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dc.contributor.advisorWyon, Matthew A.
dc.contributor.authorKrasnow, Donna
dc.date.accessioned2013-01-14T11:13:42Z
dc.date.available2013-01-14T11:13:42Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/265232
dc.descriptionA thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of this study was to examine grand battement devant in three conditions: at the barre, in the centre, and traveling. The primary focus was to consider weight transfer in the three conditions, and to examine utilisation of the trunk and lower extremity muscles. An extensive review was done in the dance science literature to determine what previous research had been done related to this subject, and to establish what preliminary work might be needed. As indicated by the literature, in order to achieve this research, it was necessary to develop a dance-specific method for the normalisation of surface electromyography data. In phase one of the research, a dance-specific portable anchored dynamometer was developed and tested. The PAD allowed for the collection of maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs), which could then be used to normalise the sEMG data. In phase two of the research, the grand battement was tested in the three conditions, at the barre, in the centre, and traveling. Forty female dancers volunteered (mean age 30.0 ± 13.0 yrs, mean height 1.63 ± 0.06 m, mean mass 59.0 ± 7.4 kg, and 13.9 ± 13.3 yrs of training in ballet and/or modern dance) and were placed in three groups (Training level): beginner (n = 12), intermediate (n = 14) and advanced (n = 14). Dancers executed five grand battement devant in each of the three conditions (Condition) in randomized order. Data were collected with a 7-camera Vicon motion capture system, two Kistler forceplates, and surface electromyography (EMG), using eight muscles bilaterally. Kinematic data were analysed in three intervals: stance to battement initiation, initiation to battement peak, and peak to end. Four variables were investigated: centre of gravity of the full trunk, centre of gravity of the pelvis, centre of gravity of the upper trunk, and centre of mass. EMG data were analysed in four events: stance, initiation, peak, and end. For weight transfer, the main effect of Condition was significant for all four variables in both the x-axis and the y-axis (p < .001). There were no significant differences for Training and no significant Condition x Training interactions. Muscle use varied according to the combination of event and condition that was executed, and these differences were also influenced by the level of training of the dancer and the side of the body used. It is recommended that dance educators consider the importance of allocating sufficient time to each of the three conditions (barre, centre, and traveling), to ensure development of a variety of motor strategies and muscle activation patterns for dance practice.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherUniversity of Wolverhampton
dc.titleAN INVESTIGATION OF GRAND BATTEMENT DEVANT AT BARRE, CENTRE, AND IN MOTION USING KINEMATICS AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
dc.typeThesis or dissertation
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoral
refterms.dateFOA2018-08-20T16:26:45Z
html.description.abstractThe purpose of this study was to examine grand battement devant in three conditions: at the barre, in the centre, and traveling. The primary focus was to consider weight transfer in the three conditions, and to examine utilisation of the trunk and lower extremity muscles. An extensive review was done in the dance science literature to determine what previous research had been done related to this subject, and to establish what preliminary work might be needed. As indicated by the literature, in order to achieve this research, it was necessary to develop a dance-specific method for the normalisation of surface electromyography data. In phase one of the research, a dance-specific portable anchored dynamometer was developed and tested. The PAD allowed for the collection of maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs), which could then be used to normalise the sEMG data. In phase two of the research, the grand battement was tested in the three conditions, at the barre, in the centre, and traveling. Forty female dancers volunteered (mean age 30.0 ± 13.0 yrs, mean height 1.63 ± 0.06 m, mean mass 59.0 ± 7.4 kg, and 13.9 ± 13.3 yrs of training in ballet and/or modern dance) and were placed in three groups (Training level): beginner (n = 12), intermediate (n = 14) and advanced (n = 14). Dancers executed five grand battement devant in each of the three conditions (Condition) in randomized order. Data were collected with a 7-camera Vicon motion capture system, two Kistler forceplates, and surface electromyography (EMG), using eight muscles bilaterally. Kinematic data were analysed in three intervals: stance to battement initiation, initiation to battement peak, and peak to end. Four variables were investigated: centre of gravity of the full trunk, centre of gravity of the pelvis, centre of gravity of the upper trunk, and centre of mass. EMG data were analysed in four events: stance, initiation, peak, and end. For weight transfer, the main effect of Condition was significant for all four variables in both the x-axis and the y-axis (p < .001). There were no significant differences for Training and no significant Condition x Training interactions. Muscle use varied according to the combination of event and condition that was executed, and these differences were also influenced by the level of training of the dancer and the side of the body used. It is recommended that dance educators consider the importance of allocating sufficient time to each of the three conditions (barre, centre, and traveling), to ensure development of a variety of motor strategies and muscle activation patterns for dance practice.


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