• The battle of the giants: EU law, ECHR and the Energy Charter Treaty; the rematch to protect property rights in Europe

      Potocnik, Metka; Alvarez, Gloria (University of Aberdeen, 2019-05-09)
      This article explores the various levels of compensation for expropriated investments in the European legal framework. This article is timely, because it adds to the discussion on the changing position of UK investors after Brexit and whether their international protection is equal to their protection under EU law. In order to critically evaluate the proposition that energy investors are granted equivalent protection of their investments under the EU legal framework, as compared to the legal framework of investment treaties (BITs, FTAs, IIAs), this article evaluates the existing rules on compensation under the Energy Charter Treaty, the EU law and the European Convention on Human Rights.
    • The origins of chemical warfare in the French Army

      Krause, Jonathan (SAGE Publications, 2013-11-01)
      Following the Germans’ first use of chlorine gas during the second battle of Ypres, the Entente had to develop means of protection from future poison gas attacks as well as systems for retaliation. This article, through the analysis of heretofore unexamined archival sources, considers early French attempts at engaging in chemical warfare. Contrary to the existing historiography, the French army aggressively adapted to, and engaged in, chemical warfare. Indeed, the French army would be the first to fire asphyxiating gas shells from field guns and, by June 1915, would pioneer the use of gas as a neutralization weapon to be used in counter-battery fire, as opposed to unleashing gas via canisters to engage enemy infantry. Such innovation invites a rethinking not only of French gas efforts but also of the role and evolution of the French army as a whole on the Western Front, a topic which the Anglophone world is in great need of examining further.
    • From the playing fields of Rugby and Eton: the transnational origins of American rugby and the making of American football

      Burns, Adam (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2021-03-31)
      Some studies date the origins of US intercollegiate football – and, by extension, the modern game of American football – back to a soccer-style game played between Princeton and Rutgers universities in 1869. This article joins with others to argue that such a narrative is misleading, and goes further to clarify the significance of two “international” fixtures in 1873 and 1874, which had a formative and lasting impact on football in the United States. These games, contested between alumni from England’s Eton College and students at Yale University, and between students at Canada’s McGill University and Harvard University, combined to revolutionize the American football code. Between 1875 and 1880, previous soccer-style versions of US intercollegiate football were replaced with an imported, if somewhat modified, version of rugby football. It was the “American rugby” that arose as a result of these transnational exchanges that is the true ancestor of the gridiron game of today.
    • We bid you be of hope (again) – A case of sexual consent

      Hyett, Luci (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08-10)
      The age of consent is a polarised concept which has caused a dissonance between the law and society for the past one hundred fifty years. s9 Sexual Offences Act 2003 epitomises the discord when it creates an offence of Sexual Activity with a Child which envisages that a girl under the age of 16 (and even those under 13) can consent to penetrative sexual acts with an adult. This article contends that whilst it is meritorious of Parliament to create an offence of strict liability which renders liable, any person having sexual intercourse with a girl under 16, the symbolic value of the broad offence label does little to communicate the full extent of the guilty conduct of the perpetrator (where penetration is involved). It argues that the label in fact perpetuates attitudes toward girls under 16: that they are self-determinate, sexually autonomous miscreants sent to inveigle ordinary men with their youthful and phlegmatic erotism. It contends that girls between 13 and 16 are learning to become autonomous adults and the fragility of their vulnerability throughout this process is something which Parliament has a duty to protect. It suggests that the law should thus, deem those under the age of 16 as lacking the legal capacity to consent to sexual intercourse which would give rise to a rebuttable presumption of non-consent under the auspices of the Rape offence.
    • 'I'm not going to tell you cos you need to think about this': A conversation analysis study of managing advice resistance and supporting autonomy in undergraduate supervision

      West, Marion (Springer, 2020-12-31)
      This article firstly, critically analyses a face-to-face supervision meeting between an undergraduate and a supervisor, exploring how the supervisor handles the twin strategies of fostering autonomy while managing resistance to advice. Conversation Analysis is used as both a theory and a method, with a focus on the use of accounts to support or resist advice. The main contribution is the demonstration of how both the supervisor and student are jointly responsible for the negotiation of advice, which is recycled and calibrated in response to the student’s resistance. The supervisor defuses complaints by normalising them, and moving his student on to practical solutions, often with humour. He lists his student’s achievements as the foundation on which she can assert agency and build the actions he recommends. Supervisor-student relationships are investigated through the lens of the affective dimensions of learning, to explore how caring or empathy may serve to reduce resistance and make advice more palatable. By juxtaposing physically present supervision with digitally-mediated encounters, while acknowledging their mutual entanglement, the postdigital debate is furthered. In the context of Covid-19, and rapid decisions by universities to bring in digital platforms to capture student-teacher interactions, the analysis presented is in itself an act of resistance against the technical control systems of the academy and algorithmic capitalism.
    • Digital banking and customer satisfaction: the Nigerian perspective

      Jones, Mordi; Oriade, Ade; Wang, Yong; Atiase, Victor; Thaichon, P; Ratten, V (Routledge, 2020-10-30)
      The emergence of Internet-Based Technology (I-BT) into the Nigerian banking industry over the past decade has diversified and revolutionised the sector by offering consumers various choices of accessing banking services. Drawing on three main theories namely the Expectancy Disconfirmation (ED), the Affect and Kahn’s Engagement Theory, we examine the impact of I-BT on customer satisfaction (CS) in the Nigerian Banking Sector. Employing a quantitative research methodology, data for our empirical inquiry come from a survey of 426 bank customers in Edo State, Nigeria. Following both bank users and banks in search of effective ways to maximising customer satisfaction, we show in this study why I-BT is likely to have a positive impact on bank customer service delivery in Nigeria. First, our data evidence suggests that all the latent variables of customer-focused engagement behaviour (CFEBEH), positive and consistently helpful behaviour (PCHB), attachment to the task itself (ATI) and working smart (WS) correlate positively with CS and explain 39% of the variance in I-BT. Second, CFEBEH has a direct effect on CS at a 40% level. Finally, concerning the mediating role of I-BT resources in the bank, the results indicate that there is an indirect and positive effect on CFEBEH and CS at a 6.7% mediation level. Nevertheless, Nigerian banks are beset with various infrastructural difficulties in implementing full digital banking services. We conclude by delineating some relevant implications of our study to the theory and practice of CS and the engagement of I-BT in banking operations.
    • Améliorer la gouvernance forestière à travers la formation et les forums sur la gouvernance forestière

      Mbzibain, Aurelian; Nyirenda, Richard; Haruna, Ella; Pavey, Marc; Begum, Rufsana (L'Harmattan, 2020-04-08)
      The objective of this paper is to share lessons learned from the capacity building model of the Centre for international development and training (CIDT) during the past five years to improve forest governance. The model develops individual, organisational and institutional capacities and creates accountability platforms that facilitate intercountry learning. This model operates on three levels: international, regional and national. The first component is a training and mentoring program in the United Kingdom that targets forest governance champions who occupy intermediate positions in the government, in the private sector and in civil society around the world. This component is complemented by a series of high-level regional Forums on forest governance (FFG), organized in some countries (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia and Ghana) and by capacity-building events at national level adapted and delivered jointly with local partners. The data used in this paper are taken from an online survey of former students, participants in the regional forums and 80 interviews with different stakeholders from 15 countries. The results show significant improvements in the knowledge, skills, attitudes and confidence of course participants, demonstrating the effective application of learning and multiplier effects on land. In addition, the value of North-South and South-South trade is evidenced by the creation of networks and alliances of champions of forest governance. The results also demonstrate the innovative capacity of FFG as a space for international accountability and learning, in particular because they ensure that the momentum of the reforms on forest governance is maintained at national, regional and international level.
    • Mediation and arbitration of music disputes: an alternative forum for transnational disputes

      Potocnik, Metka; Harrison, Ann; Tony, Rigg (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020-12-31)
    • Islam and anticolonial rebellions in north and west Africa, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Cambridge University Press, 2021-05-31)
      European empires experienced widespread anticolonial rebellions during the First World War. These rebellions occurred for many different reasons, reflecting the diversity of context and history across colonial societies in Africa and Asia. Religion naturally played a strong role in most of the anticolonial rebellions during the First World War, most prominently Islam. This article looks at the role Islam played in two key anticolonial rebellions in North and West Africa: the rebellions in Batna, Algeria and the Kaocen War in Niger, respectively. The article examines how Islam was instrumentalized by rebels, imperial collaborators, and French officers and administrators to further their own ends. Rebels called upon Islam to help inspire anticolonial movements, to bind together diverse populations, and to contextualise their actions in wider socio-political conflicts. Imperial collaborators likewise called on religious authority to assist with European imperial recruitment efforts. French officers and administrators used Islam both as a justification and a target for collective punishment and repression after the rebellions were put down from 1917. This repression is still under-studied in a period usually portrayed as evidencing broad imperial harmony, rather than violent extraction and oppression.
    • Rights, responsibilities and religion in a mid-Victorian convict prison

      Cox, David J (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08-11)
      This article investigates the rights and responsibilities of both a prison governor and a prison chaplain in a Victorian Convict Prison. Major Hickey and Reverend Francis served respectively as Governor and Chaplain of HMP Dartmoor in the early 1870s and developed a mutual feeling of irreconcilable resentment following a clash of personalities and ideas regarding the management and punishment of male convicts in one of the most notorious of all Victorian English convict prisons. It details the causes and repercussions of the ensuing argument that led to Reverend Francis resigning his post and complaining directly to the Director of Convict Prisons about both his treatment and that of the convicts under his spiritual care. The paper relates this personal argument to the wider philosophical debates over late-Victorian penal policies that were becoming known to a larger audience thanks to both the publication of numerous prison enquiry reports and the published autobiographies of a number of erudite and well-educated middle-class convicts which proliferated during the period in question.
    • T E Lawrence: his service in the Royal Air Force

      Gray, Peter (Royal Air Force Historical Society, 2020-05-31)
      T. E. Lawrence, as the ‘Uncrowned Prince of Arabia’, has been described as the most ‘glamorous figure produced by the First World War'. Although such extravagant statements are open to debate, there can be little doubt that Lawrence achieved legendary status during and after the First World War. As Brian Holden Reid has pointed out, public interest was whetted rather than lessened by Lawrence’s decision in 1922 to join the Royal Air Force as an airman and not as an officer. In the event, he spent two periods of time in the RAF with an intervening spell in the Royal Tank Corps. This paper will concentrate on Lawrence’s service in the RAF. Like the formal presentation delivered to the RAF Historical Society Annual General Meeting, the paper will focus on issues for which there is evidence and leave the conjecture, which is inevitable with Lawrence, to the discussion period. The paper will examine a number of issues including why Lawrence wanted to join the RAF and why he was determined to enlist in the ranks. The paper will also look at the question as to how he got away with such a radical move (if indeed he did so) and finally reflect on what we can learn about the RAF in the inter-war years through the Lawrence lens.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within the Canadian public sector

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Whitford, Sandi (Wiley, 2020-07-28)
      This study responds primarily to numerous calls for specific public management and public administration‐related research to better understand public leadership currently performed in an increasingly complex and ambiguous world. It also responds to calls in the human resource development (HRD) literature for more qualitative managerial behavior research. The inquiry explores perceptions of what behaviorally distinguishes effective managers from ineffective managers, as expressed by managers and nonmanagerial employees within a Canadian public utility company. It reaches for generalization by comparing the results against findings from equivalent qualitative managerial behavior studies carried out in three subareas of the British public sector. Using the critical incident technique (CIT), concrete examples (critical incidents [CIs]) of observed managerial behavior were collected from managers and nonmanagerial staff. The CIs (n = 530) were subjected to open and axial coding to identify a smaller number of discrete behavioral categories (BSs). Selective coding of the identified BSs (n = 99) resulted in 16 positive (effective) and 12 negative (ineffective) behavioral criteria (BCs) being deduced. Over 92% of the Canadian BSs are convergent in meaning with over 81% of the compared British BSs. Consequently, they are likely to be generalizable to other subareas of the Canadian public sector. The 8% of nonconvergent Canadian BSs and their respective underpinning CIs contain no content that could be construed as being context‐specific to the Canadian public utility sector. Implications of these study findings for HRD research and practice are discussed.
    • Developing an intervention to implement electronic patient-reported outcomes in renal services in the UK

      van der Veer, SN; Ercia, A; Caskey, FJ; Farrington, K; Jury, F; Rees, M; Whitlock, T; Knowles, S; Centre for Health Informatics, University of Manchester, UK. (IOS Press, 2020-03-10)
      Routinely collecting and using electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) data in clinical practice can improve patients' experience and outcomes, but implementing this at scale has proved challenging. As part of the Optimising routine collection of electronic patient-reported outcomes (OPT-ePRO) study, we therefore developed an intervention that aimed to facilitate the implementation of ePROs. We are conducting OPT-ePRO in the context of secondary care for people with chronic kidney disease in the UK, with three renal units participating as our study sites. Intervention design was guided by Normalisation Process Theory, and informed by published literature and qualitative research. The intervention consisted of a national infrastructure to securely collect, transfer and display ePRO data, complemented with materials and procedures to support kidney patients and renal unit staff with embedding ePROs in usual care pathways. The next step will be to bring the OPT-ePRO intervention into practice and iteratively refine it.
    • Astride Two Worlds: Technology And The American Civil War

      Fuller, Howard J (Louisiana State University Libraries, 2017-01-01)
    • Adrian G. Marshall, Nemesis: The First Iron Warship and Her World

      Fuller, Howard (British Commission for Military History, 2017-11-01)
    • The Royal Navy, China Station: 1861–1941

      Fuller, Howard J (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-01)
    • Real exchange rate and asymmetric shocks in the West African Monetary Zone

      Adu, Raymond; Litsios, Ioannis; Baimbridge, Mark (Elsevier, 2018-12-20)
      This paper examines real effective exchange rate (REER) responses to shocks in exchange rate determinants for the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) over the period 1980–2015. The analysis is based on a country-by-country VECM, and oil price, supply and demand shocks are identified using long run restrictions in a structural VAR model. We report significant differences in the response of REER to real oil price, productivity (supply) and demand preference shocks across these economies. In addition the relative contribution of these shocks to REER movements in the short and long run appears to be different across economies. Our findings suggest that the WAMZ countries are structurally different, and asymmetric shocks with inadequate adjustment mechanisms imply that a monetary union would be costly.
    • A patulous progress: International entrepreneurship effects on Chinese born-global firm performance

      Yu, Ying; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yong; Ward, Philippa (MDPI, 2020-07-08)
      Using data from SMEs in Hubei province, the role of entrepreneurship in the sustainable performance of born global firms in China was discussed. The structural equation modeling analysis of 345 questionnaires indicates that both international knowledge and international entrepreneurial capability are significantly related to born global firms’ performance. Dynamic capabilities, which includes three sub-dimensions: adaptation capability, absorption capability and innovation capability, was found to be less important to firm performance. Therefore, it may be argued that born global firms in inland China are still limited by resources, including those generated from the international knowledge needed to adapt to internal and external pressures.