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Chemistry for Environmental & Earth SciencesDuke, Catherine V. A.; Williams, Craig D. (CRC Press (Taylor & Francis), 2007)Synopsis: Tackling environmental issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, water pollution, and soil contamination requires an understanding of the underlying science and chemistry of these processes in real-world systems and situations. "Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences" provides a student-friendly introduction to the basic chemistry used for the mitigation, remediation, and elimination of pollutants. Written and organized in a style that is accessible to science as well as non-science majors, this textbook divides its content into four intuitive chapters: Fire, Earth, Water, and Air. The first chapter explains classical concepts in chemistry that occur in nature such as atomic and molecular structures, chemical bonding and reactions, states of matter, phase transitions, and radioactivity.Subsequent chapters focus on the chemistry relating to the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere-including the chemical aspects of soil, water, and air pollution, respectively.
The Relationships between Indoor and Outdoor Respirable Particulate Matter: Meteorology, Chemistry and Personal ExposureShilton, Vaughan F.; Giess, Paul; Mitchell, David J.; Williams, Craig D. (Sage Publications, 2002)Respirable particulate matter was collected inside and outside of a building located in Wolverhampton city centre during the same time period between 19/9/00 and 1/5/01. A total of 103 pairs of indoor and outdoor mea surements were made using Casella personal dust moni tors. The building monitored was located in a small street canyon produced by 4- and 5-storey buildings on both sides of the road. The road is the main approach road to a major bus station and is used by large numbers of heavy-duty diesel vehicles each day. The mean con centration for outdoor samples was 27.6 and 9.8 µg.m-3 for indoor samples. The mean indoor/outdoor ratio for this period was 0.4 (±0.02 SE). Meteorological variables including wind speed, wind direction and precipitation were measured at a nearby urban monitoring station. A greater wind speed caused an increase in the quantity of outdoor generated particulates penetrating indoors. Wind direction affected both indoor and outdoor particu late concentrations, with lower concentrations being ob served when the wind direction was parallel to the street canyon. The indoor/outdoor ratio also showed a de crease during parallel wind conditions. During days with high amounts of precipitation, the concentration of par ticulates, both indoors and outdoors, decreased signifi cantly. The personal exposure of a building occupant was measured for 20 working days in conjunction with outdoor and indoor measurements. Personal exposure concentrations were well correlated with indoor concen trations (r2 = 0.98). Forty of the indoor and outdoor partic ulate samples of dust were chemically analysed for sul phate, nitrate, chloride, zinc, copper, manganese and aluminium to determine any indoor/outdoor relation ships of particulate chemistry and any interrelationships between the analytes. (Sage Publications)
Stone Deterioration in Polluted Urban EnvironmentsMitchell, David J.; Searle, David E. (Science Publishers Inc., 2003)CONTENTS: . Stone Weathering and Urban Particulate Pollution in the UK: David E. Searle and David J. Mitchell . Urban Pollution and Stone Weathering in the Black Country: David E. Searle and David J. Mitchell . Potential for Building Stone Soiling from Vehicle-related Pollutants Along-side a Busy Road: Paul Giess and Vaughan Shilton . Weathering of Rocks by Lichens with Special Reference to Stonework: A Review: M.J. Wilson . Experimental Studies of Rock Weathering by Plant Roots: Updating the Work of Julius Sachs (1832-1897): D.N. Mottershead and H.A. Viles . Comparison of the Process of Decay of Two Limestones in a Polluted Urban Environment: A. Török . Initial Stages of Sandstone Decay in a Polluted Urban Environment: Alice V. Turkington . Role of NO2 and SO2 on the Degradation of Limestone: G.C. Allen et al. . Dry Deposition of SO2 on Carbonate Stone: An Overview of Laboratory Studies: Elizabeth A. Bede . Development and Potential Uses of Computer Simulation Techniques in the Study of Rock Weathering: Sarah Antill and Heather (H.A.) Viles . Comparative Assessment of Decay and Soiling of Masonry: Methodology and Analysis of Surveyor Variability: Jonathan Ball and Maureen E. Young . Colour Changes of Portland Stone: A Study of the Victoria and Albert Mu-seum Façade 1989-1998: Boris Pretzel . Representing Surface Loss on Gravestones: Does the Mean Mean Anything: Rob Inkpen et al. . Depth Profiling of Soluble Salts in Scottish Sandstone Buildings: Maureen E. Young and Pauline E. Cordiner . Local Variability of Marine Influence on Coastal Rock Weathering Rates: A Long-term Study: D.N. Mottershead . International Implications of Atmospheric Pollution on Stone: David J. Mitchell