rates of human-macaque interaction had both a direct and indirect impact on grooming behavior and that macaques flexibly modified their grooming interactions in relation to the rates of human-macaque interaction to which they were exposed. Because grooming has important social and hygienic functions in nonhuman primates, our work suggests that human presence can have important implications for animal health, social relationships and, ultimately, fitness. Our results point to the need of areas away from people even for highly adaptable species where they can engage in social interactions without human disruption.
    • The “recruiting muddle”: married men, conscription and masculinity in First World War England

      Ugolini, Laura (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-01)
      Interviewed many decades after the end of the First World War, Mary Morton recalled vividly how her mother’s family had made no secret of their contempt for her father’s conduct during the conflict: he was – they thought – a ‘bounder’. Tellingly, they condemned not his continued civilian status, but the fact that he had volunteered, despite his responsibilities as husband and father. Historians have long recognized the powerful pull of military masculinities during the First World War, as well as the denigration of civilian men and masculinities: this article suggests that the wartime experiences of married men like Mary Morton’s father complicate this picture of hegemonic and subordinate masculinities. They, it was widely agreed in the early years of the conflict, had responsibilities that tied them to the home front; it was unmarried men’s duty to ‘go first’. In May 1916, however, the pressing need for military manpower led to the introduction of conscription for all men, without reference to marital status. This article explores the underlying shift in understandings of manly conduct in wartime, from a belief that married men had responsibilities that kept them from enlisting, to a new emphasis on the equality of duty among all physically fit men of military age, irrespective of domestic responsibilities.