Recent Submissions

  • Education policies on access and reduction of poverty: Thecase of Ghana

    Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael; Ikejiaku, Brian-Vincent (Professors World Peace Academy, 2019-12-31)
  • The effects of poverty reduction strategies on artisanal fishing in Ghana: The case of Keta municipality

    Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2017-05-31)
    This paper assesses the level of poverty in Ghana after three decades of successive implementation of numerous poverty reduction strategies including Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) by various governments of Ghana. The Keta municipality in the Volta region, where artisanal fishing thrives, was chosen as a representative sample of the whole country. The authors identified eleven artisanal fishing communities in the selected area using systematic sampling. Data were collected on household consumption patterns. This process was used to determine the profile of poverty using the latest upper poverty line of Ghana and the Greer and Thorbecke (1984) poverty formula. Research findings show that the various poverty alleviation methods implemented over three decades by the Government of Ghana, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) significantly failed as they have not produced any meaningful effect on poverty reduction in the sample area. Finally, this paper offers further suggestions regarding how this poverty gap may be bridged using alternative methods.
  • The importance of collaboration and competition within and outside the OECD

    Jackson, Ian; McManus, John (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2016-08-10)
    The purpose of this paper is to address the role of the OECD in the global marketplace. The paper highlights some current trends in the global market and the changing role of the OECD. In this context, the authors discuss various perspectives on the role of OECD in a globalized world. The authors focus on recent debates on the state of the global economy and the changing position of the OECD in the world market. The authors apply a conceptual approach combined with analyses of data and secondary material. The authors also put forward an argument for investigating what determines competition within and outside the OECD. In this context, creating markets within a global economy requires considerable stimulus on the part of national governments. This necessitates national governments working together in partnership with national and global firms to reduced bureaucracy and increase transparency to boost trade in a cost effective manner. This is seen by some economists to be a prerequisite to future competitiveness. Finally, the authors seek to demonstrate how leading countries within the OECD are building innovative capability to master the challenges and opportunities that the new emerging economies present (such as Brazil).
  • Innovation and the export performance of firms in transition economies: the relevance of the business environment and the stage of transition

    Recica, Fisnik; Hashi, Iraj; Jackson, Ian; Krasniqi, Besnik (Inderscience, 2019)
    This paper investigates the impact of product and process innovation on firms’ export performance in transition economies (TEs) which embarked on a systemic change from a planned to a market economy in the early 1990s. The research builds on the technology gap theory and the analysis of the self-selection of firms into the export market. Unlike other studies that have focused on the export behaviour of firms in developed economies where business environment is generally stable and favourable, the paper controls for the relevance of business environment and the stage of transition on export performance of firms. The paper uses the firm-level Business Environment and Performance Survey data undertaken by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2002, 2005 and 2008 in 29 TEs. Findings show that the impact of innovation on export performance increases with the transition reforms. Macroeconomic instability acts as a moderating factor of export performance in countries at high transition stage, as it pushes firms to export more, as a risk shifting mechanism. The main implication of the study is that the impact of some explanatory factors on export performance differs through the stages of transition.
  • The effects of remittances on education in a post-conflict society: evidence from Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Oruc, Nermin; Jackson, Ian; Pugh, Geoffrey (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-20)
    This paper analyses the effects of remittances on the educational enrolment of children in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where a process of forced migration made the relocation decision exogenous. Accordingly, this study has no need of methods to address the endogeneity of remittances. Hence, the approach taken means that the measure of educational enrolment is regressed on a set of individual- and household-level variables. In addition, a new approach to estimation is introduced, whereby the effect of remittances is calculated for each income quintile. It is found that the relationship between remittances and educational enrolment is strong among households from the fourth quintile, which includes households just outside the risk of poverty, while for those in poorer quintiles the effect is not significant.
  • Courting white southerners: Theodore Roosevelt’s quest for the heart of the South

    Burns, Adam (Taylor and Francis, 2019-12-31)
    Most studies of President Theodore Roosevelt address his “southern strategy” to revive the Republican Party’s fortunes in a region where it was effectively shut out by 1900. This essay revisits Roosevelt’s approach to the South between 1901 and 1912 and argues that wooing white southerners away from the Democratic Party, more than any other approach, represented Roosevelt’s overriding strategy for the revitalization of the southern GOP.
  • Creating Shared Value in an industrial conurbation: Evidence from the North Staffordshire Ceramics Cluster

    Jackson, Ian; Limbrick, Lorraine (Wiley, 2019-03-31)
    The claims by Porter and Kramer that the concept of Creating Shared Value is an effective way of reinventing modern capitalism by releasing an upsurge in innovation is misleading because it maintains self-interest principally of large corporations at the centre of the economic system. The long-term development of the North Staffordshire Ceramics cluster suggests that firms such as Wedgwood were developing a primitive form of CSV over 250 years ago at the start of capitalism as opposed to a recent way of reinventing modern capitalism. The evidence of competitive forces remains strong and the resilience of firms in the cluster is much more in line with Schumpeterian “perennial gale of creative destruction” than a “wave of innovation and growth” offered by Porter and Kramer.
  • From weregild to a way forward? English restorative justice in its historical context

    Cox, David J.; Devi-McGleish, Yasmin (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-10-11)
    This article challenges the prevalent view of restorative justice as a new ‘technique’ within the English criminal justice system. By discussing a number of historical examples of non-traditional forms of justice, which the article argues can be seen as largely restorative in nature, it suggests that the use of restorative justice in the present day has a long tradition, albeit one whose historic practices and processes remain relatively unexplored by many criminologists. It does not presume to offer easy answers to the effectiveness or otherwise of restorative justice, but rather aims to present the ideas and theories behind the concept in an historical context in such a way as to illuminate possible avenues forward in its modern applications.
  • Cooperation for innovation and its impact on technological and non-technological innovations: empirical evidence for European SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries

    Radicic, Dragana; Douglas, David; Pugh, Geoffrey; Jackson, Ian (World Scientific, 2018-10-18)
    Drawing on a sample of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in traditional manufacturing industries from seven EU regions, this study investigates how cooperation with external organisations affects technological (product and process) innovations and non-technological (organisational and marketing) innovations as well as the commercial success of product and process innovations (i.e., innovative sales). Our empirical strategy takes into account that all four types of innovation are potentially complementary. Empirical results suggest that cooperation increases firms’ innovativeness and yields substantial commercial benefits. In particular, increasing the number of cooperation partnerships has a positive impact on all measures of innovation performance. We conclude that a portfolio approach to cooperation enhances innovation performance and that innovation support programs should be demand-led.
  • An examination of the role of service quality and perceived value in visitor attraction experience

    Oriade, Ade; Schofield, Peter (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of service quality and perceived value in service experience in UK attraction context. Data was collected in the Midlands Region of the UK from two visitor attractions utilising mixed-mode survey approach. A total of 507 usable questionnaires were analysed using ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between the constructs. The findings confirm the cognitive-affective-conative order between the service constructs within the context of UK visitor attractions. This study has improved the understanding of the role of value in service experience, particularly attraction context, providing evidence that value exerts relatively more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than service quality. More specifically emotional value exerts more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than other forms of value. Managers need to view the visitor experience holistically rather than concentrating on one or two service construct(s).
  • Entrepreneurship education as human capital: implications for youth self-employment and conflict mitigation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Anosike, Paschal (Sage, 2018-11-15)
    Previous research has focused on stable developed economies to predict that human capital and entrepreneurship education (EE) provision at the higher education (HE) level will positively affect entrepreneurial success. This article draws on the outcome of recent EE projects in two HE institutions in a conflict-torn northern Nigeria as a proxy to advocate the introduction of entrepreneurship as a compulsory component into the secondary school curriculum in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using semi-structured interview data, it is found that the provision of EE at secondary education level could help to facilitate human capital development and assist efforts to curb youth unemployment. Specifically, the study suggests that EE comprises both generic and specific human capital that increases an individual’s ability to identify and exploit opportunities, particularly for young people, and in doing so helps to reduce their vulnerability to poverty and involvement in armed conflict. Suggestions for future research and policy considerations are provided.
  • "As a Scab" : Rank and File Workers, Strikebreakers, and the end of the 1951 Waterfront Lock-out

    Millar, Grace (2014-10-01)
    On 9 July 1951, the unions involved in the waterfront lock-out and the lock-out’s supporting strikes met and passed a return to work motion: ‘Supremely confident of the conscious discipline of our ranks we call upon every individual member to return to work and hold up the banner of his union on the job.’ The wording of the motion implied a top-down decision, and suggested that the rank and file were waiting for the call to return to work, an assumption that historians have not challenged. This article presents a different view of the end of the dispute, and explores the assessments that workers made about continuing the dispute, to demonstrate that they did not blindly followed those in leadership positions. Strikebreakers were central to the decisions workers made to continue the dispute; outside strikebreakers presented a risk to existing workers job – and the threat of never working on the wharf again made the costs of the dispute untenable for many. Despite their importance, strikebreakers have been under-researched, and this article suggests new ways of understanding the decisions made both by strikebreakers and by those who remained on strike or locked-out until 9 July. To understand the end of the 1951 waterfront dispute, it is not enough to examine the actions of union and political leaders like Jock Barnes, President of the New Zealand Waterfront Workers Union, and Prime Minister Sidney Holland.
  • Rates of human–macaque interactions affect grooming behavior among urban‐dwelling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Marty, Pascal R; Beisner, Brianne; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N.; Bliss‐Moreau, Eliza; Kaur, Kawaljit; Mohan, Lalit; McCowan, Brenda (Wiley, 2018-10-03)
    OBJECTIVES: The impact of anthropogenic environmental changes may impose strong pressures on the behavioral flexibility of free-ranging animals. Here, we examine whether rates of interactions with humans had both a direct and indirect influence on the duration and distribution of social grooming in commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected in two locations in the city of Shimla in northern India: an urban setting and a temple area. We divided these two locations in a series of similar-sized physical blocks (N = 48) with varying rates of human-macaque interactions. We conducted focal observations on three free-ranging rhesus macaque groups, one in the urban area and two in the temple area. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that macaques engaged in shorter grooming bouts and were more vigilant while grooming in focal sessions during which they interacted with people more frequently, suggesting that humans directly affected grooming effort and vigilance behavior. Furthermore, we found that in blocks characterized by higher rates of human-macaque interactions grooming bouts were shorter, more frequently interrupted by vigilance behavior, and were less frequently reciprocated. DISCUSSION: Our work shows that the rates of human-macaque interaction had both a direct and indirect impact on grooming behavior and that macaques flexibly modified their grooming interactions in relation to the rates of human-macaque interaction to which they were exposed. Because grooming has important social and hygienic functions in nonhuman primates, our work suggests that human presence can have important implications for animal health, social relationships and, ultimately, fitness. Our results point to the need of areas away from people even for highly adaptable species where they can engage in social interactions without human disruption.
  • Women's Lives, Feminism and the New Zealand Journal of History

    Millar, Grace (University of Auckland, 2018-08-01)
  • First year law students: the impact of assessment type on attainment

    Jones, Dawn; Ellison, Lynn (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-02)
    This article describes an action research project that was undertaken to address a poor progression rate at the end of the first year of a single honours law degree. An attainment gap due to gender, age and ethnicity was also noted. The students were predominantly assessed by examinations; therefore a change of assessment to coursework and portfolio in some areas was proposed and actioned as a potential way to increase attainment and consequently progression. Data on pass rates for two years prior to the change of assessment and two years after the change were analysed. The impact of a change of assessment from examination to coursework raised attainment levels overall, but the gender, age and ethnicity gap remained.
  • “We humbly beg pardon…” The use of restorative justice in fraud offences, 1718-2018

    Devi-McGleish, Yasmin; Cox, David J (RJAll publications, 2018-08-08)
    Restorative Justice (RJ) has become an increasingly popular alternative to more traditional punishment methods in the last two decades within the Criminal Justice system in England and Wales; often in respect of youth justice and minor crimes which have a clearly defined victim. However, this article will explore the use of restorative justice in cases of financial fraud. Such cases can be particularly complex when identifying culpability within an organisation, and also victims, who may not be aware that they are victims. Corporate and public apologies are not unheard of, particularly with the increasing use of social media platforms, but they have not been widely discussed in relation to RJ. As there is a recognition that RJ entails more than a simple apology, innovative ways of administering RJ will be considered. Alongside discussion of the complexities of using RJ for large-scale financial fraud, the paper will draw on various cases of fraud and the resultant public apology from the early 18th century onward. Several forms of what we now term RJ will be illustrated from before the modern-day resurgence of this type of justice. In most (though not all) of the several examples discussed, there is a clear separation of RJ practices from the formal criminal justice system operating at the time, and this may prove to be a useful guide to the future use of RJ as an adjunct to more legalistic criminal justice processes. Finally, it will be considered whether such apologies could be useful as a restorative intersection with the criminal justice system.

View more