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  • Sustaining existing social protection programmes during crises: What do we know? How can we know more?

    Slater, Rachel (Institute of Development Studies, 2022-05-11)
    Research on social assistance in crisis situations has focused predominantly on how social assistance can flex in response to rapid-onset emergencies such as floods or hurricanes and to slower-onset shocks such as drought. This paper identifies a substantial knowledge gap – namely, our understanding of the ways in which existing, government-led programmes can be sustained during crises to ensure that households that were already poor and vulnerable before a crisis continue to be supported. The limited literature available focuses on climate- and natural environment-related shocks – far less attention is paid to other crises. Conflict-affected situations are a major gap, although there is an emerging body of evidence of the ways in which focus on adapting delivery mechanisms has allowed social assistance and other social protection programmes to be sustained throughout the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper concludes that a better understanding of when, where and how existing programmes can be sustained during situations of violent conflict will help to ensure that poor and vulnerable households can be supported – either through government programmes or by enabling robust diagnosis of when efforts to sustaining existing programmes will be inadequate and an additional, external responses are required.
  • Impact of COVID-19 on mental health and career anxiety of hospitality and tourism students in the UK

    Rahimi, Roya; Akgunduz, Yilmaz; Bilgihan, Anil (Emerald, 2022-12-31)
    Purpose The current study investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and career perspectives of the future workforce of the tourism and hospitality industry in the UK. The paper is based on theories of emotion and focuses on the interplay role of three factors of fear of COVID-19, depression, and future career anxiety. Methodology The current research uses a mixed-method approach in two studies to answer the research questions. First, an online questionnaire was distributed among 197 current tourism and hospitality students in the UK. In the second phase through a qualitative approach and 17 semi-structured interviews, a more in-depth approach was taken to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the future career perspectives of the respondents. Findings Findings reveal a high level of mental health disorders among respondents. The majority of respondents suffer from some sort of mental health conditions/disorders that affect their moods, thinking, and behaviors. The results further show that the fear of COVID-19 causes depression which results in career anxiety. Practical Implications Our findings suggest that the future tourism workforce in the UK is likely to suffer from some sort of mental health disorder that can influence their performances in the workplace. Companies are advised to make adjustments that help to protect the well-being and psychological health of their staff. Originality/value Previous studies used a snapshot in time only with a focus on the immediate and short-term effects of the pandemic. In the current study, by taking a long-term impact approach, we attempted to understand the psychological impact of the COVID-19 on the future workforce of the tourism industry in the UK and offered practical implications for stakeholders.
  • Dual nature of the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and human resource management (HRM): A blessing or a curse?

    Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Özgören, Çağla; Yamak, Sibel; Ibrahim, Shahnaz; Pinnington, Ashly; Nicolopoulou, Katerina; Tunalıoğlu, Melike Nur; Baruch, Yehuda (Wiley, 2022-12-31)
    With the increase and prominence of CSR, it is important to understand the interaction between CSR and HRM, drawing on multiple institutional logics that shape such interaction in organizations. Drawing on a qualitative study, we reveal context sensitive nature of the CSR-HRM relationship by demonstrating all field-level forces and peculiarities of meso-level influences. We have identified a dual nature in this relationship. This duality is implicated in unintended and intended organizational outcomes, such as exploitation of workforce and democratizing CSR engagements, respectively. We offer multiple contributions to knowledge and practice. By exploring dual nature of the CSR-HRM relationship, we demonstrate multiple roles that the HR function plays in organizations, such as mediating role, regulating and governance role and legitimizing role. We recommend that organizations might better approach CSR from an employee engagement perspective and posit that employees’ perceptions of CSR authenticity and of local needs will transform the dynamics of the CSR-HRM relationship and organizational commitments.
  • Toward a universalistic behavioural model of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness for the health services sector

    Hamlin, Robert; Ruiz, Carlos E.; Jones, Jenni; Patel, Taran (SAGE, 2022-04-29)
    Much management and leadership development provision for healthcare professionals has been the subject of considerable criticism, and there have been numerous calls for training programmes explicitly focused on the specific managerial (manager/leader) behaviours healthcare managers, physician leaders and nurse managers need to exhibit to be perceived effective. The aim of our multiple cross-case/cross-nation comparative study has been to: i) identify similarities and differences between the findings of published qualitative critical incident studies of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour observed within British, Egyptian, Mexican and Romanian public hospitals, respectively, and ii) if possible, deduce from the identified commonalities a healthcare-related behavioural model of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. Adopting a philosophical stance informed by pragmatism, epistemological instrumentalism and abduction, we used realist qualitative analytic methods to code and classify into a maximum number of discrete behavioural categories empirical source data obtained from five previous studies. We found high degrees of empirical generalization which resulted in the identification of five positive (effective) and four negative (ineffective) behavioural dimensions (BDs) derived, respectively, from 14 positive and 9 negative deduced behavioural categories (BCs). These BDs and underpinning BCs are expressed in the form of an emergent two-factor universalistic behavioural model of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. We suggest the model could be used to critically evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of existing training provision for physician leaders, nurse managers and other healthcare managers/leaders in public hospitals or to design new explicit training programmes informed and shaped by healthcare-specific management research, as called for in the literature.
  • Transforming Africa's socio-economic landscape through entrepreneurialism

    Anosike, Paschal (Africa Policy Review, 2017-07-31)
  • Beyond COVID-19: Lessons for social protection from WFP's work in East Africa in 2020

    Slater, Rachel; McCord, Anna; Devereux, Stephen; Baur, Daniela; Trotter, Danielle; Bright, Rosie (World Food Programme, 2021-05-01)
    In May 2020, RBN established a Social Protection Learning Facility to enhance evidence-based decision making, learning and accountability in WFP’s social protection work in the context of COVID-19 and other shocks. The Facility combined real-time evaluation of WFP’s activities with technical assistance to WFP staff who were navigating difficult trade-offs as they sought to support governments to flex social protection in the region. It comprised of social protection researchers and advisors who provided on demand support to WFP in areas of programme design, implementation and wider strategic considerations in WFP’s work, and offered ‘Ideas Space’ sessions to support the sharing of experiences. This report is a product of the first phase of the facility and focuses on lessons learned from WFP’s work in 2020 that are important for the social protection sector in the region going forward.
  • Ukraine - can social protection be sustained and support a humanitarian response?

    Sojka, Bozena; Harvey, Paul; Slater, Rachel (Centre for International Development and Training, University of Wolverhampton, 2022-03-15)
  • Guest editorial: International sources for advertising and marketing history

    Hawkins, Richard; Neilson, Leighann (Emerald, 2022-05-06)
  • Women in business leadership in the Midlands

    Mahmood, Samia; Eke, Priscilla; Mpofu, Tanya; Machold, Silke (The University of Wolverhampton, 2022-03-28)
    This report summarises a research project commissioned by the Midlands Engine on women in business leadership in the Midlands. Prior research has shown that women are under-represented at executive and board levels and less likely than men to be involved in entrepreneurship (Rose, 2019; Vinnicombe et al., 2021). These studies also advocated that more diverse leadership and greater inclusivity leads to significant business and societal benefits. This research focuses on women on boards and women-owned business leadership in the East and West Midlands to provide a much-needed regional perspective on this phenomenon. The research, undertaken by the University of Wolverhampton, aimed to understand better the current representation of women on boards and women-owned businesses in the Midlands region, identify barriers to gender diversity and inclusivity, and provide recommendations to promote gender diversity in leadership. Women hold 15.8% of directorships in the top 350 public and private companies in the Midlands, lower than the UK’s large public companies. Moreover, women account for only 7.8% of executive directorships in the Midlands’ top 350 companies compared to 13.7% and 11.3% in FTSE100 and FTSE250 companies, respectively. Among the Midlands top 350 companies, 169 have exclusively male boards (48%). In addition, women both lead and own a lower percentage of small businesses in the Midlands than in most England regions. Data collected through interviews with stakeholders show that in addition to well-documented gender biases, the presence of historically male-dominated industries and a prevalence of cultural stereotypes have impeded progress towards greater diversity and inclusivity in the Midlands. Nevertheless, many industry leaders in the Midlands are championing women’s inclusion within their organisations and leadership teams by creating platforms for representation, advocating role models and supporting flexible working. The report identifies examples where such actions resulted in a critical mass of women in the boardroom. Yet without effective interventions on a wider scale, the barriers identified can significantly inhibit the growth of women-led businesses, impede greater diversity in leadership positions in the region and, therefore, make it challenging to achieve the goal of gender diversity and inclusivity. The findings lead to proposals for interventions to promote women into leadership at a range of scales: at the individual level, such as tackling biases and allyship; at the organisational level, such as flexible working hours and targets towards gender balance, and; at the regional level, such as support networks and targeted resources.
  • A demographic snapshot of the profession: The 2021 census of sign language translators & interpreters in the UK

    Napier, Jemina; Skinner, Robert; Adam, Robert; Stone, Christopher; Pratt, Sandra; Obasi, Chijoke (Association of Sign Language Interpreters, 2021-08)
  • Being in it to win it

    Stone, Christopher; Coster, Stefan (Sveriges Teckenspråkstolkars Förening, 2018-12-31)
  • Using interviews and focus groups to investigate the effectiveness of mentoring in a UK healthcare trust

    Jones, Jenni; Tilly, Liz (Routledge, 2021-12-29)
    Mentoring is increasingly being used in a healthcare setting as it is seen to hugely benefit both individuals and organisations. This research is aimed at investigating WHAT is being learnt, WHAT are the moderating factors and HOW do both these factors change over time, within mentoring relationships. 38 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were used to find out more from six mentoring dyads about their lived experience of being both mentors and mentees. Key findings were that both parties learnt in all four learning domains, learning fluctuated over time and that common factors were both facilitating and hindering for both parties. Methods are reflected upon and recommendations for future similar studies shared. The six NHS values are discussed in harmony with mentoring values, together with the impact on supporting managers as mentors and mentees for the future. In short, it is concluded that using mentoring to develop more skilled managers and leaders in healthcare, will ultimately mean more supported and nurtured teams, which will in turn will mean happier employees and ultimately better supported and nurtured patients.
  • A comparative study of formal coaching and mentoring programmes in higher education

    Jones, Jenni; Smith, Helen A. (Emerald, 2022-01-10)
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two coaching and mentoring programmes focused on the increasingly important aim of enhancing the chances of professional-level employment for undergraduate students at two UK universities. It offers recommendations for enhancing coaching and mentoring success within higher education (HE). Design/methodology/approach: Two similar programmes are compared; the first study is a coaching programme delivered in two phases involving over 1,500 students within the Business School. The second study is a mentoring programme involving over 250 students over a 10-year period within the Business School at a different institution. Findings: The two programmes were compared against the key success criteria from the literature, endorsed by coaching and mentoring experts. The results highlight the importance of integrating with other initiatives, senior management commitment, budget, an application process, clear matching process, trained coaches and mentors, induction for both parties, supportive material, ongoing supervision, and robust evaluation and record keeping. Research limitations/research implications: The research focuses on two similar institutions, with comparable student demographics. It would have been useful to dig deeper into the effect of the diverse characteristics of coach/mentor and coachee/mentee on the effectiveness of their relationships, as well as test the assumptions and recommendations beyond these two institutions, to validate the reach and application of these best practice recommendations further afield.
  • Sign language conference interpreting

    Turner, Graham H.; Grbić, Nadja; Stone, Christopher; Tester, Christopher; De Wit, Maya; Albl-Mikasa, Michaela; Tiselius, Elisabet (Routledge, 2021-11-30)
    Interpreting between signed and spoken languages has become steadily more visible to the general public around the world in recent decades. The chapter summarises the nature and development of signed language conference interpreting, defining key terms and concepts with attention to distinctive aspects of service provision. These are rooted in the visual-gestural forms that encode signed meaning, and the physical and social features of communication and cultural expression associated with the lived experiences of participants in Deaf communities. The work undertaken by these interpreters in conference settings is described with reference to a number of diversifications, including the demand for ‘International Sign’ provision intended to be accessible to the multinational audiences arising as a result of increasing global mobility. We review the particular experiences and practices of interpreters who may be either deaf or hearing and address the combination of their skills in the delivery of appropriate services. Future challenges highlighted include the need for enhancement of professionalization through codification of norms and standards, and important questions about relationships among professionals and between human and non-human agents in the field.
  • The influence of American retailing innovation in Great Britain: A case study of F.W. Woolworth & Co., 1909-1982

    Hawkins, Richard (Marketing History Society of Japan, 2022-03-31)
    This article explores the diffusion of American retailing innovation in Great Britain with a case study of F.W. Woolworth & Co. from its foundation in 1909 to its divestment by its American parent company in 1982. Initially Woolworthʼs British subsidiary introduced a retail format modelled on that of its American parent company, cheap high quality variety merchandise with three fixed prices, one, three and six pence. The management team was led by American executives and Woolworth family members together with Britons recruited by the founder, Frank Winfield Woolworth. As Woolworthʼs British subsidiary steadily increased the number of stores during its first two decades, the Americans were succeeded by Britons. Woolworthʼs American retail format proved to be very successful in Britain until the end of the 1930 s. However, Woolworthʼs retail format became unsustainable in Britain during the 1940 s as a result of wartime inflation followed by the increase of the rate of purchase tax on some of its merchandise. By the early 1950s fixed prices had been abandoned. During the subsidiaryʼs final three decades it ceased to be dynamic because it was led by a succession of conservative British managers who were reluctant to adapt to the changing British and international retail environment. During the early post-war period they resisted the adoption of self-service retailing which had been embraced by its American parent company. Later during the 1960s and 1970s the subsidiaryʼs British managers resisted and obstructed the diffusion from America to Britain of the parent companyʼs out-of-town discount department store format, Woolco.
  • Introduction: Art as a bridge

    Prior, Ross W.; Kossack, Mitchell; Fisher, Teresa A; Prior, Ross W; Kossak, Mitchell; Fisher, Teresa A (Intellect, 2022-12-31)
  • Toward a generic framework of perceived negative manager/leader behavior: A comparative study across nations and private sector industries

    Patel, Taran; Hamlin, Robert G.; Louis, Dima (Wiley, 2022-02-15)
    Reviewing three relevant streams of extant literature reveals a marked absence of a generic framework comprised of a full range of negative manager/leader behaviors (from moderate to extreme) across sectors and countries, a void particularly detrimental to the effectiveness of management and leadership development (MLD) programs. To address this concern, we conduct a multiple cross-case/cross-nation comparative analysis (MCCA) of data collected from our own 13 previous empirical replication studies (using the critical incident technique) of effective/ineffective managerial/leader behavior across nine culturally diverse countries and varied private sector industries, resulting in a comprehensive framework of perceived negative manager/leader behavior. Our generic framework is comprised of five behavioral dimensions: general inadequate behavior, unethical behavior, impersonal domineering behavior, depriving behavior, and closed/negative-minded behavior, and lends support to the universal school of culture in business literature by showing that neither national culture nor sectorial specificities influence people’s perceptions of negative manager/leader behavior. It also stresses the importance of the mundane (as opposed to the glorious) in managerial/leadership work by revealing that employees’ perceptions of negative manager/leader behavior includes not only conspicuously ‘bad’ behaviors, but also less conspicuous ‘poor’ behaviors.
  • Country reviews of social assistance in crises: A compendium of rapid assessments of the nexus between social protection and humanitarian assistance in crisis settings

    Mohamed, Habiba; Szyp, Carolina; Thorsen, Dorte; Bellwood-Howard, Imogen; McLean, Calum; Baur, Daniela; Harvey, Paul; Lind, Jeremy; Longhurst, Daniel; Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; et al. (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-06)
    This collection brings together brief overviews of the social assistance landscape in eight fragile and conflict-affected settings in sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East: Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia and Yemen. These overviews were prepared as part of Better Assistance in Crises (BASIC) Research, a multi-year programme (2020–24) supported by the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) of the UK government. BASIC Research aims to inform policy and programming on effective social assistance in situations of crisis, including for those who are experiencing climate-related shocks and stressors, protracted conflict and forced displacement.
  • Managerial ideology and identity in the nationalised British coal industry, 1947-1994

    Perchard, Andrew; Gildart, Keith (SAGE, 2022-02-03)
    This article examines managerial ideology and identity in the nationalised British coal industry. On nationalisation in 1947, the National Coal Board (NCB) – after 1987 the British Coal Corporation – became the largest socialised industry outside of the Communist bloc. Privatised in 1994, as part of liberal market reforms, the industry was a crucible for ideological clashes amongst managers. The article responds to interest in the impact of managerial ideologies and identities on organisations and in the search for illuminating historical case studies in different organisational settings. The authors position those ideological clashes, and distinctive managerial identities, within a moral economic framework.

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