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Chemistry for Environmental & Earth SciencesDuke, Catherine V. A.; Williams, Craig D. (CRC Press (Taylor & Francis), 2007)Synopsis: Tackling environmental issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, water pollution, and soil contamination requires an understanding of the underlying science and chemistry of these processes in real-world systems and situations. "Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences" provides a student-friendly introduction to the basic chemistry used for the mitigation, remediation, and elimination of pollutants. Written and organized in a style that is accessible to science as well as non-science majors, this textbook divides its content into four intuitive chapters: Fire, Earth, Water, and Air. The first chapter explains classical concepts in chemistry that occur in nature such as atomic and molecular structures, chemical bonding and reactions, states of matter, phase transitions, and radioactivity.Subsequent chapters focus on the chemistry relating to the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere-including the chemical aspects of soil, water, and air pollution, respectively.
The Characterisation of Settled Dust by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray AnalysisShilton, Vaughan F.; Giess, Paul; Mitchell, David J.; Williams, Craig D. (Springer Verlag, 2002)Settled dust has been collected inside the main foyers of three University buildings in Wolverhampton City Centre, UK. Two of the three buildings are located in a street canyon used almost exclusively by heavy duty diesel vehicles. The dust was collected on adhesive carbon spectro-tabs to be in a form suitable for analysis by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Using these analytical techniques, individual particle analysis was undertaken for morphology and chemistry. Seasonal variations and variations due to location were observed in both the morphological measurements and chemical analysis. Many of the differences appear attributable to the influence of road traffic, in particular, the heavy duty diesel vehicles, travelling along the street canyon. (Springer Verlag)
The Relationships between Indoor and Outdoor Respirable Particulate Matter: Meteorology, Chemistry and Personal ExposureShilton, Vaughan F.; Giess, Paul; Mitchell, David J.; Williams, Craig D. (Sage Publications, 2002)Respirable particulate matter was collected inside and outside of a building located in Wolverhampton city centre during the same time period between 19/9/00 and 1/5/01. A total of 103 pairs of indoor and outdoor mea surements were made using Casella personal dust moni tors. The building monitored was located in a small street canyon produced by 4- and 5-storey buildings on both sides of the road. The road is the main approach road to a major bus station and is used by large numbers of heavy-duty diesel vehicles each day. The mean con centration for outdoor samples was 27.6 and 9.8 µg.m-3 for indoor samples. The mean indoor/outdoor ratio for this period was 0.4 (±0.02 SE). Meteorological variables including wind speed, wind direction and precipitation were measured at a nearby urban monitoring station. A greater wind speed caused an increase in the quantity of outdoor generated particulates penetrating indoors. Wind direction affected both indoor and outdoor particu late concentrations, with lower concentrations being ob served when the wind direction was parallel to the street canyon. The indoor/outdoor ratio also showed a de crease during parallel wind conditions. During days with high amounts of precipitation, the concentration of par ticulates, both indoors and outdoors, decreased signifi cantly. The personal exposure of a building occupant was measured for 20 working days in conjunction with outdoor and indoor measurements. Personal exposure concentrations were well correlated with indoor concen trations (r2 = 0.98). Forty of the indoor and outdoor partic ulate samples of dust were chemically analysed for sul phate, nitrate, chloride, zinc, copper, manganese and aluminium to determine any indoor/outdoor relation ships of particulate chemistry and any interrelationships between the analytes. (Sage Publications)