• Factors contributing to organizational change success or failure: a qualitative meta-analysis of 200 reflective case studies

      Jones, Jennifer; Firth, Janet; Hannibal, Claire; Ogunseyin, Michael Ayodele (IGI Global, 2018-12-31)
      Change, and changing, exercise the minds of most managers most of the time. In consequence, leadership development and change management tend to be top priorities for many human resource development (HRD) professionals today. Despite this, much academic and practitioner literature suggests that 70% of all change programs fail. Through analyzing 200 organizational change case studies, this chapter examines this high failure rate, investigates leadership styles and their relationship to change, and explores the key factors that either enable or hinder successful change. The key findings of this examination were that the majority of the 200 studied change initiatives were considered successful and that using Kotter’s change model, which has been long established, does not necessarily mean success; nor does the use of a democratic/participative leadership style. The most significant hindering factors and the key critical success factors are also acknowledged.
    • A study of women rough sleepers in four European countries

      Moss, Kate (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-12-31)
      This paper details the findings of a two year empirical study, funded by the Daphne III Programme of the European Commission, which investigated the issue of women’s rough sleeping in four EU countries. The objectives of the research were to increase the knowledge base relating specifically to women rough sleepers who had suffered domestic abuse and to enhance knowledge and expertise in this field, thus informing future pan European policy. The research revealed specific findings about the context and nature of women’s homelessness, including the fact that many of the current issues that prevail in relation to this social problem have common themes across Europe.
    • Social protection and graduation through sustainable employment

      McCord, Anna; Slater, Rachel (Wiley, 2015-04-07)
      This article explores the role of social protection in contributing to sustainable employment in the context of the broader graduation debate. Many efforts to achieve graduation focus on the household or community level: helping households reach a certain asset and productivity level at which they are able to survive, and perhaps prosper, without support from cash transfer programmes; building assets at community level to provide public goods that increase economic productivity; and making communities more resilient to specific shocks and stress (for example, by supporting community soil and water conservation). However, it remains critical to focus on broader questions of employment and labour markets to understand how social protection programme design might impact on recipient households' wider job prospects, and to recognise that the feasibility and scale of graduation depend on wider factors such as labour demand and labour market structures, as well as on improving individual capacity and productivity.
    • Livelihoods, conflict and aid programming: Is the evidence base good enough?

      Mallett, Richard; Slater, Rachel (Wiley, 2015-08-17)
      In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions—from job creation to microfinance—this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations. Many evaluations appear to conflate outputs with impacts and numerous studies fail to include adequate information on their methodologies and datasets, making it difficult to appraise the reliability of their conclusions. Given the primary purpose of this literature—to provide policy guidance on effective ways to promote livelihoods— this silence is particularly concerning. As such, there is a strong case to be made for a restrained and nuanced handling of such interventions in conflict-affected settings.
    • Strengthening links between social protection and disaster risk management for adaptive social protection in Nepal

      Slater, Rachel; Ghimire, Anita; Baur, Dani (World Bank, 2018-11-01)
      A key challenge in Nepal is the intersection of predictable chronic or seasonal poverty andvulnerability, with rapid-onset and acute shocks. Nepal in the last few decades has epitomized the'perfect storm' in which a number of different factors—disasters, conflict, political uncertainty, and challenges to economic growth—coincide with deleterious effects on people's well-being anddevelopment progress. While social protection (SP) is playing an increasing role in tackling chronic and seasonal poverty and wider vulnerability and exclusion, recent disasters in Nepal, particularly in 2015, highlight how making SP more flexible and adaptive could allow a more effective and efficient development and humanitarian response. The World Bank in Nepal contracted the Centre for International Development and Training at the University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom, and the Nepal Institute for Social and Environmental Research, to carry out the technical assistance (TA) project 'Review of policies, systems and programs in social protection and shock response for adaptive social protection in Nepal'. The overall objective of the work is to make recommendations on possible policy, programmatic, and institutional measures for more adaptive social protection (ASP). The analysis was delivered using a mixed-methods approach. An analysis of existing data (including the Household Risk and Vulnerability Survey [HRVS] data) was used to understand the scope and coverage of existing programs and their links to disasters and shocks. A desk review of literature explored legislation and policies, program documentation and official implementation guidelines, and evaluations and research. Interviews took place with key informants at the national, district, and local government levels as did focus group discussions (FGDs) and individual interviews, especially with recipients of SP programs, at the ward or village level in the districts of Bardiya, Humla, Saptari, and Sindhupalchok.
    • Recovering from conflict: What matters for livelihoods, economic activity and growth?

      Slater, Rachel; Mallett, Richard (Routledge, 2016-09-01)
      The socio-economic impacts of war and large-scale violence are often devastating, multiple and wide-ranging, and it is with clear justi!cation that violent con ict has come to be identi!ed over the years as a major barrier to development. Yet, despite increased interest in con ict-a ected situations – or, to use the more common (and more contested) terminology, ‘fragile states’ – our understanding of the realities of, and the processes occurring within, such places remains limited. Researchers and policymakers continue to struggle to make sense of the heterogeneity of the impact of war – for example, among di erent population groups or over time – and basic questions regarding the e ectiveness of recovery policies remain. This is of particular concern given the recent escalation in bilateral funding to states a ected by con ict.
    • The Future of Company Voluntary Arrangements – practical recommendations to the Joint Insolvency Committee

      Walton, Peter (Butterworths, 2019-12-31)
      During 2017 and 2018 the author co-produced a research report commissioned by R3 and supported by the ICAEW which looked in some depth at the workings of Company Voluntary Arrangements (CVAs).1 The purposes of the report were to analyse how CVAs operate in practice and to identify issues which might inform Government policy and matters which might be addressed in an updated Statement of Insolvency Practice 3.22 (SIP 3.2). SIP 3.2 is produced and updated by the Joint Insolvency Committee. This article concentrates on the principal findings of the report relevant to those issues which might be addressed in an updated SIP 3.2.3
    • A snapshot of company voluntary arrangements: success, failure and proposals for reform

      Walton, Peter; Umfreville, Christopher; Jacobs, Lezelle (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      The Company Voluntary Arrangement (“CVA”), introduced by the Insolvency Act 1986, was born out of the Cork Committee, which in 1982 identified the need for a simple procedure where the will of the majority of creditors in agreeing to a debt arrangement could be made binding on an unwilling minority.1 Despite the availability of this flexible restructuring tool for over three decades, the frequency of CVAs is reasonably low when compared with alternative corporate Insolvency Act 1986 procedures and it has been commented that CVAs have a high failure rate.2 The CVA has risen to prominence recently with a number of highprofile cases drawing media attention and, at times, creditor criticism.3 It is in this context that the authors were commissioned by R3, the Association of Business Recovery Professionals, and the ICAEW, to consider the reasons for the ‘success’ or ‘failure’ of CVAs and investigate the outcomes where CVAs fail. The aim of the project was to identify key characteristics which will allow practical guidance to be provided to insolvency practitioners (“IPs”) and also inform policy recommendations to Government. This led to the publication in May 2018 of Company Voluntary Arrangements: Evaluating Success and Failure (“the Report”).4 This paper represents a summary of the key findings of the Report.
    • Eine Neubewertung der „Gift Relationship“ in der britischen Geschichte zum Freiwilligensektor

      Gosling, George Campbell (Oldenbourg Verlag, 2019-12-31)
      Es gibt nicht die eine Geschichtsschreibung, die karitative Arbeit, Kampagnen, gemeinnützige Organisationen, Freiwilligenverbände, Zivilgesellschaft, den dritten Sektor und Nichtregierungsorganisationen behandelt. Stattdessen lassen sich vier zentrale Forschungszweige ausmachen, die diesen Bereich neuerer britischer Geschichte abdecken. Sie sind nicht klar voneinander zu trennen, und Historiker wechseln von einem Schwerpunkt zum anderen, aber sie gingen dabei unterschiedlichen Zielsetzungen und Fragestellungen nach. Dazu zählt erstens eine Sozialgeschichte, die sich in erster Linie mit wohltätiger Arbeit und Armutsbekämpfung befasst und diese in den größeren Kontext der Beziehungen zwischen Arm und Reich einordnet. Zweitens ist eine Geschichte der Freiwilligenarbeit zu nennen, die aus dem Wunsch der ehrenamtlich Engagierten heraus entstanden ist, ihre Arbeit historisch zu verorten und aus der eigenen kollektiven Geschichte zu lernen. Drittens gibt es eine politische Geschichte, die sich mit der Beziehung zwischen dem freiwilligen Sektor und dem Staat befasst. Dazu gehören auch Arbeiten, deren besonderes Interesse den Nichtregierungsorganisationen nach 1945 gilt, die sich also einer speziellen Kategorie freiwilliger Organisationen widmen, welche Lobbyarbeit und Interessensvertretung betreiben. Und schließlich haben wir eine Geschichte des Humanitarismus, welche die Begegnungspunkte zwischen Großbritannien und der weiteren Welt untersucht, die von imperialistischen und internationalistischen Impulsen ausgegangen sind, sei es durch Fundraising oder durch die Entsendung freiwilliger Helfer nach Übersee.
    • Diffusion of sustainability and CSR discourse in hospitality industry: dynamics of local context

      Ertuna, Bengi; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Yamak, Sibel (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose: Our focus is on the way in which sustainability and CSR discourses and practices emerge in the collaboration of MNCs with the local hotels in developing country contexts. The paper identifies the prevailing institutional orders and logics that bring about CSR and sustainability discourse in tourism industry in Turkey. It also investigates how and to what extent the CSR and sustainability practices align with the local institutional logics and necessities. Design: Empirical evidence is generated through case studies covering Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. (Hilton), its Turkish subsidiary and a local hotel chain to ensure data triangulation. Primary data was collected through interviews with the executives of the selected case hotels, which was supported by extensive secondary data. Findings: Some components of CSR and sustainability logics developed in the headquarters diffuse into local affiliate hotel, not all. Local affiliate hotels seek to acquire local legitimacy in their host environment, despite a standard format imposed by their headquarters. Local necessities and priorities translate themselves into such initiatives in a very limited way in the affiliates of the Hilton where there is mostly a top down approach. Similar approach has also been observed in the case of the local hotel which is part of a family business group. Family’s values and family business headquarter shape the CSR and sustainability strategy and the logics reflecting the local component. Originality/value: Through this study, we are able to add further value to the critical writings about the positive contribution of CSR and sustainability in the context of the MNCs and their subsidiaries, which is not substantiated due to limited empirical evidence.
    • Environmental and societal attitudes to working hours in gendered perspective: patterns, preferences and policy

      Arntsen, Alexandra; Philp, Bruce; Donegani, Chiara Paola (Taylor and Francis, 2019-01-31)
      This paper begins from the premise that environmental degradation is a profound and present threat and that work time reduction (WTR) ― with an associated reduction in consumption ― is one of a number of strategies which can be adopted to combat it. As a precursor to looking at how such policies can be supported, our research questions whether environmental attitudes are congruent with work time patterns and preferences. Our initial hypothesis was that those who care most for the environment would work less hours than those who exhibit lower levels of environmental concern, and prefer to do so. However, contra our expectations, our empirical analysis of the European Social Survey shows that those who state they care most about the environment are more likely to work longer hours, and prefer to do so. Overall, men tend to be less concerned about the environment, and work longer. Caring responsibilities, in contrast, fall disproportionately on women. We argue that this reflects traditional gender roles which are a residual from the social norm of the male breadwinner model. Given WTR as an environmental policy the task is to influence preferences and “green” human behaviour, especially among men.
    • Lower job satisfaction among workers migrating within Europe: A gender paradox

      Donegani, Chiara Paola; McKay, Stephen (Sage, 2018-09-26)
      Intra-European migrants reported lower job satisfaction levels than native workers, in three rounds of the European Social Survey. This deficit was also experienced by their descendants (the second generation), despite the latter generation achieving native levels of household income. At least some part of these lower levels of job satisfaction was associated with a clustering into lower-productivity industries. There are striking gender differences in experiences: among men the first generation is just as likely to be satisfied with their jobs as the ‘native’ population, whilst it is the second generation who are less likely to achieve job satisfaction. For women, both generations experienced a deficit in job satisfaction. This may reflect changing expectations of work among men, and integration for women, across generations, and contrasts with the convergence in earnings over time. The country of origin, within Europe, did not seem to be associated with levels of job satisfaction.
    • Education policies on access and reduction of poverty: The case of Ghana

      Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael; Ikejiaku, Brian-Vincent (Professors World Peace Academy, 2018-06-15)
    • The effects of poverty reduction strategies on artisanal fishing in Ghana: The case of Keta municipality

      Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2017-05-31)
      This paper assesses the level of poverty in Ghana after three decades of successive implementation of numerous poverty reduction strategies including Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) by various governments of Ghana. The Keta municipality in the Volta region, where artisanal fishing thrives, was chosen as a representative sample of the whole country. The authors identified eleven artisanal fishing communities in the selected area using systematic sampling. Data were collected on household consumption patterns. This process was used to determine the profile of poverty using the latest upper poverty line of Ghana and the Greer and Thorbecke (1984) poverty formula. Research findings show that the various poverty alleviation methods implemented over three decades by the Government of Ghana, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) significantly failed as they have not produced any meaningful effect on poverty reduction in the sample area. Finally, this paper offers further suggestions regarding how this poverty gap may be bridged using alternative methods.
    • The importance of collaboration and competition within and outside the OECD

      Jackson, Ian; McManus, John (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2016-08-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to address the role of the OECD in the global marketplace. The paper highlights some current trends in the global market and the changing role of the OECD. In this context, the authors discuss various perspectives on the role of OECD in a globalized world. The authors focus on recent debates on the state of the global economy and the changing position of the OECD in the world market. The authors apply a conceptual approach combined with analyses of data and secondary material. The authors also put forward an argument for investigating what determines competition within and outside the OECD. In this context, creating markets within a global economy requires considerable stimulus on the part of national governments. This necessitates national governments working together in partnership with national and global firms to reduced bureaucracy and increase transparency to boost trade in a cost effective manner. This is seen by some economists to be a prerequisite to future competitiveness. Finally, the authors seek to demonstrate how leading countries within the OECD are building innovative capability to master the challenges and opportunities that the new emerging economies present (such as Brazil).
    • Innovation and the export performance of firms in transition economies: the relevance of the business environment and the stage of transition

      Recica, Fisnik; Hashi, Iraj; Jackson, Ian; Krasniqi, Besnik (Inderscience, 2019)
      This paper investigates the impact of product and process innovation on firms’ export performance in transition economies (TEs) which embarked on a systemic change from a planned to a market economy in the early 1990s. The research builds on the technology gap theory and the analysis of the self-selection of firms into the export market. Unlike other studies that have focused on the export behaviour of firms in developed economies where business environment is generally stable and favourable, the paper controls for the relevance of business environment and the stage of transition on export performance of firms. The paper uses the firm-level Business Environment and Performance Survey data undertaken by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2002, 2005 and 2008 in 29 TEs. Findings show that the impact of innovation on export performance increases with the transition reforms. Macroeconomic instability acts as a moderating factor of export performance in countries at high transition stage, as it pushes firms to export more, as a risk shifting mechanism. The main implication of the study is that the impact of some explanatory factors on export performance differs through the stages of transition.
    • The effects of remittances on education in a post-conflict society: evidence from Bosnia-Herzegovina

      Oruc, Nermin; Jackson, Ian; Pugh, Geoffrey (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-20)
      This paper analyses the effects of remittances on the educational enrolment of children in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where a process of forced migration made the relocation decision exogenous. Accordingly, this study has no need of methods to address the endogeneity of remittances. Hence, the approach taken means that the measure of educational enrolment is regressed on a set of individual- and household-level variables. In addition, a new approach to estimation is introduced, whereby the effect of remittances is calculated for each income quintile. It is found that the relationship between remittances and educational enrolment is strong among households from the fourth quintile, which includes households just outside the risk of poverty, while for those in poorer quintiles the effect is not significant.
    • Courting white southerners: Theodore Roosevelt’s quest for the heart of the South

      Burns, Adam (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-13)
      Most studies of President Theodore Roosevelt address his “southern strategy” to revive the Republican Party’s fortunes in a region where it was effectively shut out by 1900. This essay revisits Roosevelt’s approach to the South between 1901 and 1912 and argues that wooing white southerners away from the Democratic Party, more than any other approach, represented Roosevelt’s overriding strategy for the revitalization of the southern GOP.
    • Creating Shared Value in an industrial conurbation: Evidence from the North Staffordshire Ceramics Cluster

      Jackson, Ian; Limbrick, Lorraine (Wiley, 2019-03-31)
      The claims by Porter and Kramer that the concept of Creating Shared Value is an effective way of reinventing modern capitalism by releasing an upsurge in innovation is misleading because it maintains self-interest principally of large corporations at the centre of the economic system. The long-term development of the North Staffordshire Ceramics cluster suggests that firms such as Wedgwood were developing a primitive form of CSV over 250 years ago at the start of capitalism as opposed to a recent way of reinventing modern capitalism. The evidence of competitive forces remains strong and the resilience of firms in the cluster is much more in line with Schumpeterian “perennial gale of creative destruction” than a “wave of innovation and growth” offered by Porter and Kramer.
    • From weregild to a way forward? English restorative justice in its historical context

      Cox, David J.; Devi-McGleish, Yasmin (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-10-11)
      This article challenges the prevalent view of restorative justice as a new ‘technique’ within the English criminal justice system. By discussing a number of historical examples of non-traditional forms of justice, which the article argues can be seen as largely restorative in nature, it suggests that the use of restorative justice in the present day has a long tradition, albeit one whose historic practices and processes remain relatively unexplored by many criminologists. It does not presume to offer easy answers to the effectiveness or otherwise of restorative justice, but rather aims to present the ideas and theories behind the concept in an historical context in such a way as to illuminate possible avenues forward in its modern applications.