Regulatory offences and reverse burdens: the 'licensing approach'
AbstractHighlights inconsistencies in the case law on burdens of proof and the presumption of innocence and proposes the adoption of a "licensing approach" as a means of resolving the problem of reverse legal burdens. Considers the meaning of burden of proof and the impact of the concept of the "gravamen" of an offence on the reverse legal burden. Discusses the "licensing" justification for the different treatment of regulatory and "truly criminal" offences and proposes a definition of "regulatory offence" based on this approach.
CitationJournal of Criminal Law, 71(3): 259-277
PublisherVathek Publishing Ltd
JournalJournal of Criminal Law