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AuthorsMitchell, David J.
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Chemistry for Environmental & Earth SciencesDuke, Catherine V. A.; Williams, Craig D. (CRC Press (Taylor & Francis), 2007)Synopsis: Tackling environmental issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, water pollution, and soil contamination requires an understanding of the underlying science and chemistry of these processes in real-world systems and situations. "Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences" provides a student-friendly introduction to the basic chemistry used for the mitigation, remediation, and elimination of pollutants. Written and organized in a style that is accessible to science as well as non-science majors, this textbook divides its content into four intuitive chapters: Fire, Earth, Water, and Air. The first chapter explains classical concepts in chemistry that occur in nature such as atomic and molecular structures, chemical bonding and reactions, states of matter, phase transitions, and radioactivity.Subsequent chapters focus on the chemistry relating to the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere-including the chemical aspects of soil, water, and air pollution, respectively.
Stone Deterioration in Polluted Urban EnvironmentsMitchell, David J.; Searle, David E. (Science Publishers Inc., 2003)CONTENTS: . Stone Weathering and Urban Particulate Pollution in the UK: David E. Searle and David J. Mitchell . Urban Pollution and Stone Weathering in the Black Country: David E. Searle and David J. Mitchell . Potential for Building Stone Soiling from Vehicle-related Pollutants Along-side a Busy Road: Paul Giess and Vaughan Shilton . Weathering of Rocks by Lichens with Special Reference to Stonework: A Review: M.J. Wilson . Experimental Studies of Rock Weathering by Plant Roots: Updating the Work of Julius Sachs (1832-1897): D.N. Mottershead and H.A. Viles . Comparison of the Process of Decay of Two Limestones in a Polluted Urban Environment: A. Török . Initial Stages of Sandstone Decay in a Polluted Urban Environment: Alice V. Turkington . Role of NO2 and SO2 on the Degradation of Limestone: G.C. Allen et al. . Dry Deposition of SO2 on Carbonate Stone: An Overview of Laboratory Studies: Elizabeth A. Bede . Development and Potential Uses of Computer Simulation Techniques in the Study of Rock Weathering: Sarah Antill and Heather (H.A.) Viles . Comparative Assessment of Decay and Soiling of Masonry: Methodology and Analysis of Surveyor Variability: Jonathan Ball and Maureen E. Young . Colour Changes of Portland Stone: A Study of the Victoria and Albert Mu-seum Façade 1989-1998: Boris Pretzel . Representing Surface Loss on Gravestones: Does the Mean Mean Anything: Rob Inkpen et al. . Depth Profiling of Soluble Salts in Scottish Sandstone Buildings: Maureen E. Young and Pauline E. Cordiner . Local Variability of Marine Influence on Coastal Rock Weathering Rates: A Long-term Study: D.N. Mottershead . International Implications of Atmospheric Pollution on Stone: David J. Mitchell
The Effect of Coal and Diesel Particulates on the Weathering Loss of Portland Limestone in an Urban EnvironmentSearle, David E.; Mitchell, David J. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006)Due to reductions in domestic usage, legislation and changes in fuel use, coal derived particulates in the UK urban atmosphere have been significantly reduced. However, a large increase in road usage and an expansion in the use of diesel engines, has meant that the majority of particulates, now present in the urban atmosphere, originate from vehicle exhausts. Particulate matter, resulting from coal combustion, has been recorded as being present in black patinas observed on some historic stone buildings and monuments and has been associated with accelerated weathering of stone surfaces as a result of enhanced gypsum formation. In contrast, the effects of particulates resulting from vehicle exhaust on stone are much less understood. To investigate this, a comparative study was undertaken using the technique of microcatchments under ambient atmospheric conditions. This compared the elemental composition and volume of precipitation runoff from Portland Limestone coated with three different particulate treatments. Treatments consisted of coal and diesel particulates, both separately and in combination. Combining these treatments attempts to investigate any synergistic effects that may occur when coal derived particulates are overlain by layers formed by particulates from more contemporary sources. It was found that diesel-coated samples were much darker in appearance and showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the overall rate of weathering loss when compared to untreated samples. Microcatchment runoff volume was reduced from diesel-coated Portland Limestone compared to untreated stone. Enhanced surface temperatures may be increasing the rate of moisture loss from the pore network between rainfall events. Since, generally, the pores must be full before runoff can occur, the reduction may be due to the differential volume of empty pore space between diesel-coated and untreated Portland Limestone.